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Career development history

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It is about the career selection for master grades of education

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Career development history

  1. 1. If individuals can understand their strengths and weaknesses, such knowledge can be used to choose vocational opportunities
  2. 2. What is a career? A career is an individual's journey through learning, work and other aspects of life
  3. 3. Career is defined as a person's "course or progress through life (or a distinct portion of life)". In this definition career is understood to relate to a range of aspects of an individual's life, learning and work. Career is also frequently understood to relate to the working aspects of an individuals life e.g. as in career woman. A third way in which the term career is used to describe an occupation or a profession that usually involves special training or formal education, and is considered to be a person’s lifework. In this case "a career" is seen as a sequence of related jobs usually pursued within a single industry or sector e.g. "a career in law" or "a career in the building trade".
  4. 4. The etymology of the term comes from the French word carriere (16 c.) ("road, racecourse") which, in turn, comes from the Latin word "(via) cararia" (track for wheeled vehicles) which originated from the Latin word carrus" which means "wagon".
  5. 5. The modern concept of career is the product of the industrial age. During the industrial age, most individuals were employed by large organizations whose primary purpose was producing a tangible product.
  6. 6. These organizations provided much of the structure for people’s lives.
  7. 7. The vertically integrated hierarchical organizations provided the opportunity for advancement through promotion up the ‘corporate ladder.
  8. 8. During the industrial age, work was concentrated in employment, learning was concentrated in education, and education preceded employment.
  9. 9. The role of career counseling was to facilitate the passage from one system (education) to the next (employment). This is why most career counseling takes place in educational institutions.
  10. 10. Although the origins of career thought could be traced to the fifteenth century, and earlier, organized career counseling had no clear beginning.
  11. 11. Some of the conditions from which career counseling evolved were  Economic (industrialism and growing division of labour)  Social (urbanization, child labour, and immigration)  Scientific (the emergence of the social sciences and the advent of mental testing) These conditions are critical to understanding the historical development of career counseling.
  12. 12. Career counseling and career development theory was the product of a particular social and economic environment and was developed in the context of that environment.
  13. 13. The beginning of the formulation of career development theories arrived with Frank Parsons in the early twentieth century. Frank Parsons began his work at the Vocational Bureau in Boston in 1908. He is credited with first using the term ‘vocational guidance’ to describe the methods that he used with young people. Parson urged that vocational guidance become a part of the public school program with experts to conduct it. Although Parsons never developed a formal theory of career development, most career theories credit his work as being the framework upon which career theory has developed.
  14. 14. The long-range impact and importance of Parsons’ work was not understood until many years later when it was recognized in the Minnesota Employment Stabilization Institute during the 1930s when E.G. Williamson at the University of Minnesota developed the first career counseling theory Trait Factor theory , a modification and operationalizing of Parsons’ work. This became known as the Minnesota Model.
  15. 15. The Minnesota Vocational Test for Clerical Workers has been used extensively at the University of Minnesota Employment Stabilization Research Institute in the study and guidance of workers and in the differentiation of groups of employed and unemployed workers in various occupations. It has been demonstrated that the clerical test differentiates clerical workers from workers in the general population better than an academic ability test, and that it discriminates somewhat less successfully various classes of clerical workers, such as stenographers, from general clerical workers. Another investigator also has reported significant differences in clerical test scores between men office clerks and garage mechanics, and between women office clerks and retail saleswomen. Other findings have shown the Minnesota Clerical Test to be not only a reliable and valid measuring instrument but one which seems to measure an aptitude relatively independent of clerical training and experience . To show, however, that a given aptitude test measures clerical
  16. 16. There were others who were influential in the beginning of what became known as guidance counseling. Such as Jesse Davis, who, in 1898, was initiating guidance activities in high school in Detroit.
  17. 17. Jesse Buttrick Davis (1871-1955): Pioneer of Vocational Guidance in the Schools Jesse Buttrick Davis is considered to be the 1st school counselor in the United States because he was the 1st to implement a systematic guidance program in the schools. Through his work in the Michigan public schools, he became an important leader in the development of vocational guidance in the late 1800s and early 1900s. His pioneering work in the Detroit and Grand Rapids public schools laid the foundation for the counseling specialties of career counseling and school counseling. He was also 1 of the founders of the National Vocational Guidance Association (now National Career Development Association) and National Association of Secondary School Principals.
