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Fluid
mechanics
Prepared by-
VAMJA SAHIL K.
Mechanical
Engineering
ID.-12MHUOD011
Mh - 77
Index
 Hydraulic press
 Actual hydraulic press
 Hydraulic accumulator
 Differential accumulator
 Hydraulic crane
 Hydraulic intensifier
 Direct acting hydraulic
lift
 Suspended hydraulic lift
 Air pump
 Gear wheel pump
HYDAULIC PRESS
 The hydraulic press is a device used for lifting
heavy weights by the application of much smaller
force
 It is based on pascal’s law,
which state that the intens-
ity of pressure in a static fl-
uid is transmitted equally
in all directions.
 The hydraulic press consists
of two cylinders of different diameters. One of
the cylinder is of smaller diameter and
contains a liquid
ACTUAL HEAVY HYDRAULIC PRESS
 Based on the nature of the work required, actual hydraulic press is
different in the shape. Nut all actual
hydraulic press consist of a ram sliding
in a cylinder to which high-pressure
liquid is forced.
 Fig 2 shows one of the actual hydraulic
press. It consists of a fixed cylinder in
which a ram is sliding. To the lower
end of the ram, movable plate is
attached to the ram also moves up
and down between two fixed plates.
When any liquid under high pressure
is supplied into the cylinder, the ram moves in the downward direction
and exerts a force equal to the product of intensity of pressure supplied
and area of the ram, on any material placed between the lower fixed
plate and the movable plate thus the material gets pressed
HYDRAULIC ACCUMULATOR
 The hydraulic accumulator is a device used for storing the energy of
a-
liquid in the form of pressure energy,
which may b supplied for any sudden
or intermittent requirement In case
of hydraulic lift or the hydraulic
crane , a large amount of energy is
required when lift or crane is
moving downward direction no large
external energy is required and at
that time the energy from the pump
is stored in the accumulator.
 Fig shows hydraulic accumulator which
consist of a fixed vertical cylinder containing a sliding ram. A heavy
weight is placed on the ram. The inlet of the cylinder is connected to
the pump, which continuously (which may be lift or crane etc.)
THE HYDRAULIC ACCUMULATOR
 The ram is at the lowermost position in the beginning , the
pump supplies water under pressure continuously. If the
water under pressure is not required by the machine (lift or
crane), the water under the ram is at the uppermost
position, the cylinder is full of water and accumulator has
stored the maximum amount of pressure energy. When the
machine (lift or crane) requires a large amount of energy,
the hydraulic accumulator will supply energy and ram will
move in the downward direction.
DIFFERENTIAL HYDRAULIC
ACCUMULATOR
 This is a device in which the
liquid is stored at high
pressure by a comparatively
small load on the ram. It consist of a
fixed vertical cylinder of a
small diameter as shown in fig
the fixed vertical cylinder
having circular projected collar at
the base on which weights are
placed.
 The liquid from the pump is supplied
to the fixed vertical cylinder. The liquid moves up through the small diameter
of fixed vertical cylinder and then enters the inverted cylinder. The water
exerts an upward vertex moving cylinder, which is loaded at the base.
Cylinder is equal to the sectional area of the moving bush. When the inverted
moving cylinder moves up the hydraulic energy is stored in the accumulator.
HYDRAULIC CRANE
 Hydraulic crane is device, used tor raising or transferring heavy
loads. It is widely used in workshops warehouses and dock sidings.
 A hydraulic crane consists of a mast, tie, jib, guide pulley and jigger.
The jib and tie are attached to the
mast. The jib can be raised or
lowered in order to decrease or
increase the radius of action of the
crane. The mast along with the jib can
revolve about a vertical axis and thus
the load attached to the rope can be
transferred to any pace within the
area of crane’s action. The jigger, which
consists of a movable ram sliding in a
fixed pulley block is attached to the
fixed cylinder, is used for lifting or lowering the heavy loads.
HYDRAULIC CRANE
 One end of the ram is in contact with Water and the other end is
connected to set of movable pulley block. Another pulley block, called
the fixed pulley block is attached to the fixed cylinder. The pulley
block, attached to the ram, moves up and down while the pulley block,
attached to the fixed cylinder is not having any movement.
 A wire rope, one end of which is fixed to a movable pulley (which is
attached to the sliding ram) is taken round all the pulleys of the two a
movable pulley (which is attached to the sliding ram) is taken round all
the pulleys of the pulleys and finally passes over the guide pulley,
attached to the jib as shown in fig the other end of the rope is
provided with a hook, for suspending the load.
