Fruits, nuts, mushrooms, honey, spices and other foods that human and wildlife consume originate from natural ecosystems. In 1989 the total world fishery catch reached an astounding 100 million metric tons (since then annual landings have dropped or at best remained the same)
Forest traps rain, watershed allowing slow release of water
More evident among Ips being more in tuned to native practices Vs. new breed/half/modern (nawawla bec of separation from the orig dweeling chuchu (naiwan sa songs)
Palawan ecotourism, Apo Island, Palawan, diving, capture fisheries
Philippine total and endemism
Eagle hornbill MALkOHA x fruitdove x dwarf kingfidsher X guiabero Last is racquet-tail
Tarsier (nocturnal), calamian deer (palawan), shrewmouse and cloudrat (mossy forest)
Stick insect walking stick, Phil?
Major riverine systems dying state, endemic animals are threatened by introduced species (lanao lake, introd of bangus sp accid with gobi which killed the native of sp the lake
1 ha=3 tons of fish other uses
Highest in the world, followed by Eastern Papua New Guinea with 380 species; Ryukyu / Yaeyama Islands with 370 and Great Barrier Reef, Australia with 350 (McManus, ) I ha= 3 tons fish * (an additional 30 species can be expected) At least 21 undescribed species recently found in the Calamianes Islands, Palawan 12 species are endemic to the Philippines & Indonesia 1 new species of Leptoseris in the Kalayaan Is.
Center of the center of world fish diversity, highest sp richness, second is indonesia (Carpenter and Spring) 59 Threatened species
Biggest and smallest and rarest giant clams in the world (octo, cuttlefish)
Endemism, land area dir rel
Income generation vs hunting (more profitable in ecotourism) Big 4 not endemic, 2 fish sp. Freshwater and endemic (endangered due to overharvesting and habitat destruction)
(plate tectonics only) Fragmentation, originated from other regions dir rel with endemism and variety of terrestrial and marine Bohol prev part of greater Min evidence in tarsier Mindoro close to Luzon but with greater similarity of biodive with Palawan coming from S Chiana Habitats produced in time are varied, resulting varied lifeforms coming from diff regional origin
Palawan and mindoro Luzon risen
Rise and fall of land, land bridges transported animals Land bridges divided the seas and gave rise to fish diversification with 4 sea systems
Very tiny percentage of marine envi is the coral reef system but the bulk of marine biodiversity
Start and present due to massive conversion
From vanishing treasures by Lawrence Heaney (2002) Philippine endimism and relative percentage + Includes new species (38 sp. for amphibians, 35 sp. for reptiles) * Includes rediscovered species ** 22 species of dolphins, whales and dugong
Estimates place forest cover in 1900 at 21 million has. (210,000 km 2 ) or 70% of the total land area. Many areas were already heavily damaged by this time in the Central Cordilleras and Ilocos by local action, while the Spanish were responsible for the cutting of the much valued molave of the Central Visayas and the conversion of the marsh lands of Pangasinan and Culion which was reportedly already bald The Americans introduced logging for export.
Forest still covered 18 million hectares (180,000 km 2 ) or 60% of the total land area but the forests were under pressure because of the great demand for tropical hardwood for export to the U.S. Between 1900 and 1920, Romblon Island was completely deforested; the Central Plains of Luzon were also cleared, while Northen Bukidnon and Cotabato were opened up.
By 1950 estimates place forest cover at 15 million hectares (150,000 km 2 ) or 50% of the total land area. Since 56% of the Philippines is classified as upland, the threshold in sustainable management was crossed in the 1945-50 period . FAO, 1963 put forest cover at 12 million hectares (120,000 km 2 ) or 40% of the total land area. The late 1960s is considered the start of a logging boom period. Logging concession areas increased from 4.5 million hectares to 11.6 million hectares .
