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Oltre il filo spinato

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Giornata della memoria a. s. 2015/16.
Classe IIIB, Istituto Comprensivo Giacomo Matteotti di Cave (Rm).
prof. ssa Simona Martini

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Oltre il filo spinato

  1. 1. Oltre il filo spinato Avere memoria è conoscere per tramandare. Avere memoria è imparare per non ripetere gli errori commessi. prof. ssa Simona Martini www.goccediarmonia.blogspot.com
  2. 2. Filo spinato: a cosa pensate? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. …
  3. 3. Un formicaio minacciato Wladyslae Spzpilman era nato a Sosnowiec, vicino a Varsavia, nel 1911 … Lettura della presentazione del libro Il pianista di Wladyslae Spzpliman Visione dei primi 16’ del film di Roman Polanski
  4. 4. Il ghetto - definizione - carta con i ghetti d’Europa (i ragazzi hanno fatto una ricerca) - la vita nel ghetto - testimonianze
  5. 5. Un cartello, in tedesco e in lettone, avverte che le guardie spareranno contro chiunque tenterà di superare il recinto o di contattare gli abitanti del ghetto di Riga. Riga, Lettonia, 1941-1943. — US Holocaust Memorial Museum
  6. 6. A quale periodo storico si riferiscono queste immagini?
  7. 7. Il puntino che divenne una macchia, che divenne una striscia, che divenne un bambino Da Il bambino con il pigiama a righe di John Boyne, cap. 10, pp. 81 – 85. Visione della scena 6 del film di Mark Herman
  8. 8. Il campo di concentramento Testimonianza di un sopravvissuto: Liliana Segre
  9. 9. Mappa interattiva
  10. 10. I campi di sterminio la soluzione finale I Nazisti utilizzarono l’espressione “Soluzione Finale” per indicare il piano per l’annientamento della popolazione ebraica. La Soluzione Finale prevedeva l’assassinio di tutti gli Ebrei europei per mezzo di gas asfissiante, di fucilazioni di massa e altri metodi ancora. Circa sei milioni di Ebrei, uomini, donne e bambini, furono uccisi nell’Olocausto, cioè i due terzi degli Ebrei che vivevano in Europa prima della Seconda Guerra Mondiale. Il genocidio e la distruzione di massa degli Ebrei rappresentarono il culmine di un decennio caratterizzato da misure discriminatorie sempre più dure. Dopo l’invasione della Polonia da parte della Germania, avvenuta nel settembre del 1939 - invasione che segnò l’inizio della Seconda Guerra Mondiale - le politiche anti-ebraiche vennero intensificate, fino a comprendere l’incarcerazione prima, e l’assassinio, poi, della popolazione ebraica in Europa. Nel giugno 1941, dopo l’invasione dell’Unione Sovietica da parte dei Tedeschi, le SS, insieme ad unità speciali di polizia (vere e proprie squadre mobili addette allo sterminio) cominciarono ad attuare operazioni di eliminazione di massa di intere comunità ebraiche. Nell’autunno del 1941, le SS e la polizia introdussero l’uso di camere a gas mobili: queste erano montate su autocarri il cui sistema di scappamento era stato modificato in modo da pompare monossido di carbonio all'interno, uccidendo così gli occupanti. Le SS tedesche e le unità di polizia uccisero quasi 2.700.000 Ebrei nei campi di sterminio, tramite asfissia con gas tossico o tramite fucilazione. Tre centri di sterminio, creati esclusivamente per l’eliminazione di massa, furono costruiti in Polonia, nell’ambito dell’Operazione Reinhard: Belzec, Sobibor e Treblinka. Anche altri campi nazisti furono teatro di assassini di massa e presero quindi parte alla Soluzione Finale. Nelle camere a gas del campo di Majdanek le SS uccisero decine di migliaia di Ebrei, principalmente prigionieri precedentemente assegnati ai lavori forzati e divenuti ormai troppo deboli per continuare a lavorare. Nel centro di sterminio di Chelmno, le SS e le forze di polizia usarono le camere a gas mobili per assassinare almeno 152.000 persone, per la maggior parte Ebrei, ma anche alcune migliaia di Rom (Zingari). Ad Auschwitz II (Aushcwitz-Birkenau) le SS assassinarono approssimativamente un milione di Ebrei provenienti da diverse nazioni europee.
  11. 11. Avere memoria …
  12. 12. ENIGMA Da Bergen una cassa di denti d’oro, Da Dachau una montagna di scarpe, Da Auschwitz una lampada in pelle. Chi ha ucciso gli ebrei? Non io, esclama la dattilografa, Non io, esclama l’ingegnere, Non io, esclama Adolf Eichmann, Non io, esclama Albert Speer. Il mio amico Fritz Nova ha perduto il padre, un sottufficiale dovette scegliere. Il mio amico Lou Abrahms ha perduto il fratello. Chi ha ucciso gli ebrei? David Nova ingoiò il gas, Hyman Abrahms fu picchiato e ucciso dalla fame. Certi firmavano le carte, e certuni stavano di guardia, e certi li spingevano dentro, e certuni versavano i cristalli e certi spargevano le ceneri, e certuni lavavano le pareti, e certi seminavano il grano, e certuni colavano l’acciaio, e certi sgomberavano i binari, e certuni allevavano il bestiame. Certi sentirono l’odore del fumo, certuni ne udirono solo parlare. Erano tedeschi? Erano nazisti? Erano uomini? Chi ha ucciso gli ebrei? Le stelle ricorderanno l’oro, il sole ricorderà le scarpe, la luna ricorderà la pelle. Ma chi ha ucciso gli ebrei? William Heyen
  13. 13. Un altro “muro” Negazionismo Termine con cui viene indicata una corrente antistorica e antiscientifica del revisionismo la quale, attraverso l'uso spregiudicato e ideologizzato di uno scetticismo storiografico portato all'estremo, non si limita a reinterpretare determinati fenomeni della storia contemporanea ma, spec. con riferimento ad alcuni avvenimenti connessi al fascismo e al nazismo (per es., l'istituzione dei campi di sterminio nella Germania nazista), si spinge fino a negarne l'esistenza. http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/neg azionismo/ Paesi in cui il negazionismo è reato
  14. 14. Filo spinato: a cosa pensate? Oltre il filo spinato: a cosa pensate?
  15. 15. Racconto la nostra giornata della memoria 1. Seguendo lo schema racconta in modo completamente oggettivo la lezione svolta in classe •Spiega cos’è la Giornata della Memoria •La professoressa ha deciso di intitolarla Oltre il filo spinato: scrivi cosa significa “filo spinato” per la classe •Il pianista: chi è? •Spiega cosa sono i ghetti •Spiega cosa sono i campi di concentramento e i campi di sterminio •Cosa significa “soluzione finale”? •Racconta la drammatica testimonianza di Liliana Segre •Avere memoria …: perché questa diapositiva è intitolata così? •Ci sono immagini e pagine web che ci mostrano e narrano un argomento in apparenza diverso, di cosa stiamo parlando? Racconta cosa hai letto e visto. •Negare. Spiegane il significato. •Cosa significa, alla fine, filo spinato? e “oltre il filo spinato”? 2. Fai le tue riflessioni personali

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