Prebiotic and probiotic.


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Prebiotic and probiotic.

  1. 1. Topic: Aeration and Agitation Magdalyne Nongkynrih Mobile No. : 8087464948 Email id: Dr. P. A Pawar Sir Associate Prof. (Food Tech) Email id:
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION “Microflora of the large intestine complete digestion through fermentation, protect against pathogenic bacteria andstimulate the immune system. Probiotics and prebiotics in the diet can modify the composition and some metabolic activities of the microflora. Probiotics appear effective in treatment of childhood diarrhea, post-antibiotic diarrhea, and pouchitis. They affect immune modulation and there are varied but encouraging results in vaginosis, IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome) and IBD (Inflammtory Bowel Diseases)”.
  3. 3. History The concept of probiotics wasfirst introduced in the20th century byNoble prize winner,Elie Metchnikoff(1845-1916). He suggestedthat long andhealthylife of Bulgarianpeasants resultedfrom their consumptionof fermented milkproducts. He himselfintroduced in hisdiet sourmilk fermented with bacteria he called “BulgarianBacillus,later called asLactobacillus delbrueckiisubsp.”and foundhishealth benefited. He proposed thatconsumptionof fermenting food products positively influenced the microflora of the colon,decreasing toxic microbial activity,decrease intestinalpH,suppressthegrowthof proteolytic bacteria,etc.
  4. 4. Prof. Elie Metchnikoff.
  5. 5. Mfjnffckchk fvcjvfg yhnfxgtrfg bgbghjuj Ggghhhhhhgbbbbbbbb “PROBIOTICS” gfbv
  6. 6. “PROBIOTICS” The root of the word ‘ probiotic’ comes from the Greek word pro, meaning “promoting” and biotic, meaning “life”. The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nation (FAO) defines probiotics as“ live micro-organisms, which, when administered in adequate amount produce beneficial effect to the host when taken orally”.
  7. 7. List of probiotic candidate:- Microorganisms Genus Species Bacteria Lactobacillus L.acidophilus, L.brevis, L.reuteri, L.casei, L.rhamnosum, L.bulgaricus, L.cellobiosus, L.delbrueckii, L. fermentum. Bifidobacterium B.thermophilus, B.infantis, B .longum, B.bifidum, B.animalis. Streptococcus S.lactis, S.thermophilus, S.cremonis, S.alivarius. Bacillus B.Coagulans Pediococcus P.acidilactici Leuconostoc L.mesenteroides Enterobacter E.faecium, E.faecalis. Fungi Aspergillus A.niger, A.oryzae. Yeast Saccharomyces S.boulardii, S.cerevisiae, S.carlsbergensis.
  8. 8. Lactabacillus There aremore than 50 species of lactobacilli. Foods that are fermented, like yogurt, and dietary supplements also contain these bacteria. It helps in preventing yeast infections, urinary tract infection, IBS, traveler's diarrhea , diarrhea resulting from Clostridium difficile, treating lactose intolerance, skin disorders (feverblisters, eczema,acne) andprevention of respiratory infections .
  9. 9. Bifidobacteria There are approximately 30 species of bifidobacteria. They are found in the intestinal tract within days of birth, especially in breastfed infants. They help in the improvement of abdominal pain, bloating, bowel dysfunction, incomplete evacuation, straining, and the passage of gas.
  10. 10. Saccharomyces The only yeast probiotic. It is effective in treating diarrhea associated with the use of antibiotics and traveler's diarrhea. It has also been reported to prevent the reoccurrence of Clostridium difficile, to treat acne, and to reduce side effects of treatment for Helicobacter pylori.
  11. 11. Streptococcus This produces large quantities of the enzyme lactase, making it effective. It helps in the prevention of lactose intolerance.
  12. 12. Enterococcus This is normally found in the intestinal tract of humans . Enterococcus faecium SF68 is a specific probiotic strain that has been used in the management of diarrhoeal illnesses.
  13. 13. Leuconostoc Members of Leuconstoc spp. are very often used in production of fermented foods because of their ability to produce lactic acid bacteria and diacetyl. Leuconostoc are used to inhibit Listeria monocytogenes in dairy and meat products.
