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TO powerpoint

  1. 1. Transgenic OrganismsBy Nathan Bryant
  2. 2. What is a Transgenic Organism?A transgenic organism or TO is an organism whose genome has been modified by the introduction of a new gene.
  3. 3. How to create a TransgenicOrganism To make a TO one must have the following three main things: a gene that they want to transfer, an organism to put it in (target organism), and a vector or plasmid that has the ability to transfer the gene.
  4. 4. A gene that you want to transfer The first step is getting the gene that is needed to put in the target organism. In order to get that gene one must first replicate the DNA that contains that gene. The DNA is replicated with a PCR machine. Once one has the DNA, the strand of DNA containing the gene wanted can be cut out using a restriction enzyme specific to that gene.
  5. 5. Put it in a transposon Once the gene has been cut out one can then place it in a transposon. A transposon is used to carry the gene as the vector. There are many different transposons out there that one can get. A specific one that is patented is the “piggyBAC” transposon. This is very useful because it can be put into the embryo and insert itself into the cells genetic material into another chromosome or plasmid
  6. 6. Contributions to Science and Society  Transgenic organism contributes to science work by letting people be able to make different organisms contain traits they might not usually have.  An example is that they have made a trout that has around 25 percent more muscle mass without the fish eating more amounts of food. This will also contribute to society by giving one a fish that they can catch and make a bigger profit on because of the extra amounts of meat it carries.
  7. 7. Advantages Using them to create products that wouldn’t be able to be produced under normal conditions, Changing a species so that it can be more resistant to diseases, Increased preferred traits in breeding, Better quality in the byproducts of animals. Medical benefits: there are products such as insulin, growth hormone, and blood anti-clotting factors may soon be or have already been obtained from the milk of transgenic cows, sheep, or goats.
  8. 8. Disadvantages The unknown. Some scientists say that adding genetically modified genes may have an irreversible effect. Ethical contradictions that come with TO’s that mainly involve with religion and moral issues. Some of which are questions on whether or not man has the right to manipulate the laws and courses of nature.
  9. 9. The Future! Biomedicine and the making of therapeutic proteins. Modeling diseases Make functional foods. Improve the quality of food that we eat. Animal health and environmental sustainability by reducing the impact some farms may have on our environment when it comes to pollutants.