  18. 18. Eli Weaver was conducting vocational placement services at a boy’s high school in Brooklyn
  19. 19. The first American journal developed to vocational guidance, The Vocational Guidance Newsletter, was published in 1911 and was the predecessor to the Vocational Guidance Magazine, and when the Personnel and Guidance Association was established in 1951, to Occupations and later to Personal and Guidance Journal.
  20. 20. Although there were others who were beginning to work on the idea of career development , Frank Parsons is usually referred to as the ‘father of vocational guidance’ because the roots of career development theory did not emerge until Parsons developed a schema for successful career decisions making in 1909. Parsons proposed three broad factors in career choice:  Understanding oneself,  having a specific knowledge of the world of work, and  Understanding the relationship between the two
  21. 21. Parsons believed that a person should actively choose his or her career or vocation rather than allowing chance alone to operate in the career decision process. By doing this, Parsons believed that personal job satisfaction would be enhanced, employers’ cost would decrease, and employees’ efficiency would increase. Whatever approach to career counseling is taken, one must deal with Parsons’ central components when choosing a vocation.
  22. 22. For much of the twentieth century, career counselors focused on the second of Parsons’ triad, increasing people understanding of the world of work. This began to change when the stock market crash of 1929 was followed by drastic deterioration of every aspect of the economy. Large- scale unemployment led the United States Employment Service to provide testing, counseling, and placement services to workers. The World Wars and the Depression increased the need to classify people in a meaningful way and fit them into jobs that they could perform satisfactorily.
  23. 23. The role of tests increased significantly during this time. The Army General Aptitude Test Battery were developed to enhance the selection and placement concerns that arose at the beginning of the Second World War when manpower problems became acute. It was during this period, marked by the World Wars and The Great Depression that the role of career counselors expanded tremendously. It was also during this time that Parsons’ theory was given a new name; “trait and factor” theory.
  24. 24. This theory dominated the 1920s and 1930s. Carl Rogers challenged this perspective in his books on client-centered counseling, which questioned the directive approach that trait and factor theorists used.
  25. 25. This trait-factor approach was also challenged by theorists such as Ginsberg. Career development began to be seen as a lifelong developmental process that is filled with compromise.
  26. 26. Super further expanded upon these ideas with his developmental theories of career decision.
  27. 27. Other such as Roe focused on psychological theories of personality, giving attention to the early childhood experiences that predisposed individuals to enter certain occupations.
  28. 28. Holland developed a more comprehensive trait-oriented theory of career development and choice. This approach has been the most researched and the most influential approach to career choice theory and has perhaps provided the most pragmatic application for the career counselor
  29. 29. These ever-newer theoretical approaches have included different aspects of the developmental processes and added psychological and sociological understanding to the career choices that individuals make. Many of the differing theoretical approaches are in fact, looking at differing aspects of the complex process of career choice, adjustment ,and development.
  30. 30. Several major trends have culminated in the different approaches to career choice and adjustment. The primary theme in the history of career counseling has been the Personal focus on the individual, the occupation, and the relationship between the two.
  31. 31. This model is the cornerstone of the trait and factor approach to career counseling with its emphasis on tests and occupational information. Combined with this is the view that career counseling has been the recognition that the choice of a career is a life long developmental process
  32. 32. There has also been a shift toward examining cognitive variable and processes in studying career choice and adjustment. This has influenced not only the modification of existing career development theories, but has been the impetus for emerging theories.
  33. 33. These trends have produced different schemas for classifying differing theories. Any attempt to classify models of behavior runs the risk of oversimplification and models can be classified in different ways. Yet some attempt at classification can be useful in understanding the history and the state of career development theory.
  34. 34. Trait-Factor Theories The oldest theoretical approach to career counseling has its antecedents in the theories of individual differences in behavior and the identification of these differences through tests and measurements. The term trait and factor refer principally to abilities, interests, and personality characteristics. This system assumes that the matching of individual’s abilities and interest with the available career opportunities can be accomplished, and once accomplished, solves the problems of career choice for that individual.