  14. 14. Home of the probiotic bacteria. The gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) is the best home where the probiotic bacteria lived. Within GIT there is an intestinal microflora. Small amount is found in stomach and small intestine, but the majority is found in the colon.
  15. 15. 400+ species of Probiotics in our body.
  16. 16. Factor affecting probiotic bacteria:- Intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors may influence the survival of probiotics in food. Importance factor affecting viability of probiotics are:- Physical condition(temperature and humidity). Chemical condition (content of oxygen nitrogen or pH).
  17. 17. Properties of probiotics It should be safe to the host. It should not produce any pathogenic or toxic effect. It must be resistance to hydrochloric acid, bile and pancreatic juice. It should have anti-carcinogenic activity. It should produce lactic acid. It should retain viability during storage and use. It should stimulate the immune system of the body. It should have the ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract.
  18. 18. Sources of probiotics:- Yogurt that contains live bacteria culture. Cheese that is NOT baked. Fermented milk. Kefir. Miso. Tempeh. Sauerkraut. Kim chi. Soy beverages and unfermented milk. Pickle
  19. 19. Sources of probiotics:- Kefir Tempeh Yogurt Miso
  20. 20. Effects :-
  21. 21. How do they work? Interferewiththe treatmentandprevention of intestinalaffection. They contributeto theimprovementof the immunesystem. They reduce the risk ofcholestrollevel. They interferein thecancer prevention. They havethefavourableeffectin liver illness. They prevent alimentaryallergy. They deliver vitaminsfor the organisms,they synthesis thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxinene.
  22. 22. Mechanisms of probiotic activity Competition for adhesion receptors or sites: The presence of some bacteria in the intestinal tract is dependent on their ability to adhere to the gut epithelium, such that they become immobilised on the gut wall and resist being flushed out by peristalsis, as well as occupying a niche at the expense of potentially- harmful organisms. Stimulation of immunity: The underlying mechanisms of immune stimulation specifically cell-wall components or cell layers may act as an adjuvant and increase humoral immune response. Degradation of toxin receptors.
  23. 23. Beneficial effects of probiotics in human:- Diarrhoea:- Probiotic havepreventive and curativeeffects on diarrhoea. Irritable Bowel Syndrome(IBS):- It canbe prevented by the Lactobacillus plantarum 299V. Heicobacteriosis:-Probiotic had an in vitro inhibitory effect reducegastric inflammation. Necrotising Enterocolitis:- Treatingwith B.infantis and L.acidophilus to new born result in reduction ofNEC. Urogential infection:-It can be prevented by taking L.fermentumand L.rhamnosus. Colon cancer:-Lactic bacteria may act against colon cancer. Blood pressure:-Milk fermented bylactic acid bacteria may resultin the reduction of this sickness. Cholestrol:- Theeffect of yogurt with probiotic agents increasethe serumlevel.
  24. 24. Probioticsupplement:-
  25. 25. Side effects of probiotics:- It has been mentioned that use of probiotics in critically ill person may be harmful. Consumption of a mixture of six probiotic bacteria increased the death rate of patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis. Since probiotic are viable organisms, it is very likely that they may induce infection in the hosts.
  26. 26. Probiotic fermentor
  27. 27. Probiotic products produced by India: India plays the key role in the production of probiotic products, being the largest producer of milk. Therefore, Amul Prolife, Mother diary, Nestle Nesvita (first India’s Dahi with probiotics) and Yakult Danone produces by the Indian market.
  28. 28. How should people take probiotis? The requirements for a microbe to be considered a probiotic are that the microbe must be alive when administered, it must be documented to have a heath benefit, and it must be administered at levels to confer a health benefit. These are live microorganisms that will not provide the promised benefits if they don't stay alive. The manufacturer and consumer must pay close attention to the conditions of storage at which the particular microorganism will survive and the end of their shelf life.
  29. 29. “PREBIOTICS”
  30. 30. Prebiotic The concept of prebiotic was introduced by Gibson & Roberfroid, in 1995 Prebiotics are an alternative for probiotics or their cofactors “Non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon that can improve host health."
