Additives and addictives substance


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Additives and addictives substance

  1. 1. By: Akmalia Rizke N F (03) Dhian Pratama(09) Dinda Sintia A N (10)
  2. 2. Additive Substance
  3. 3. 1. The Meaning of Additive Substance Additive food is a substances that are added to food in a little amount on purpose to improve shape, composition, or property of food. Meanwhile in “Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia”, additive is substance that is added to a product, for example colouring additive or seasoning, and as preservatives in food. Meanwhile in WIKIPEDIA, food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste and appearance.
  4. 4. 2. Kind of Additive Based on The Composition • Natural additives • Synthetic additives Synthetic additives have some advantages such as: • The ability to be mass-produced • Relatively more durable • Easy to get and more cheaper
  5. 5. 3. Kind of Additive Stuff There are two kind of additive stuffs, those are reasonable additive and unreasonable additive. • Reasonable Additive Reasonable additive is additive that is on purposely put into food so the food is interested and durable. • Unreasonable Additive Unreasonable additive is additive found in foor naturally in limited amount or it can also appear because the presence of mistake during the process. For example, caffein, blue acid in potato, and so on.
  6. 6. 3A. Reasonable Additive Reasonable additive can be: •Colourant matter •Preservatives •Flavoring •Sweetener.
  7. 7. Colourant Matter Colourant matter is additive matter that can improve or give colour to food, so that food can be more attractive. There are two kind of colourant matter : natural colouring matter and synthetic colouring matter.
  8. 8. Natural Colouring Matter Name Colour Turmeric Yellow Anato Orange Caramel Black brown Carrot Orange Suji leaf Green Pandan leaf Green Cocoa Chocolate Red chili pepper Red Tea Brown Natural color are obtain from natural sources such as grasses, leafy vegetable, fruit skins, roots, and seed of plants. Table in the left show some example of natural colouring matter.
  9. 9. Synthetic Colouring Matter Name Colour Tartrazine Yellow Sunset yellow Yellow Yellow poncean 4R Yellow Patent blue V Blue Brilliant black BN Black Brilliant blue FCF Blue Green FCF Green Eritrosin Red Brown HT Brown These colors is made in a factory and do not obtain from nature. Some advantages of synthetic colouring matter : • Much brighter than natural color • Needed only in very low concentrations • Much intense than natural color • More stable than natural color
  10. 10. • Pandan Leaf (Green) • Tartrazine • Turmeric (Yellow) • Briliant Blue FCF
  11. 11. Sweetener Sweetener have purpose to make food or drink become sweet or become sweeter. There are two kind of sweetener: Natural sweetener and synthetic sweetener.
  12. 12. Natural Sweetener Natural sweetener is sugar. There are some kind of sugar, that is sugar from sugar cane, beet sugar, coconut sugar, sugar from sugar palm, date palm sugar, and sorghum sugar.
  13. 13. • Sugar cane • Date palm sugar
  14. 14. Synthetic Sweetener Economically, the synthetic sweeteners are cheaper than sugar and the synthetic sweeteners are sweeter than sugar. Synthetic sweetener are used to keep calories low. There are the relative sweetness degree of synthetic sweetener to sucrose. Sweetener The Relative Sweetness Degree to Sucrose Aspartame 16.000 X Saccharine 50.000 X Sucralose 60.000 X P-400 400.000 X Neotam 1.300.000 X
  15. 15. Flavoring Flavoring is a food additive that can give or sharpen taste and flavor. There are two kind of flavoring: Natural flavoring and Synthetic flavoring.