  35. 35. The roots of this approach go back to parsons and are based on the pragmatic consideration of assisting individuals in choosing the best career based on their abilities, interest, and personality characteristics. This system has been the foundation for the vocational testing movement, producing interest inventories and aptitude test.
  36. 36. Philosophically, this approach focuses on the uniqueness of the individual and differential psychology.
  37. 37. Largely, trait-factor systems are a theoretical. The primary proponent of this approach is John Holland. He put forth a model with the following assumptions:  In our culture, most people can be categorized as one of six types; Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, or Conventional.  Six model environments correspond to the six personality types.  People search for environments that will allow them to exercise their skills and abilities, express their attitudes and values, and take on agreeable problems and roles.  Behavior is determined by interaction between personality and environment.
  38. 38. Holland furthered his theoretical concepts with the development of the hexagon as a heuristic for understanding the nature of interest. This development led to the exploration of other important concepts in Holland’s developing theory. Four diagnostic/theoretical indicators are used as interpretative constructs. 1. Congruence, which is the degree of fit between an individual’s personality and the type of work environment the person is currently in or anticipates entering. 2. Consistency, which is the measure of internal coherence of an individual’s type score. 3.Differntiation, which is the measure of crystallization of interests and provides information about the relative definition of types in an individual’s profile. 4. Identity, which is the measure of the degree of clarity of the picture of one’s goals, interests, and talents.
  39. 39. Sociological Models of Career Development Often referred to as “accidental theories” or situational theories of career development, sociological theories have as their central tanant the idea that circumstances beyond the control of the individual play a pivotal role in career decisions. These circumstances include the economic and social development of the society in which career decisions are made as well as the individual’s social status and experiences. This approach to career development emphasizes the need for the individual to develop the skills and coping mechanisms to deal effectively with environment.
  40. 40. Most of the emphasis of the sociological approach is based on the recognition that career choices reflect a compromise between and individual’s inclinations and those possibilities that the culture opens to the individual. Career counseling approaches differ from sociological approaches in important ways. Most of the differences are found in the fact that counseling theories gives at least moderate weigh to the individual’s choice-making process in spite of the external obstacles and conditions while sociological theories assign much more weight to the institutional and impersonal market forces and significantly limit individual decision making and career aspirations.
  41. 41. According to Hotchkiss and Borrow, the most prominent sociological theories Status Attainment Theory that postulates that the social status of ones parents effect the level of schooling achieved, which in turn affects the occupational level that one attains. This basic model is expanded upon by what is known as the “Wisconsin model”, which adds an intervening variable of ability to the relationship between parental social status and level of schooling.
  42. 42. Human Capital theories states that the individual invests in activities such education, health care, and migration with an expectation of return. These theories predict that any form of discrimination in the job market will disappear over time as a result of competitive pressure.
  43. 43. Sociology of Labour Markets theory states that the Social Attainment Model is incomplete because it does not account for how social structures such as rules of access to jobs, salary schedules, job security, and performance standards interact with individual characteristics to influence the outcome of career attainment. This theory also argues against the microeconomic theories that focus on “human capital”. Sociology of Labour Markets theorists, or structuralist, believes that institutionalized inequalities are pervasive persistent. This theoretical approach dominates most of the sociological research about determinates of occupational status.
  44. 44. Developmental Self-Concept A third approach to career development is the self-concept approach that weaves two models into one. This system combines the development and the self-concept models. The basic tenants of this approach hold that ; 1. individuals form more clearly defined self-concepts as they grow older. 2. people develop images of the world of work that they compare to their self-image; and 3. the adequacy of career decisions are based on the similarity between an individual’s self-concept and vocational concept.
  45. 45. This approach has expanded with the life-span, life-space approach of Super, which addresses life span and social-role psychology. The graphical presentation of this theoretical approach is captured in the Life-Career Rainbow, which has two dimension depicts the social setting in which the roles take place. This approach attempts to portray the multiple-role careers and their determinants and interactions.
  46. 46. The time dimension adds a developmental approach that focuses on how people change and make transitions. Super’s developmental theory has attempted to provide a comprehensive framework for understanding the complexities of career behavior. It has evolved over time and has been influenced by constructivistic thought and by the cognitive processing theories

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