Forest covered 34% of the total land area or 10.2 million hectares (102,000 km 2 ) . From 1977 to 1980, deforestation reached an all time high- over 300,000 hectares a year. By the end of the 1970s, the following islands were either almost completely deforested or had less than 5% forest cover: Polillo, Burias, Palaui, Tablas, Batanes Islands, Lubang, Marinduque, Ticao, Guimaras, Masbate, Siquijor, Cebu, Bohol, Samal, Siargao, Tawi-Tawi, Jolo and Camiguin. The Philippine forest was rapidly disappearing .
The Swedish Space Corporation (SPOT) study of 1987 place forest cover at 6.9 million hectares (69,000 km 2 ) or 23.7% of the total land area. There were 2.7 million (27,000 km 2 ) hectares or 8.9% of the total land area of primary forest and this included mossy and pine forest.
Slope more drastically downward with proper scaling also forest cover
Golden kuhol (massive escargo demand, pagbaha, kumalat, infested even ricefields displacing native kuhol) Dominant in lakes, in gen displacing native sp bec of agression over time esp with GM tilapia) Am bullfrog Black/brown rat when mAGELLAN arrived displacing native sp (also bec native rats don’t cohabit with people but the undesirables do)
In the first time line it is shown that -Life started 5billion years ago or 5,000million years ago in the marine environment, a unicellular blue green algae which later differentiated into sea invertebrates again in the marine environment. The last one tenth of this time line is detailed in the second time line which is the last 500million years of life evolution. In the second time line it is shown that- (after the sea inverts) the land inverts have risen, followed by land plants, then by spiders and insects (they are older than people!), then followed by the amphibians (frogs), gymnosperms (flowering plants), reptiles, dinosaurs, birds and the radiation of mammals. The frogs were the first water species to attempt conquering land but was unsuccessful as they have to lay eggs in water. Where the frogs were unsuccessful, the reptiles were because they had thick scaly looking skin and leather covered egg for adaptation to terrestrial survival. Dinosaurs had come and gone. There are many theories why they have become extinct like they were hit by meteorites, they could not sustain their humongous diet… Radiation of mammals 100million years ago gave rise to animals that are terrestrial, marine, nocturnal diurnal, etcetera, they each developed a specialized adaptation for survival. In the third time line - it is shown that the
The Philippine Envi
The Philippine Environment Amidst Climate Change
IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY Food FISH comprises 10% of protein intake globally and 50-60% that of Filipinos. Food for all living organisms not just for man! > 90% calorie intake globally comes from 80 PLANT SPECIES
IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY Medicines <ul><li>80% of the world’s population use plants as 1° source of medicine </li></ul><ul><li>30% of all pharma medicines are developed from plants and animals </li></ul>
Fuel, timber, fiber and other resources Most houses, furniture and even many clothes are made from natural products, including wood, oils, resins, waxes, gums and fibers. The cocoons of silk worms are the basis of the valuable, centuries-old Asian silk-making industry. IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY
Air and water purification IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY
Climate modification IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY
Drought, erosion and flood control IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY
Social / cultural value IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY Biodiversity is directly linked with traditional, spiritual and cultural values of people.
