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Il mito

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Il mito

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Il mito

  1. 1. IL MITO
  2. 2. DEFINIZIONE Mythos > Mito = parola, racconto Il MITO è quindi una storia, un racconto che ha per protagonisti Dei ed Eroi. Il MITO è una storia che non ha un autore preciso
  3. 3. Quando nasce? Ai primordi della civiltà di un popolo Come si trasmette? Dapprima è tramandato di generazione in generazione oralmente; in seguito , con la nascita della scrittura, è trasmesso per iscritto. Di che cosa parlano i miti? I miti propongono racconti fantastici in cui si riflettono i problemi relativi all’origine del mondo, alla nascita e Alle azioni degli dei e degli eroi, alla nascita e alla diffusione di pratiche religiose, alla fondazione di città.
  4. 4. L’UOMO USA IL MITO PER DARSI DELLE RISPOSTE PER CONOSCERE LA REALTÀ
  5. 5. Narrano di STORIE CATASTROFICHE di DOLCISSIMI AMORI di TERRIBILI DELITTI di ATROCI VENDETTE di MORTI SPAVENTOSE SPESSO Gli stessi miti si trovano, raccontati in modo diverso in popoli anche distanti geograficamente tra loro Ad esempio il mito del DILUVIO UNIVERSALE
  6. 6. IMPORTANTE!!! I miti ci permettono di comprendere la cultura di un determinato popolo usi, abitudini, valori morali E se un popolo è dedito alla caccia avrà miti diversi da un popolo contadino o guerriero quindi noi dal mito possiamo conoscere meglio il popolo, il mito diventa insomma un documento storico letterario
  7. 7. Il MITO non è LEGGENDA! Perché? Perché la leggenda parte da avvenimenti storici realmente accaduti, a cui sono aggiunti elementi fantastici e/o irreali Il MITO non è FAVOLA! Perché? Perché non ha intenti didascalici Il MITO non è FIABA! Perché? Perché non ha intenti dilettevoli, di intrattenimento.
  8. 8. Miti originari: spiegano l’origine del mondo degli dei, dell’uomo; Ad esempio: i Vichinghi spiegavano l’origine del cosmo da un’immane voragine, mentre gli antichi Maya, legati a una cultura contadina, amavano credere che che il primo uomo fosse stato formato con la farina del mais Miti naturalistici: spiegano i fenomeni della natura; Ad esempio: la storia del diluvio Miti metamorfici: presuppongono una trasformazione all’origine del nome di un monte, di un fiume, di un fiore, di una costellazione ecc. Ad esempio: il mito di Giacinto o quello delle Pleiadi Miti culturali: spiegano l’origine dei riti, dei lavori agricoli, delle norme di una comunità
  9. 9. I PROTAGONISTI: DEI ED EROI Gli dei sono ANTROPOMORFI cioè somigliano all’uomo sia nell’aspetto fisico che nei pregi e difetti quindi quando si scontrano ci parlano del bene e del male che si scontra
  10. 10. ZEUS AFRODITE ATENA
  11. 11. CONCILIO DELI DEI Raffaello Sanzio, Villa Farnesina (Roma) E nella volta fece il concilio degli iddei in cielo; dove si veggono nelle loro forme abiti e lineamenti cavati da lo antico, con bellissima grazia e disegno espressi; e cosí fece le nozze di Psiche con ministri che servon Giove e le Grazie che spargono i fiori per la tavola; e ne' peducci della volta fece molte storie, fra le quali in una è Mercurio col flauto, che volando par che scenda da 'l cielo, et in un'altra è Giove con gravità celeste che bacia Ganimede; e cosí di sotto nell'altra il carro di Venere e le Grazie che con Mercurio tirano al ciel Pandora, e molte altre storie poetiche negli altri peducci. E negli spicchi della volta, sopra gl'archi fra peduccio e peduccio, sono molti putti che scortano bellissimi, che volando portano tutti gli strumenti de gli dèi: di Giove il fulmine e le saette, di Marte gli elmi, le spade e le targhe, di Vulcano i martelli, di Ercole la clava e la pelle del lione, di Mercurio il caduceo, di Pan la sampogna, di Vertunno i rastri della agricultura. Et a tutti ha fatto gli animali appropriati secondo gli dèi: pittura e poesia veramente bellissima.
  12. 12. EROE Uomini semidivini dotati di particolari qualità e poteri Una specie di uomo ideale Vediamone alcuni Il fortissimo Eracle (Ercole) Il furbo Odisseo (Ulisse)
  13. 13. Il paziente e triste babilonese Gilgamesh Di colui che vide tutto io voglio narrare al mondo. Di colui che conobbe ogni cosa, tutto io voglio raccontare. Egli andò alla ricerca dei Paesi più lontani e raggiunse la completa saggezza. Egli vide cose segrete, scoprì cose nascoste, riferì delle storie dei tempi prima del Diluvio. Egli percorse vie lontane, finché stanco e abbattuto si fermò. E fece incidere tutte le sue fatiche su una stele di pietra. (dal Proemio)
  14. 14. CREATURE MOSTRUOSE E FANTASTICHE Draghi alati, mostri a più teste, creature per metà uomo e per metà animale
  15. 15. ANALIZZARE E SCRIVERE UN MITO STRUTTURA LINGUAGGIO  TRIPARTITA: inizio – svolgimento – fine  PERSONAGGI: creature mostruose, fantastiche, soprannaturali, eroi, uomini  SPAZIO: aperto, immaginario, fantastico  TEMPO: indeterminato  SIMILITUDINI  RIPETIZIONI: formule fisse ed epiteti  FRASI brevi e semplici
  16. 16. OGGI CI SONO MITI ED EROI? Oggi la scienza ci dà ogni risposta, quindi non abbiamo bisogno del mito nella sua antica funzione MA Usiamo l’aggettivo “mitico” per indicare oggetti o personaggi che ci affascinano e in cui vorremmo riconoscerci Attori, cantanti o oggetti come il computer il cellulare.... OPPURE Gli eroi presenti nei fumetti, sempre impegnati nella lotta contro il male Sei un mito
  17. 17. CE NE SONO ALTRI? Abiti firmati ......... Ditemi voi ;-)
  18. 18. Sei un mito Gli dei dell’Olimpo 1 Gli dei dell’Olimpo 2

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