 For lifting the load by the crane, the water under high pressure is
admitted into the cylinder of the jigger. This water forces the sliding
ram to move vertically up. Due to the movement of the ram in the
vertically u direction , the pulley block attached to the ram also moves
upward. This increases the distance between two pulley blocks an
hence the wire passing over the guide pulley is pulled by the jigger.
This raises the load attached to the hook
HYDRAULIC INTENSIFIER
 The device, which is used to increase the intensity of pressure of water by means of hydraulic
energy available from a large amount of water at a low pressure, is called the hydraulic
intensifier. Such a device is needed when the hydraulic machines such as hydraulic press as
hydraulic press requires water at very high pressure which cannot be obtained from the main
supply
directly.
 A hydraulic intensifier consist of fixed ram through
which the water, under a high pressure, flows to the
machine. A hollow inverted sliding cylinder,
containing water under high pressure,
is mounted over the fixed ram. The inverted
sliding cylinder is surrounded by another fixed
inverted cylinder which contains water from the
main supply at a low pressure as shown in fig
 There are three main parts in the hydraulic
intensifiers to be noted. They are
1. Fixed ram,
2. Hollow inverted sliding cylinder,
3. Fixed inverted cylinder.
HYDRAULIC INTENSIFIER
 A large quantity of water at a low pressure from the
supply enters the inverted fixed cylinder. The weight
of this water presses the sliding cylinder in the
downward direction. The water inside the inverted
sliding cylinder gets compressed due to the
downward movement of the sliding cylinder and its
pressure thus increases. This high pressure water is
forced out of the sliding cylinder through the fixed
ram, to the hydraulic machine.
DIRECT ACTING HYDRAULIC LIFT
 It consist of ram , sliding in
fixed cylinder as shown in fig.
At the top of he sliding ram,
a cage(on which the person
may stand or goods may be
placed) is fitted. The liquid
exerts force, n the sliding ram,
which moves vertically up and
thus raises the cage to the
required height.
 The cage is moved in the downward
direction, by removing the liquid
from fixed cylinder.
SUSPENDED HYDRAULIC LIFT
 Fig shows the suspended
hydraulic lift. It is a modified
from of the suspended hydraulic
lift it consist of a cage(on which
person may stand or goods may
be placed) which is suspended
from a wire rope. A jigger, consists
of a fixed cylinder, a sliding ram and
a set of two pulley blocks, fixed
cylinder, a sliding ram, is connected to
the movable pulley block. A wire rope,
on end of which is fixed at And the other
end is of the sliding ram is connected to the movable pulley block. A wire
rope. One end of which is field at A and the other end is taken round al the
pulleys of the movable and fixed blocks and finally over the guide pulleys as
shown in fig. The cage is suspended from the other end of the rope. The
raising or lowering of the cage of the lift is done by the jigger as explained
below
SUSPENDED HYDRAULIC LIFT
 When water under huge pressure is admitted into
the fixed cylinder if the jigger, the sliding ram is
forced to move towards left. As one end of the ram is
connected to the movable pulley block and hence
the movable pulley block moves towards the left,
thus increasing the distance between two pulley
blocks. This wire rope connected to the cage is
pulled and the cage is lifted. For lowering the cage,
water from the fixed cylinder is taken out. The sliding
ram moves towards right and hence movable pulley
blocks also moves towards right. This decreases the
distance between two pulley blocks and the cage is
lowered due to increased length of the rope
AIR LIFT PUMP
 The air lift pump is a device is used for lifting water from a well or sum by using compressed ai. The
compressed air is made to mix with the water. The density of the mixture of air and water is reduced. The
density of this mixture is much less than that of pure water. Hence a very small column of pure water can
balance a very long column of air mixture. This is the principle on which the air lift pump works.
 Fig shows the air lift pump. The
compressed air is introduced
through one or more nozzles at
the foot of the delivery pipe, which is
fixed in the well form which water is
to be lifted. In the delivery pipe, a
mixture of air and water formed.
Hence, a small column of pure water
will balance a very long column of air
water mixture. This air water mixture
will be discharged out of the delivery pipe.
The flow will continue as long as there is
supply of compressed air
 There are no chances of suspended solid
particles damaging pump
 Efficiency is too low as the outer energy is required
to compress the air
GEAR WHEEL PUMP
 The gear pump is the rotary pump which
to gears mash to provide pumping acti-
on mostly used for cooling water and the
pressure oil to be supplied for lubrication
of turbine motors machines etc.
 Although the gear pump is a rotory machinery,
yet its action on liquid to be pumped is not
dynamic and it merely displaces the liquid
from one side to other. The flow of liquid to be pumped is continuous
and uniform.