211 Lakes, 18 major rivers, 22 marshes, swamps and reservoir INLAND WATERS PHILIPPINE WETLANDS 1616 species of aquatic plants 3675 species of fauna
MANGROVES Around 60 mangrove plant species in the world 54 mangroves and related species occur in the Philippines Heaney and Regalado
Corals 462 coral species recorded ( Werner and Allen, 2000 ) Highest in the world !!! <ul><li>Eastern Papua New Guinea with 380 species ; </li></ul><ul><li>Ryukyu / Yaeyama Islands with 370 </li></ul><ul><li>Great Barrier Reef, Australia with 350 </li></ul>
FISH Philippine Total = 2,459/4,000 species in the Indo-Pacific region (Fish Base 2000) <ul><li>82 (possibly 98) species are Philippine Endemics </li></ul><ul><li>2,241 marine species (2/3 coral reef-associated) </li></ul><ul><li>209 freshwater species </li></ul>
Molluscs 22,000 freshwater, land and marine species photos by Evette Lee Seven occur in Philippine waters Nine species of Giant Clams worldwide
Source: Heaney, 2002 Biodiversity and Endemism COUNTRY Total species Endemic Species % Endemic Land Area (km2) Philippines 1139 558 50% 300,780 Spain 435 25 6% 451,171 Brazil 3131 788 25% 8,511,965
Some Notable Flora and Fauna Species in Philippines <ul><li>Philippine Eagle - </li></ul><ul><li>world’s largest eagle </li></ul><ul><li>King cobra largest - terrestrial venomous snake </li></ul><ul><li>Reticulated python - largest / longest snake </li></ul><ul><li>Phil. Iron Wood/magkuno - hardest wood </li></ul>
Some Notable Flora and Fauna Species in Philippines One of the smallest deer Mouse deer 1 of the Smallest primitive primates Slow loris & Tarsier One of the Largest flowers Rafflesia speciousa World’s 2 largest bats Golden-crowned Flying Fox & Large Flying Fox World’s largest rat Cloud rat Heaney and Regalado
Some Notable Flora and Fauna Species in Philippines Giant Clam – world’s largest giant clam species Boring Clam – smallest giant clam species Porcelain Clam – rarest giant clam species Sperm whale – largest toothed cetacean Killer whale – largest dolphin species Minke Whale – smallest of all baleen whales Dugong – only herbivorous marine mammal in the Philippines
<ul><li>Whale Shark – world’s largest fish </li></ul><ul><li>Giant Manta Ray – world’s largest ray </li></ul><ul><li>Saltwater crocodile – world’s largest living reptile </li></ul><ul><li>Leatherback turtle – largest of all sea turtles </li></ul>Photo by Evette Lee <ul><li>Dwarf Pygmy Goby - smallest freshwater fish </li></ul><ul><li>Sinarapan / Bia / Tabios - smallest food fish </li></ul>Some Notable Flora and Fauna Species in Philippines
One of the World’s Richest in Mineral Resources <ul><li>2nd to Indonesia in geological prospectivity in SouthEast Asia </li></ul><ul><li>2nd to South Africa in Gold production </li></ul><ul><li>3rd in copper production </li></ul><ul><li>3rd in Gold, 4th in Copper deposits </li></ul><ul><li>5th in Nickel deposits </li></ul><ul><li>6th in Chromite in nickel deposits </li></ul>
Why is Philippine Biodiversity so rich? Heaney and Regalado
World rainforests 10ºN and S World coral reef 30ºN and S TROPICAL country- incubator of organisms, rainforest and coral reef
Elevation, climate and rainfall Heaney and Regalado
Negros / West central Visayas (with Ticao, Masbate, Guimaras, Cebu) Palawan (with Sundaic region and Borneo) L uzon Faunal Region (with Catanduanes and Marinduque) Mindanao and the Sulu Islands (with Bohol, Samar, Leyte)- Mindoro
<ul><li>Luzon cloud rat, Sierra Madre shrew mouse, golden-crowned flying fox, pygmy fruit bat, brown deer, whiskered Pitta- LUZON </li></ul><ul><li>spotted deer, warty pig, white throated jungle fly-catcher, Negros bleeding heart- W VISAYAS </li></ul><ul><li>tamaraw, tree frog, scarlet collared flower pecker, Mindoro Tarictic- MINDORO </li></ul><ul><li>Tarsier, Sulu woodpecker, blue-winged racquet tail </li></ul><ul><li>MINDANAO, SULU, BOHOL & E VISAYAS </li></ul><ul><li>peacock pheasant, bear cat, otters, mouse deer, flying squirrel, Philippine cockatoo- PALAWAN </li></ul>
<ul><ul><ul><li>Disappearing Biodiversity </li></ul></ul></ul>Heaney and Regalado
Coral Reefs of the World (Smith, 1978) Phil Coral reef Area By McManus 2000 5% in excellent condition (by Alino, 2002) lowest in SEAsia!!! 4.86% 30,000km 2 617,000 square km or 1/6 of ONE percent of the marine environment (which is75% of earth )
