Topic: Aeration and Agitation
Mobile No. : 8087464948
Dr. P. A Pawar Sir
Associate Prof. (Food Tech)
“Microflora of the large intestine complete
digestion through fermentation, protect against
pathogenic bacteria andstimulate the immune
Probiotics and prebiotics in the diet can modify
the composition and some metabolic activities of
Probiotics appear effective in treatment of
childhood diarrhea, post-antibiotic diarrhea, and
They affect immune modulation and there are
varied but encouraging results in vaginosis, IBS
(Irritable Bowel Syndrome) and IBD (Inflammtory
The concept of probiotics wasfirst introduced in the20th century
byNoble prize winner,Elie Metchnikoff(1845-1916).
He suggestedthat long andhealthylife of Bulgarianpeasants
resultedfrom their consumptionof fermented milkproducts.
He himselfintroduced in hisdiet sourmilk fermented with
bacteria he called “BulgarianBacillus,later called asLactobacillus
delbrueckiisubsp.”and foundhishealth benefited.
He proposed thatconsumptionof fermenting food products
positively influenced the microflora of the colon,decreasing toxic
microbial activity,decrease intestinalpH,suppressthegrowthof
The root of the word ‘ probiotic’ comes from
the Greek word pro, meaning “promoting”
and biotic, meaning “life”.
The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the
United Nation (FAO) defines probiotics as“ live
micro-organisms, which, when administered
in adequate amount produce beneficial effect
to the host when taken orally”.
List of probiotic candidate:-
Microorganisms Genus Species
Bacteria Lactobacillus L.acidophilus, L.brevis, L.reuteri, L.casei,
L.rhamnosum, L.bulgaricus, L.cellobiosus,
L.delbrueckii, L. fermentum.
Bifidobacterium B.thermophilus, B.infantis, B .longum, B.bifidum,
Streptococcus S.lactis, S.thermophilus, S.cremonis, S.alivarius.
Enterobacter E.faecium, E.faecalis.
Fungi Aspergillus A.niger, A.oryzae.
Yeast Saccharomyces S.boulardii, S.cerevisiae, S.carlsbergensis.
There aremore than 50 species of lactobacilli.
Foods that are fermented, like yogurt, and dietary
supplements also contain these bacteria.
It helps in preventing yeast infections, urinary
tract infection, IBS, traveler's diarrhea , diarrhea
resulting from Clostridium difficile, treating
lactose intolerance, skin disorders (feverblisters,
eczema,acne) andprevention of respiratory
There are approximately 30
species of bifidobacteria.
They are found in the
intestinal tract within days of
birth, especially in breastfed
They help in the improvement
of abdominal pain, bloating,
straining, and the passage of
The only yeast probiotic.
It is effective in treating
diarrhea associated with
the use of antibiotics and
traveler's diarrhea. It has
also been reported to
prevent the reoccurrence
of Clostridium difficile, to
treat acne, and to reduce
side effects of treatment
for Helicobacter pylori.
This produces large
quantities of the
making it effective.
It helps in the
This is normally found in
the intestinal tract of
SF68 is a specific
probiotic strain that has
been used in the
Members of Leuconstoc spp.
are very often used in
production of fermented
foods because of their ability
to produce lactic acid
bacteria and diacetyl.
Leuconostoc are used to
monocytogenes in dairy and
Home of the probiotic bacteria.
tract (GIT) is the best
home where the
probiotic bacteria lived.
Within GIT there is an
Small amount is found
in stomach and small
intestine, but the
majority is found in the
Factor affecting probiotic bacteria:-
Intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors may influence the
survival of probiotics in food. Importance factor
affecting viability of probiotics are:-
Physical condition(temperature and humidity).
Chemical condition (content of oxygen nitrogen or
Properties of probiotics
It should be safe to the host.
It should not produce any pathogenic or toxic effect.
It must be resistance to hydrochloric acid, bile and
It should have anti-carcinogenic activity.
It should produce lactic acid.
It should retain viability during storage and use.
It should stimulate the immune system of the body.
It should have the ability to colonize the gastrointestinal
Sources of probiotics:-
Yogurt that contains live bacteria culture.
Cheese that is NOT baked.
Soy beverages and unfermented milk.
Sources of probiotics:-
How do they work?
Interferewiththe treatmentandprevention of intestinalaffection.
They contributeto theimprovementof the immunesystem.
They reduce the risk ofcholestrollevel.
They interferein thecancer prevention.
They havethefavourableeffectin liver illness.
They prevent alimentaryallergy.
They deliver vitaminsfor the organisms,they synthesis thiamine,
Mechanisms of probiotic activity
Competition for adhesion receptors or sites: The
presence of some bacteria in the intestinal tract is dependent
on their ability to adhere to the gut epithelium, such that they
become immobilised on the gut wall and resist being ﬂushed
out by peristalsis, as well as occupying a niche at the
expense of potentially- harmful organisms.