  31. 31. Properties:- Limited hydrolysis and absorption in the upper GIT(gastro-intestinal tract). Selective growth stimulation of beneficial bacteria in the colon. Immuno stimulation. Stimulation of beneficial flora that promotes colonization resistance.
  32. 32. SOURCES OF PREBIOTICS:- Prebiotics factor Origin Oligosaccharides Onion,garlic,chicoryroot,yacon, asparagus, jerusalem, artichoke, soybean, wheat bran. Fructo-oligosaccharides (oligofructose,inulin) Same as for oligosaccharides. Fructans Ash free white powder from the tubers of jerusalem artichoke. Human kappa casein and derived glycomacropeptide Human milk: chymotrypsin and pepsin hydrolysate. Stachyose and raffinose Soybean extract. Casein macropeptide Bovine milk. Lactitol (4-O-β-D- galactopyranosyl)/ D- glucitol Systhetic sugar alcohol of lactose. Lactulose (4-O-β-D- galacyopyranosyl) / D-fructose Synthetic derivative of lactose.
  33. 33. Jerusalem artichoke Asparagus Chicory Jicama Leek Yacon
  34. 34. Top 10 food containing prebiotics Food Prebiotic fiber content by weight Raw Chicory root 64.6 % Raw Jerusalem artichoke 31.5 % Raw Dandelion greens 24.3 % Raw Garlic 17.5 % Raw Leek 11.7 % Raw Onion 8.6 % Cooked Onion 5 % Raw Asparagus 5 % Raw Wheat bran 5 % Raw Banana 1 %
  35. 35. NOTE.. Oligosaccharide is the main constituent of prebiotic food products. Oligosaccharides stimulate the growth of benefic bacteria and increase the resistance to invading pathogens. The functional oligosaccharides include;  Fructooligosaccharides (FOS).  Glucooligosaccharides(GOS)  Inulin  Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO)  Soybeanmeal oligosaccharides (SMO)  Mannan oligosaccharides(MOS)  Galactooligosaccharides  Maltooligosaccharides (MO)  Xylooligosaccharides (XOS)  Pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS).
  36. 36. FRUCTO-OLIGOSACCHARIDE Fructooligosaccharides is a group of oligosaccharides, or a group of connected simple sugars. Sources include onions and chicory root also garlic. It helps in the stimulate production of beneficial bacteria, minimal effect on blood sugar, also help strengthen the immune system.
  37. 37. INULIN Inulin is a dietary fibre that is found in many common foods such as leeks, kiwi, asparagus, onions, garlic, bananas, wheat, rhubarb, dairy products etc. There are several benefits of inulin apart from weight- management, it even increases calcium absorption, improved bone health. It can also be used to replace sugar and fat as a food additive to improve taste.
  38. 38. SOYBEAN-OLIGOSACCHARIDE They found in soy milk, soy oil,bean curd, ice cream. Promote the growth of Bifidobacteria in the intestinal tract,lowering cholesterol.
  39. 39. XYLO-OLIGOSACCHARIDE They are naturally present in fruits, vegetables, bamboo, milk and honey. It help to improve blood sugar levels and fat absorption, re- establish normal colonic flora , it also increase mineral absorption and vitamin B creation.
  40. 40. GALACTO-OLIGOSACCHARIDE Galacto-oligosaccharides, otherwise called( GOS), are found naturally in breast milk but are added to foods such as infant formula, fruit drinks, dairy products, breakfast cereals and biscuit crackers. Increased the good bacteria boosts the immune system. promote intestinal health by keeping unfriendly bacteria such as E.coli, vaginal, urinary infections at bay.
  41. 41. How do they work? Increase a number of bifidobacterium and lactic acid bacteria. Effect on the metabolism of lipids. Suppression of putrefactive bacteria. Growth of bifidobacteria. It helps to lower colon cancer risk.
