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foundations of Education
Leadership theories
Leadership styles
Other Types of Leadership
Principle-centered Leadership Power

Published in: Education
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  1. 1. FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION Chapter 19: Leadership and Public Relations Leadership Theories Leadership Styles Other Types of Leadership Principle – centered Leadership Power
  3. 3. The Trait Theory  The leader is conceived to be a “great man” whose superior endowments induce others to follow him.
  4. 4. Environment Theory  Explains leadership on the basis of situations and crises that provide opportunities for people to propose solutions or exhibit heroic actions that place them in the position of leadership.
  5. 5. Personal – Environment  Maintains that characteristics of a leader, the followers and the situations that interact determine who will be the leader.
  6. 6. Exchange Theory  Suggest that interaction represents an exchange process in which leadership is conferred upon the members whose efforts appears more likely to reward other member for their effort on behalf of the group.
  7. 7. Humanistic Theory  Is based on the hypothesis that groups will be more effective and members will be better satisfied when the leader allows freedom to satisfy their needs for achievement and self- actualizations.
  8. 8. Exceptional Theory  Maintains that leadership is most likely to be achieved by the member who succeeds in initiating and reinforcing the expectations that he will maintain the role structure and goal direction of the group.
  9. 9. Contingency Theory  Proposes that a given pattern of leadership behaviour will lead to effective group performance in some circumstances and ineffective in some cases.
  10. 10. Path – Goal Theory  Suggests that certain patterns of leadership behaviour facilitate the clarification of the group goals while other patterns of behaviour stimulate effective instruments and responses on the follower group.
  12. 12. Autocratic Leader  Commands and expects compliance; is dogmatic and positive; and leads by the ability to withhold or give rewards and punishment.  “one rule” type
  13. 13. Democratic or Participative Leader  Consults subordinates on proposed actions and decisions and encourages participation from them.  Does not take action without subordinates; concurrence; he consults with subordinates before doing so.  One weakness of this style is that when the impasse is reached, there is no authority. The only solution is to appoint a committee to study the situation which gives the false impression that action has been taken.
  14. 14. “Benevolent Autocrat”  The leader is a “father figure” who wants everyone to feel good.  The emphasis is on keeping everyone happy and satisfied.  Although the leader listens to his subordinates’ opinion before making a decision, ultimately, the decision is his own.  The “father figure” is admired and respected, but if he dies, the organization may also die.
  15. 15. Liberal Leader of Free-rein Leader  Uses his power very rarely, if at all, giving subordinates a high degree of independence in their operations.  These leaders depend largely on subordinates to set their own goals and the means of achieving them; and they see their role as one aiding the operations of followers by furnishing them with the necessary information and acting primarily as contact with groups’ external environment.
  17. 17. Laissez – Faire  This word means to let people do as they choose.  It allows everything to run its own course.  The leader is a figure-head and concerns himself with only what he desires, or the title.
  18. 18. Manipulative – Inspirational  Usually hard to find. The leader or group of leaders sets the rules and interprets as they see it. High pressure tactics or emotionalism is used to sell the people into following the directions set by the leader.
  20. 20. Real Leadership Power comes from an honourable character and from the exercise of certain power tools and principles; yet many discussions of leadership focus on “genetic man” theories, personality “trait” theories, or behavioural “style” theories. These theories have had more explanatory than predictive value. They may explain why a particular leader emerged and survived, but they neither help predict future leaders nor help cultivate capacity to lead.
  22. 22. Coercive Power  Followers follow out of fear  Leaders tend to lean on coercive power when they are afraid they won’t get compliance.  “bid-stick” approach – an approach that few publicly support but may use, either it seems justified in the face of other bigger threats hovering over the leader, or it is the expedient thing to do and seems to work at the time. Its effectiveness, though, is an illusion.  The leaders who control others through fear will find the control reactive and temporary.  Imposes psychological and emotional burden on both the leader and followers. It encourages suspicion, deceit, dishonesty, and, in the long run, dissolution.
  23. 23. Utility Power  Followers follow because of the benefit that come to them if they do.  Is based on equity and fairness.  The agency of the followers is respected and regarded, from the perspectives of “caveat emptor”  Leaders are followed because it is functional to the followers. It gives them access to what the leader controls, through position or expertness or charisma.  It is being acknowledged that the relationship based on utility power often leads to individualism rather than teamwork and group effectiveness, as each individual is reinforced for paying attention to his own perspective band desires.
  24. 24. Principle - Centered Power  Based on the power that some people have with others because others tend to believe in them and in what they are trying to accomplish.  Are trusted, respected and honoured.  They are followed because others want to follow them; want to believe in them and their cause; want to do what the leader wants. This is not blind faith, blind obedience or robotic servitude; this is knowledgeable, wholehearted, uninhibited commitment.  Is the hallmark of equality, distinction, and excellence in all relationships.  Is created when the values of the followers and the values of the leader overlap. It is not forced; it is invited as the personal agenda of both the leader and the followers as by the leaders.