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  1. 1. Biofuels usingBacteriaBy: Giovanna Panepinto
  2. 2. What is a Biofuel?A biofuel is a fuel made from a renewable energy source that is also environmentally “friendly”
  3. 3. It all starts from nature. Fungiand bacteria sourced from extreme environments are often most suitable.  High pH  Low or high temperature
  4. 4. Organism Development Typical process shown on the right. Combine nature’s diversity with biotechnology evolution concepts to produce libraries of organisms which will produce the chemicals needed for the process New biochemicals can result from screening of millions of variants of organisms
  5. 5. Cyanobacteria as a ProductionOrganism Approximately 40 variants of CYB have all of their genome characterized. The variants with different production characteristics Sunlight drives the reactions within these cells. Enzyme (thioesterase) addition can help increase production Some species and strains can produce 60,000 – 100,000 liters per hectare of algae biomass 40% of this biomass can be oil Oil (long chain fatty acids) can be converted to diesel fuelReference: Arizona State University
  6. 6. How Biofuels are made withCyanobacteria  Cyanobacteria are first produced in a photobioreactor which optimizes their growth  An enzyme is given to the cyanobacteria which modifies its fatty acid production and helps it produce large amounts of those fatty acids  It then secretes those acids which can be used to make a sustainable biofuel (layers of the cell envelope can also be genetically removed to speed up the secretion process)
  7. 7. ASU Cyanobacteria Video Click the link!
  8. 8. A “cyanobacteria” bioreactor
  9. 9. 9Chemical Processing – Separationof Oil from Cells Mechanical press Hexane extraction Supercritical CO2 Sonication
  10. 10. Advantages Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic so they only need to be grown with a few components: water, sunlight, and CO2 Cyanobacteria are easily produced in high quantities They produce eco-friendly, sustainable energy
  11. 11. By-product uses & Sustainability Aquaculture feeds Cells are still high in protein, carbohydrates, micronutrients and phytochemicals Feeding of Ornamental fishes Sources of beta- carotene, astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, and other carotenoids
  12. 12. Disadvantages Regional sustainability- the supply of enzymes for the bacteria can be hard to come by which makes it costly Availability of engineering resources as well as materials to build photobioreactors are expensive. Availability of space.
  13. 13. 13 Production Problems Contamination of the bioreactor with non-target bacteria. Introduction of grazers – microbes that consume produced oil Self shading and limiting of nutrients (similar to the process of lake turnover)
  14. 14. What This Technique TeachesUs Our knowledge of bacteria’s uses as well as our ability to manipulate bacteria is increased By working with bacteria we learn its molecular biology which allows us to further understand how bacteria lives