  42. 42. Role ofprebiotic Prebiotic factor Origin Microbes stimulated Effects Oligosaccharides Onion,garlic, chicory root, burdock, asparagus, Jerusalem artichoke, soybean, wheat bran. Bifidobacterium species Increase in bifidobacterium, suppression of putrefactive bacteria, prevention of constipation and diarrhea. Fructooligosaccharides (inulin, oligofructo) Same as for oligosaccharides Bifidobacterium species Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum Growth of bifidobacteria and acid promotion. Fructan Ash-free white powder from tubers of Jerusalem artichoke. Bifidobacterium species Growth of bifidobacteria Human kappa casein and derived glycolmacropeptide Human milk: chymotrypsin and pepsin hydrolysate. Bifidobacterium bifidum Growth promotion. Stachyose and raffinose Soybean extract Bifidobacterium species Growth factor. Casein macropeptide Bovine milk Bifidobacterium species Growth promotion. Lactitol(4-O-β-D- galactopyranosyl)D-glucitol Synthetic sugar alcohol of lactose Bifidobacterium species Growth promotion. Lactutose(4-O-β-D- galactopyranosyl)D-fructose Synthetic derivative of lactose Bifidobacterium species Growth promotion.
  43. 43. USES OF PREBIOTIC Enhance bone density and increase Calcium absorption. Improve immune function in both the gut and body. Establish a healthier balance of bacteria in the gut. Promote regular bowel movements. Suppress appetite. Reduces the risk of an intestinal infection. Increase in mineral absorption and improvement of bone health. Modulation of gastro-intestinal peptides production, energy metabolism and satiety. Initiation (after birth) and regulation/modulation of immune functions.
  44. 44. Health Benefits Prebiotic Immune System Strength: Prebiotic fiber promotes the growth and colonization of beneficial bacteria in the gut. These bacteria aid the immune system in fighting illness-causing bacteria and viruses. Normal Bowel Function: Irritable bowel syndrome, which is characterized by bloating, gas, stomach pain, cramping, bouts of constipation and diarrhea, is caused by food being digested improperly. , prebiotic fiber causes foods to be digested normally, over a normal period of time, not too quickly or too slowly. Cancer Prevention:Bifidobacteria digests inulin in the gut flora and produces short chain fatty-acids: acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. Within the intestine, it is believed that these acids can help prevent certain forms of cancer. Colon cancer: The insoluble fiber from prebiotics, some experts believe, are actually doing a part in preventing colon cancer by sweeping up carcinogens and other dangerous toxins before they can be absorbed into the bloodstream where they can do damage.
  45. 45. Prebiotic supplement
  46. 46. Sideeffect Excessive consumption of prebiotics particularly those in the oligosaccharides category may cause abdominal discomfort and distension, as well as significant levels of flatulence. The Nutrition Information Centre of South Africa's University of Stellenbosch, recommends that daily consumption of prebiotics be held below 20 grams.
  47. 47. The main role of Pre-pro biotic in; Infant: Many baby-food manufacturers are adding prebiotics and probiotics to foods. A very common ocurring infection in infant is diarrhea. They can be cured by feeding the breast milk as it contain the bifidobacterium which is necessary for the growth of good bacteria in the colon. Or prebiotic/ probiotic product can be given to the infant after the doctor recommendation.
  48. 48. The mainrole ofPre-probiotic in; Pregnant: Probiotics and prebiotics from both natural food sources and supplements are considered safe for healthy pregnant women. A very common side effect in pregnant women is constipation which can be cured by taking probiotic supplement e.g. kefir. Pro and pre biotics can help increase the immune system of a baby even in pregnancy.
  49. 49. The mainrole ofPre-probiotic in; Senior citizen: As we get on with age, the lack of fiber will create more problems since the body has more dietary needs because of it’s many deteriorating factors, making prebiotics for the elderly even more important. Elders mainly suffer from constipation, lactose intolerance, and calcium absorption. The main thing prebiotics do is feed the probiotic bacteria thus keeps our digestive system healthy and increase the immunity of the body. Prebiotic supplement Kiwi-Klenz is mainly recommended to elders.
  50. 50. Conclusion.. • Probiotic and prebiotic therapy has shown encouraging results in many clinical conditions of human beings such as diarrhoea of multiple etiologies, irritable bowel syndrome, urogential infections, allergic diseases, neoplasm,high blood pressure,etc. Since probiotics are live micro organisms, it is possible that they may result infection in the host. Therefore,it is emphasized that proper evaluation with validated results of these products before bringing probiotics into routine uses for human health.