The Trait Theory
The leader is conceived to be a “great man”
whose superior endowments induce others to
Explains leadership on the basis of situations
and crises that provide opportunities for
people to propose solutions or exhibit heroic
actions that place them in the position of
Personal – Environment
Maintains that characteristics of a leader, the
followers and the situations that interact
determine who will be the leader.
Suggest that interaction represents an
exchange process in which leadership is
conferred upon the members whose efforts
appears more likely to reward other member
for their effort on behalf of the group.
Is based on the hypothesis that groups will be
more effective and members will be better
satisfied when the leader allows freedom to
satisfy their needs for achievement and self-
Maintains that leadership is most likely to be
achieved by the member who succeeds in
initiating and reinforcing the expectations that
he will maintain the role structure and goal
direction of the group.
Proposes that a given pattern of leadership
behaviour will lead to effective group
performance in some circumstances and
ineffective in some cases.
Path – Goal Theory
Suggests that certain patterns of leadership
behaviour facilitate the clarification of the
group goals while other patterns of behaviour
stimulate effective instruments and responses
on the follower group.
BASED ON THE USE OF
Commands and expects compliance; is
dogmatic and positive; and leads by the ability
to withhold or give rewards and punishment.
“one rule” type
Democratic or Participative
Consults subordinates on proposed actions and
decisions and encourages participation from
Does not take action without subordinates;
concurrence; he consults with subordinates before
One weakness of this style is that when the
impasse is reached, there is no authority. The only
solution is to appoint a committee to study the
situation which gives the false impression that
action has been taken.
The leader is a “father figure” who wants
everyone to feel good.
The emphasis is on keeping everyone happy
Although the leader listens to his subordinates’
opinion before making a decision, ultimately,
the decision is his own.
The “father figure” is admired and respected,
but if he dies, the organization may also die.
Liberal Leader of Free-rein
Uses his power very rarely, if at all, giving
subordinates a high degree of independence
in their operations.
These leaders depend largely on subordinates
to set their own goals and the means of
achieving them; and they see their role as one
aiding the operations of followers by furnishing
them with the necessary information and
acting primarily as contact with groups’
Laissez – Faire
This word means to let people do as they
It allows everything to run its own course.
The leader is a figure-head and concerns
himself with only what he desires, or the title.
Manipulative – Inspirational
Usually hard to find. The leader or group of
leaders sets the rules and interprets as they
see it. High pressure tactics or emotionalism is
used to sell the people into following the
directions set by the leader.
Real Leadership Power comes from an
honourable character and from the exercise of
certain power tools and principles; yet many
discussions of leadership focus on “genetic man”
theories, personality “trait” theories, or
behavioural “style” theories. These theories have
had more explanatory than predictive value.
They may explain why a particular leader
emerged and survived, but they neither help
predict future leaders nor help cultivate capacity
Followers follow out of fear
Leaders tend to lean on coercive power when they are
afraid they won’t get compliance.
“bid-stick” approach – an approach that few publicly
support but may use, either it seems justified in the
face of other bigger threats hovering over the leader,
or it is the expedient thing to do and seems to work at
the time. Its effectiveness, though, is an illusion.
The leaders who control others through fear will find
the control reactive and temporary.
Imposes psychological and emotional burden on both
the leader and followers. It encourages suspicion,
deceit, dishonesty, and, in the long run, dissolution.
Followers follow because of the benefit that come to
them if they do.
Is based on equity and fairness.
The agency of the followers is respected and
regarded, from the perspectives of “caveat emptor”
Leaders are followed because it is functional to the
followers. It gives them access to what the leader
controls, through position or expertness or charisma.
It is being acknowledged that the relationship based
on utility power often leads to individualism rather than
teamwork and group effectiveness, as each individual
is reinforced for paying attention to his own
perspective band desires.
Principle - Centered Power
Based on the power that some people have with others
because others tend to believe in them and in what they are
trying to accomplish.
Are trusted, respected and honoured.
They are followed because others want to follow them; want
to believe in them and their cause; want to do what the leader
wants. This is not blind faith, blind obedience or robotic
servitude; this is knowledgeable, wholehearted, uninhibited
Is the hallmark of equality, distinction, and excellence in all
Is created when the values of the followers and the values of
the leader overlap. It is not forced; it is invited as the personal
agenda of both the leader and the followers as by the