 Fig shows the gear pupm, which consists of two identical
intermeshing gears working in a fine clearance inside a casing. One
of the gear revolves sue to driving gears. The space between teeth
and the casing is filled with oil. The oil is carried round between the
gears from the suction pipe.

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Dual Clutch Transmission System

  • 1. Fluid mechanics Prepared by- VAMJA SAHIL K. Mechanical Engineering ID.-12MHUOD011 Mh - 77
  • 2. Index  Hydraulic press  Actual hydraulic press  Hydraulic accumulator  Differential accumulator  Hydraulic crane  Hydraulic intensifier  Direct acting hydraulic lift  Suspended hydraulic lift  Air pump  Gear wheel pump
  • 3. HYDAULIC PRESS  The hydraulic press is a device used for lifting heavy weights by the application of much smaller force  It is based on pascal’s law, which state that the intens- ity of pressure in a static fl- uid is transmitted equally in all directions.  The hydraulic press consists of two cylinders of different diameters. One of the cylinder is of smaller diameter and contains a liquid
  • 4. ACTUAL HEAVY HYDRAULIC PRESS  Based on the nature of the work required, actual hydraulic press is different in the shape. Nut all actual hydraulic press consist of a ram sliding in a cylinder to which high-pressure liquid is forced.  Fig 2 shows one of the actual hydraulic press. It consists of a fixed cylinder in which a ram is sliding. To the lower end of the ram, movable plate is attached to the ram also moves up and down between two fixed plates. When any liquid under high pressure is supplied into the cylinder, the ram moves in the downward direction and exerts a force equal to the product of intensity of pressure supplied and area of the ram, on any material placed between the lower fixed plate and the movable plate thus the material gets pressed
  • 5. HYDRAULIC ACCUMULATOR  The hydraulic accumulator is a device used for storing the energy of a- liquid in the form of pressure energy, which may b supplied for any sudden or intermittent requirement In case of hydraulic lift or the hydraulic crane , a large amount of energy is required when lift or crane is moving downward direction no large external energy is required and at that time the energy from the pump is stored in the accumulator.  Fig shows hydraulic accumulator which consist of a fixed vertical cylinder containing a sliding ram. A heavy weight is placed on the ram. The inlet of the cylinder is connected to the pump, which continuously (which may be lift or crane etc.)
  • 6. THE HYDRAULIC ACCUMULATOR  The ram is at the lowermost position in the beginning , the pump supplies water under pressure continuously. If the water under pressure is not required by the machine (lift or crane), the water under the ram is at the uppermost position, the cylinder is full of water and accumulator has stored the maximum amount of pressure energy. When the machine (lift or crane) requires a large amount of energy, the hydraulic accumulator will supply energy and ram will move in the downward direction.
  • 7. DIFFERENTIAL HYDRAULIC ACCUMULATOR  This is a device in which the liquid is stored at high pressure by a comparatively small load on the ram. It consist of a fixed vertical cylinder of a small diameter as shown in fig the fixed vertical cylinder having circular projected collar at the base on which weights are placed.  The liquid from the pump is supplied to the fixed vertical cylinder. The liquid moves up through the small diameter of fixed vertical cylinder and then enters the inverted cylinder. The water exerts an upward vertex moving cylinder, which is loaded at the base. Cylinder is equal to the sectional area of the moving bush. When the inverted moving cylinder moves up the hydraulic energy is stored in the accumulator.
  • 8.
  • 9. HYDRAULIC CRANE  Hydraulic crane is device, used tor raising or transferring heavy loads. It is widely used in workshops warehouses and dock sidings.  A hydraulic crane consists of a mast, tie, jib, guide pulley and jigger. The jib and tie are attached to the mast. The jib can be raised or lowered in order to decrease or increase the radius of action of the crane. The mast along with the jib can revolve about a vertical axis and thus the load attached to the rope can be transferred to any pace within the area of crane’s action. The jigger, which consists of a movable ram sliding in a fixed pulley block is attached to the fixed cylinder, is used for lifting or lowering the heavy loads.