Composition and current characteristics of biodiversity in the Philippine Marine environment (source: DENR, 1997) 1 Total number of corals found in the Phil. now stands at 462 (Werner and Allen, 2000) 2 Total number of fish now is estimated to be over 2,000 species. 3 Total number of marine mammals in Philippine waters is now at 23. * Estimated number of species in the Philippine marine environment is over 5,000 Taxon Number Economically Important Threatened Marine Fungi 7 Sea Grasses 16 3 Algae 1,062 531 60 Corals 1 381 Other Invertebrates 1,616 152 47 Fish 2 1,831 672 Mammals 3 18 18 18 Reptiles 20 20 20 Total* 4,951 1,396 145
Status of Philippine Mangroves ! loss is largely due to fishpond conversion of mangroves ! reclamation for residential, commercial & industrial purposes and excessive harvesting of trees for fuel 1918 450,000 hectares (Brown and Fisher, 1920) 1997 only 112,400 hectares (24.97%) remains!!! ( Phil. Forestry Statistics, 1998)
Total number of wildlife species in the Philippines Major Taxa No. of Species Endemic Species Threatened Species Amphibians 101+ 82+ (78%) 24 Reptiles 258+ 170+ (66%) 8 Birds 576+* 195+ (34%) 74 Mammals 204+** 111+ (54%) 51 Total 1139+ 558+ 50%) 157
Forest loss in Negros Heaney and Regalado 1875 1949 1970 1987 1992
Source: Environmental Science for Social Change, 1999 Extent of Forest Cover Loss in the last 100 years Less than 6% of the country’s original forest remains!
70-80% forest cover Central Cordillera local action Ilocos local action Spanish demand Pangasinan marshland conversion Culion marshland conversion Central Visayas molave loss U.S. demand Luzon logging for export Highlight of Damage Source: Environmental Science for Social Change, 1999
60% forest cover U.S. demand for primary wood Luzon complete deforestation Romblon complete deforestation Northern Bukidnon logging starts Cotabato logging starts Highlight of Damage Source: Environmental Science for Social Change, 1999
1945-1950’s 50% forest cover The Philippines (56% upland area) crossed the threshold in sustainable management Late 1960’s logging boom starts Logging concession increased from 4.5 M ha 11.6 M ha Highlight of Damage 40% forest cover Source: Environmental Science for Social Change, 1999
1977-1980’s all time high deforestation rate (300,000 ha/yr) Philippine forest rapidly disappearing Completely deforested or <5% cover Pollilio Burias Palaui Camiguin Batanes Lubang Ticao Guimaras Samal Siquijor Bohol Tablas Siargao Jolo Cebu Masbate Tawi-tawi Marinduque Highlight of Damage 34% forest cover Source: Environmental Science for Social Change, 1999
Highlight of Damage 1977-1980’s only 8.9% of old growth forest remains!!! 23.7% forest cover Source: Environmental Science for Social Change, 1999
YEAR 2002 18% forest cover < 3% original forest remains!!!
YEAR Extent of Original Forest Cover in the Philippines Km 2 FOREST COVER Spanish colonization (270,000 km 2 ) American colonization (210,000 km 2 ) Philippine Independence 1950’s (150,000 km 2 ) Post EDSA Revolution (8,000 km 2 ) Land area (300,000 km 2 ) (400 years) (100 years) (50 years) (40 years)
Rainfall, Rainrise 1960s to 1990s Source: F Avila
The Little Boy’s Tantrum The Little Girl’s Tears
Country’s productivity <ul><li>* "Declining" productivity of the country's agricultural lands and fisheries. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
<ul><li>These areas become increasingly degraded and pushed beyond their capacity to produce </li></ul><ul><li>Cause: Rapid forest loss has eliminated habitat for unique and threatened plant and animal species; it has also left large tracts of land in the Philippines vulnerable to soil erosion </li></ul>
<ul><li>*The loss of nutrient rich soil reduces crop yields and contributes to the expanded use of chemical fertilizers - a practice that can, in turn, pollute water sources. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Rivers and streams also carry eroded soil to the coasts, where it interferes with fish nursery areas. </li></ul><ul><li>* Soil runoff into fish breeding and nursery areas is one of several factors leading to the overall decline in productivity of fisheries in the Philippines </li></ul>
Consequences <ul><li>Food insecurity. The lack of a stable and reliable food supply contributes to poor nutritional status for many Filipinos, especially for children: Approximately 28 percent of children under 5 are underweight (DOH Report, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Food insecurity also contributes to increases in environmentally destructive practices such as slash-and-burn agriculture ("kaingin" farming) or the use of dynamite to increase short-term fish catches. </li></ul>
. * In 1970, 32 percent of the country's population lived in urban areas. * Today, 48 percent is crowded into cities, where housing and infrastructure struggle to keep pace with the growing numbers.