Stimulation of immunity: The underlying mechanisms of
immune stimulation speciﬁcally cell-wall components or cell
layers may act as an adjuvant and increase humoral immune
Degradation of toxin receptors.
Beneficial effects of probiotics in human:-
Diarrhoea:- Probiotic havepreventive and curativeeffects on diarrhoea.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome(IBS):- It canbe prevented by the Lactobacillus
Heicobacteriosis:-Probiotic had an in vitro inhibitory effect reducegastric
Necrotising Enterocolitis:- Treatingwith B.infantis and L.acidophilus to new born result
in reduction ofNEC.
Urogential infection:-It can be prevented by taking L.fermentumand L.rhamnosus.
Colon cancer:-Lactic bacteria may act against colon cancer.
Blood pressure:-Milk fermented bylactic acid bacteria may resultin the reduction of
Cholestrol:- Theeffect of yogurt with probiotic agents increasethe serumlevel.
Side effects of probiotics:-
It has been mentioned that use of
probiotics in critically ill person may be
Consumption of a mixture of six probiotic
bacteria increased the death rate of
patients with predicted severe acute
Since probiotic are viable organisms, it is
very likely that they may induce infection
in the hosts.
Probiotic products produced by
India plays the key role in the production
of probiotic products, being the largest
producer of milk.
Therefore, Amul Prolife, Mother diary,
Nestle Nesvita (first India’s Dahi with
probiotics) and Yakult Danone produces by
the Indian market.
How should people take probiotis?
The requirements for a microbe to be considered a probiotic are that
the microbe must be alive when administered, it must be
documented to have a heath benefit, and it must be administered at
levels to confer a health benefit. These are live microorganisms that
will not provide the promised benefits if they don't stay alive. The
manufacturer and consumer must pay close attention to the
conditions of storage at which the particular microorganism will
survive and the end of their shelf life.
The concept of prebiotic was introduced by
Gibson & Roberfroid, in 1995
Prebiotics are an alternative for probiotics or
“Non-digestible food ingredients that
beneficially affect the host by selectively
stimulating the growth and/or activity of one
or a limited number of bacteria in the colon
that can improve host health."
Limited hydrolysis and absorption in the
upper GIT(gastro-intestinal tract).
Selective growth stimulation of beneficial
bacteria in the colon.
Stimulation of beneficial flora that promotes
SOURCES OF PREBIOTICS:-
Prebiotics factor Origin
Oligosaccharides Onion,garlic,chicoryroot,yacon, asparagus,
jerusalem, artichoke, soybean, wheat bran.
Same as for oligosaccharides.
Fructans Ash free white powder from the tubers of
Human kappa casein and derived
Human milk: chymotrypsin and pepsin
Stachyose and raffinose Soybean extract.
Casein macropeptide Bovine milk.
Lactitol (4-O-β-D- galactopyranosyl)/ D-
Systhetic sugar alcohol of lactose.
Lactulose (4-O-β-D- galacyopyranosyl) /
Synthetic derivative of lactose.
Top 10 food containing prebiotics
Food Prebiotic fiber content by weight
Raw Chicory root 64.6 %
Raw Jerusalem artichoke 31.5 %
Raw Dandelion greens 24.3 %
Raw Garlic 17.5 %
Raw Leek 11.7 %
Raw Onion 8.6 %
Cooked Onion 5 %
Raw Asparagus 5 %
Raw Wheat bran 5 %
Raw Banana 1 %
Oligosaccharide is the main constituent of
prebiotic food products.
Oligosaccharides stimulate the growth of
benefic bacteria and increase the resistance
to invading pathogens.
The functional oligosaccharides include;
Soybeanmeal oligosaccharides (SMO)
Pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides
Fructooligosaccharides is a
group of oligosaccharides, or a
group of connected simple
Sources include onions and
chicory root also garlic.
It helps in the stimulate
production of beneficial
bacteria, minimal effect on
blood sugar, also help
strengthen the immune
Inulin is a dietary fibre that is
found in many common foods
such as leeks, kiwi, asparagus,
onions, garlic, bananas, wheat,
rhubarb, dairy products etc.
There are several benefits of
inulin apart from weight-
management, it even increases
calcium absorption, improved
bone health. It can also be used
to replace sugar and fat as a food
additive to improve taste.
They found in soy milk,
soy oil,bean curd, ice
Promote the growth of
Bifidobacteria in the
They are naturally present in
fruits, vegetables, bamboo, milk
It help to improve blood sugar
levels and fat absorption, re-
establish normal colonic flora , it
also increase mineral absorption
and vitamin B creation.