  16. 16. Natural Flavoring There are some example of natural flavor, such as table salt, turmeric, celedry, onions, pepers, chili, nutmegs, ginger, laurellike leaves, caraway, coriander, and pandanus leaves. The other example of natural flavoring: •Natural citrate is extracted from lemon grass •Natural benzaldehyde is extracted from bitter almonds •Vanilin is obtained from vanila pods Except natural flavoring, there are some example of natural agent: •Amyl acetate for banana flavor •Benzaldehyde for cherry flavor •Ethyl butyrate for pineapple flavor •Methyl anthranilate for grape flavor
  17. 17. • Onion • Table salt
  18. 18. Synthetic Flavoring Synthetic flavoring which are most often used in everyday life is MSG (monosodium glutamat). Its more known as “vetsin”. MSG is made of syrup from sugar refining fermented using micrococcus glutamicus bacteria. Besides MSG, there are other synthetic chemicals which are usually used as flavoring for foods, among others are diacetyl, menthol, and eugenol compunds.
  19. 19. Preservatives Preservatives is additive matter to prevent or inhibit fermentation, decomposition, or acidification that is caused by micro-organism on purpose to preserve food or giving fresh taste in food. Preservatives are used to increase the shelf life of food by preventing the growth of microorganisms like yeast or bacteria in food.
  20. 20. Table of Preservation and Method of Preservation 1. Canning 2. Freezing / chilling 3. Drying 4. Pickling 5. Jam-making 6. Smoking 7. Preservatives
  21. 21. Canning Foods are sealed into cans and then heated to a high temperature (above 100oC). This kills any microbes in the food an the sealed can prevents fresh contamination.
  22. 22. Freezing / chilling Lowering the temperature slowed up enzyme activity in the spoiling microbes. This slows cellular respiration and its growth.
  23. 23. Drying Removes water from the food and dehydrates the microbes. This prevents their growth but does not remove any tocins that may already be present.
  24. 24. Pickling Vinegar is acidic and lowering the pH of the food can prevent the growth of microbes. The acidic environment reduces the enzyme- activity of the food-spoiling microbes.
  25. 25. Jam-making Jams contain high concentrations of sugar. This effectively draws water put of any microbes in the food and dehydrates them.
  26. 26. Smoking Foods are hung in wood smoke and chemicals in the smoke act to kill microbes in the food and also give it a distinctive flavor.
  27. 27. Preservatives The used of additives. These substances reduce the growth of microbes. There are two kind of preservatives, natural preservatives and synthetic preservatives.
  28. 28. Natural Preservatives Natural preservatives also can be antioxidant (prevent oxidation in fruit and vegetables). The example of natural preservatives are : sugar, salt, ice, and spices, such as tamarind, cinnamon, honey, and clove. Sugar can bond water efficiently, so adding sugar into foods will make the water that used for growth of decomposer organism is gone. Jam, candied fruits, the essence of fruits are examples of foods preserved using sugar. Salt used in preservering food such as fishes, meat, and vegetables. Food that preserved using salt are often called salty foods. Ice enables bacteria to be in non ideal temperature for doing activity. Meanwhile spices contain the benzoic acid compound inhibiting the process in food decomposition.
  29. 29. Synthetic Preservatives Because the quantity of natural preservative are limited in the nature, hence food producers make synthetic preservatives. Beside that, the quality of the natural preservatives is relatively not good compared with synthetic preservatives. There are some example of synthetic preservatives.
  30. 30. Addictives & Psychotropic
  31. 31. Definition Addictives are substances that can cause their user to become addicted. Addition is a physical and psychological condition of someone that doesn’t function properly without the consumption of a particular substance.
  32. 32. Kind of AddictiveSubstancesAccordingto the Effectto User 1. Stimulant : Make a person fell more energic 2. Depressants : Bring a felling or relaxation 3. Hallucinogens : Change the way someone experiences reality.