  • 10. HYDRAULIC CRANE  One end of the ram is in contact with Water and the other end is connected to set of movable pulley block. Another pulley block, called the fixed pulley block is attached to the fixed cylinder. The pulley block, attached to the ram, moves up and down while the pulley block, attached to the fixed cylinder is not having any movement.  A wire rope, one end of which is fixed to a movable pulley (which is attached to the sliding ram) is taken round all the pulleys of the two a movable pulley (which is attached to the sliding ram) is taken round all the pulleys of the pulleys and finally passes over the guide pulley, attached to the jib as shown in fig the other end of the rope is provided with a hook, for suspending the load.  For lifting the load by the crane, the water under high pressure is admitted into the cylinder of the jigger. This water forces the sliding ram to move vertically up. Due to the movement of the ram in the vertically u direction , the pulley block attached to the ram also moves upward. This increases the distance between two pulley blocks an hence the wire passing over the guide pulley is pulled by the jigger. This raises the load attached to the hook
  • 11. HYDRAULIC INTENSIFIER  The device, which is used to increase the intensity of pressure of water by means of hydraulic energy available from a large amount of water at a low pressure, is called the hydraulic intensifier. Such a device is needed when the hydraulic machines such as hydraulic press as hydraulic press requires water at very high pressure which cannot be obtained from the main supply directly.  A hydraulic intensifier consist of fixed ram through which the water, under a high pressure, flows to the machine. A hollow inverted sliding cylinder, containing water under high pressure, is mounted over the fixed ram. The inverted sliding cylinder is surrounded by another fixed inverted cylinder which contains water from the main supply at a low pressure as shown in fig  There are three main parts in the hydraulic intensifiers to be noted. They are 1. Fixed ram, 2. Hollow inverted sliding cylinder, 3. Fixed inverted cylinder.
  • 12. HYDRAULIC INTENSIFIER  A large quantity of water at a low pressure from the supply enters the inverted fixed cylinder. The weight of this water presses the sliding cylinder in the downward direction. The water inside the inverted sliding cylinder gets compressed due to the downward movement of the sliding cylinder and its pressure thus increases. This high pressure water is forced out of the sliding cylinder through the fixed ram, to the hydraulic machine.
  • 13. DIRECT ACTING HYDRAULIC LIFT  It consist of ram , sliding in fixed cylinder as shown in fig. At the top of he sliding ram, a cage(on which the person may stand or goods may be placed) is fitted. The liquid exerts force, n the sliding ram, which moves vertically up and thus raises the cage to the required height.  The cage is moved in the downward direction, by removing the liquid from fixed cylinder.
  • 14. SUSPENDED HYDRAULIC LIFT  Fig shows the suspended hydraulic lift. It is a modified from of the suspended hydraulic lift it consist of a cage(on which person may stand or goods may be placed) which is suspended from a wire rope. A jigger, consists of a fixed cylinder, a sliding ram and a set of two pulley blocks, fixed cylinder, a sliding ram, is connected to the movable pulley block. A wire rope, on end of which is fixed at And the other end is of the sliding ram is connected to the movable pulley block. A wire rope. One end of which is field at A and the other end is taken round al the pulleys of the movable and fixed blocks and finally over the guide pulleys as shown in fig. The cage is suspended from the other end of the rope. The raising or lowering of the cage of the lift is done by the jigger as explained below
  • 15. SUSPENDED HYDRAULIC LIFT  When water under huge pressure is admitted into the fixed cylinder if the jigger, the sliding ram is forced to move towards left. As one end of the ram is connected to the movable pulley block and hence the movable pulley block moves towards the left, thus increasing the distance between two pulley blocks. This wire rope connected to the cage is pulled and the cage is lifted. For lowering the cage, water from the fixed cylinder is taken out. The sliding ram moves towards right and hence movable pulley blocks also moves towards right. This decreases the distance between two pulley blocks and the cage is lowered due to increased length of the rope
  • 16. AIR LIFT PUMP  The air lift pump is a device is used for lifting water from a well or sum by using compressed ai. The compressed air is made to mix with the water. The density of the mixture of air and water is reduced. The density of this mixture is much less than that of pure water. Hence a very small column of pure water can balance a very long column of air mixture. This is the principle on which the air lift pump works.  Fig shows the air lift pump. The compressed air is introduced through one or more nozzles at the foot of the delivery pipe, which is fixed in the well form which water is to be lifted. In the delivery pipe, a mixture of air and water formed. Hence, a small column of pure water will balance a very long column of air water mixture. This air water mixture will be discharged out of the delivery pipe. The flow will continue as long as there is supply of compressed air  There are no chances of suspended solid particles damaging pump  Efficiency is too low as the outer energy is required to compress the air
  • 17. GEAR WHEEL PUMP  The gear pump is the rotary pump which to gears mash to provide pumping acti- on mostly used for cooling water and the pressure oil to be supplied for lubrication of turbine motors machines etc.  Although the gear pump is a rotory machinery, yet its action on liquid to be pumped is not dynamic and it merely displaces the liquid from one side to other. The flow of liquid to be pumped is continuous and uniform.  Fig shows the gear pupm, which consists of two identical intermeshing gears working in a fine clearance inside a casing. One of the gear revolves sue to driving gears. The space between teeth and the casing is filled with oil. The oil is carried round between the gears from the suction pipe.