Galacto-oligosaccharides, otherwise called( GOS), are
found naturally in breast milk but are added to foods
such as infant formula, fruit drinks, dairy products,
breakfast cereals and biscuit crackers.
Increased the good bacteria boosts the immune
promote intestinal health by keeping unfriendly
bacteria such as E.coli, vaginal, urinary infections at
How do they work?
Increase a number of bifidobacterium and
lactic acid bacteria.
Effect on the metabolism of lipids.
Suppression of putrefactive bacteria.
Growth of bifidobacteria.
It helps to lower colon cancer risk.
Prebiotic factor Origin Microbes stimulated Effects
Oligosaccharides Onion,garlic, chicory
root, burdock, asparagus,
soybean, wheat bran.
Bifidobacterium species Increase in bifidobacterium,
suppression of putrefactive
bacteria, prevention of
constipation and diarrhea.
Same as for
Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus
Growth of bifidobacteria and
Fructan Ash-free white powder
from tubers of Jerusalem
Bifidobacterium species Growth of bifidobacteria
Human kappa casein and
chymotrypsin and pepsin
Bifidobacterium bifidum Growth promotion.
Stachyose and raffinose Soybean extract Bifidobacterium species Growth factor.
Casein macropeptide Bovine milk Bifidobacterium species Growth promotion.
Synthetic sugar alcohol
Bifidobacterium species Growth promotion.
Synthetic derivative of
Bifidobacterium species Growth promotion.
USES OF PREBIOTIC
Enhance bone density and increase Calcium absorption.
Improve immune function in both the gut and body.
Establish a healthier balance of bacteria in the gut.
Promote regular bowel movements.
Reduces the risk of an intestinal infection.
Increase in mineral absorption and improvement of bone
Modulation of gastro-intestinal peptides production,
energy metabolism and satiety.
Initiation (after birth) and regulation/modulation of
Health Benefits Prebiotic
Immune System Strength: Prebiotic fiber promotes the growth and
colonization of beneficial bacteria in the gut. These bacteria aid the immune
system in fighting illness-causing bacteria and viruses.
Normal Bowel Function: Irritable bowel syndrome, which is characterized by
bloating, gas, stomach pain, cramping, bouts of constipation and diarrhea, is
caused by food being digested improperly. , prebiotic fiber causes foods to be
digested normally, over a normal period of time, not too quickly or too
Cancer Prevention:Bifidobacteria digests inulin in the gut flora and produces
short chain fatty-acids: acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. Within
the intestine, it is believed that these acids can help prevent certain forms of
Colon cancer: The insoluble fiber from prebiotics, some experts believe, are
actually doing a part in preventing colon cancer by sweeping up carcinogens
and other dangerous toxins before they can be absorbed into the
bloodstream where they can do damage.
Excessive consumption of prebiotics
particularly those in the oligosaccharides
category may cause abdominal discomfort
and distension, as well as significant levels of
flatulence. The Nutrition Information
Centre of South Africa's University of
Stellenbosch, recommends that daily
consumption of prebiotics be held below 20
The main role of Pre-pro biotic in;
Infant: Many baby-food manufacturers are adding
prebiotics and probiotics to foods.
A very common ocurring infection in infant is
They can be cured by feeding the breast milk as it
contain the bifidobacterium which is necessary
for the growth of good bacteria in the colon.
Or prebiotic/ probiotic product can be given to the
infant after the doctor recommendation.
The mainrole ofPre-probiotic in;
Pregnant: Probiotics and prebiotics from both
natural food sources and supplements are
considered safe for healthy pregnant women.
A very common side effect in pregnant women
is constipation which can be cured by taking
probiotic supplement e.g. kefir.
Pro and pre biotics can help increase the
immune system of a baby even in pregnancy.
The mainrole ofPre-probiotic in;
Senior citizen: As we get on with age, the
lack of fiber will create more problems
since the body has more dietary needs
because of it’s many deteriorating
factors, making prebiotics for the elderly
even more important.
Elders mainly suffer from constipation,
lactose intolerance, and calcium
The main thing prebiotics do is feed the
probiotic bacteria thus keeps our
digestive system healthy and increase
the immunity of the body.
Prebiotic supplement Kiwi-Klenz is mainly
recommended to elders.
• Probiotic and prebiotic therapy has shown
encouraging results in many clinical conditions of
human beings such as diarrhoea of multiple
etiologies, irritable bowel syndrome, urogential
infections, allergic diseases, neoplasm,high blood
pressure,etc. Since probiotics are live micro
organisms, it is possible that they may result
infection in the host. Therefore,it is emphasized
that proper evaluation with validated results of
these products before bringing probiotics into
routine uses for human health.