<ul><li>Overcrowding and insufficient housing can be particularly detrimental to children: Studies have suggested that infant mortality rates in Manila's slums are three times higher than in non-slum areas </li></ul>
<ul><li>Water crisis is not far behind: Access to clean and adequate water is an acute seasonal problem in Metro Manila, Central Luzon, Southern Tagalog, and Central Visayas. </li></ul><ul><li>Government monitoring data showed that up to 58 percent of the country's water ground is contaminated with coliform bacteria , causing such diseases as diarrhea, cholera, dysentery, and hepatitis A. </li></ul><ul><li>studies show that there is a steady 30-50% drop in the levels of the country’s water sources for the past 20 years or an average drop of 1 meter/year </li></ul>
<ul><li>While on the average, the atmosphere’s moisture is renewed every 8 days, stream water every 16 days, soil moisture annually, swamp water in 5 years, lake water in 17 years, groundwater renews only after 1,400 years. </li></ul>
<ul><ul><ul><li>Threats to Philippine biodiversity </li></ul></ul></ul>Heaney and Regalado
<ul><li>DIRECT </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation due to unsustainable logging, farming and related practices </li></ul><ul><li>Aquatic destruction due to unsustainable fishing and deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicting and poor policies </li></ul><ul><li>Poor law enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Natural extinction </li></ul>
<ul><li>INDIRECT </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>from 47% Erap regime to 65% now (2 out of 3 feel extreme hunger) </li></ul><ul><li>Overpopulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>87.6 Million (August 1, 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of knowledge/Miseducation </li></ul><ul><li>Apathy (Tragedy of the Common) </li></ul>
Nature’s Law of Interrelatedness <ul><li>All things are interconnected </li></ul>
Find the Relationship <ul><li>Between you eating in a fast food burger chain and global warming </li></ul><ul><li>Between the low scores of elementary students in achievement tests and a factory worker. </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation and the losing productivity of the seas. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the relationship between you, eating a bar of Hershey’s chocolate, and the death of thousands in Quezon due to massive commercial logging? </li></ul>
Law of Conservation of Matter <ul><li>Everything Must Go somewhere! </li></ul>
Erosion No Aquifer Recharge Dried Up Streams and Waterways Sedimentation of Waterways Flooding Siltation of the Near shore Areas Humans Source: The Laws of Nature and Other Stories by: Antonio A. Oposa Jr.
5,000 million years 500 million years 5 million years The Origin of Life 500 million years 5 million years 4,600 MYA formation of Earth 3,600 MYA LIFE: blue-green algae 2,300 MYA Akinetes: cellular differentiation 570 MYA Hard-bodied marine invertebrates 500 MYA Jawless fish Agnathans 400 MYA Land Invertebrates, land plants, bony fishes 370 MYA Spiders & insects 300 MYA First Reptiles 350 MYA Amphibians Gymnosperms 200 MYA First Dinosaurs, first true mammals 100 MYA Radiation of Mammals 140 MYA Archaeopteryx First birds 65 MYA Mass extinction of Dinosaurs 4 MYA Australopithecus afaransis 2 MYA Homo habilis first species of genus Homo 1 MYA Homo erectus closest to moden humans 30,000 years ago Homo sapiens modern man
“ In the end, we will conserve only what we love, we will love only what we understand, and we will understand only what we are taught.” -Baba Dioum, a Senegalese conservationist