  33. 33. The Effectsof Addictives Stimulation is a symptom that happens in the central nervous system to accelerate processes in the human body, such as hearth rate, blood pressure, and respiration. As a result of this acceleration process, someone who uses stimulants will seem healthy, alert, happy, fresh, and so on. Examples of stimulants are caffeine in coffee, nicotine in cigarettes, cocaine, and amphetamines. Depression is a symptom that happens in the central nervous system to slow down processes in the human body. Depression decreases someone’s awareness of the world around him/her. Substances that cause depression are called depressants. In the medical world, depressants are employed for people with insomnia. Examples of depressants are alcohol, sedatives, and so on. Hallucination is a symptom that happens to human nerves that leads to fantasy. Hallucination makes a person hear sounds, see things, and feel something which doesn’t exist. Hallucination can make someone laugh by him/her self, talk and move with no purpose. Example of hallucinogen is LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)
  34. 34. Legal Addictive Substances
  35. 35. 1. Caffeine Can be found in coffee. Moderate consumption is three cups or less of coffee per day. Ten cup is considered excessive and results in nervousness, sleeping difficulty, increased heartbeat, headaches, anxiety and nausea. According to the effect of caffein, this substance belongs to stimulants.
  36. 36. 2. Nicotine Can be found in the cigarette, this substance increases dopamine levels and boost adrenalin. Increased adrenaline raises the user’s hearth rate and blood pressure, and interferes with release of insulin by pancreas, leading to elevated blood sugar.
  37. 37. 3. Alcohol Such as beer, wine and liquor. Alcohol is an ancient drug. Alcohol is depressant that effect neuron in the central nervous system which lead relaxation, drowsiness, lack of inhibition sleep, coma and even death. Addiction to alcohol is called alcoholism.
  38. 38. 4. Inhalant Such as aerosols, solvents, gases and nitrates. Product range from paint thinners to hair spray to propane tanks, and inhalation result in a high similar to that of alcohol. Even one-time use of inhalants can kill or cause hearth failure. Three main characteristics of inhalant : • Volatile (easily converted to a vapor at room temperature) • Do not fall into the category of drugs that are usually inhaled, such as nicotine or cocaine. • Deliberately inhaled by users in concentrated form so that the users can get high.
  39. 39. Controlled Additive Substances
  40. 40. Psychotropic A psychotropic is a substance which is not included as a narcotic or alcohol but has abilities and effects like alcohol and narcotics. Examples of psychotropic are amphetamines and ecstasy.
  41. 41. 1. Amphetamines Speed, crystal meth. Stimulant that boots alertness and concentration. Adderall, Dexedrine and other drug are normally prescribed for treatment of attention deficit hyperactive disorder. Abuse occurs when they’re taken in quantities other than those prescribed or by someone other than the intended patient.
  42. 42. 2. Ecstasy Ecstasy contains an amphetamine. Ecstasy can cause a sense of revitalization, alertness, and stamina. However, ecstasy can make the used suffer from dehydration. It happens because the user does not fell thirsty. Frequent use of ecstasy will cause memory damage and disturb the coordination system such as the movement of the hands and feet.
  43. 43. Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs Such as Benzodiazepines, xanax, valium, barbiturates, seconol, and Phenobarbital. Barbiturates are drug that act as depressants and used as sedatives or sleeping pills. Benzodiazepines are also known as depressants because they depress brain activities. These drugs are prescribed for insomnia, anxiety, seizures and symptoms of bipolar and manic-depressive disorder. Even a small overdose of barbiturates and used for anesthesia can result in coma, respiratory distress or death
  44. 44. Opoids Such as heroin, morphine, oxycodone, codeine and other narcotic pain relievers are very useful when prescribed. They interfere with the way pain messages are sent to the brain and how their brain receives them. Heroin, an illegal drug processed from the opium poppy plant product, morphine is highly additive substance. Can be injected, smoked or snorted.
  45. 45. Heroin Heroin is a variety of narcotics that can cause an extraordinarily happy feeling to the user and make the user forget all troubles that he/she has. Heroin is the most misused psychoactive substance. Although its color is white, on the black market heroin is often found in many colors. To deceive law enforcement, heroin is often mixed with sugar, flour or powdered milk with the concentration of 2-4 %. The hazardous narcotic called patauw also contains heroin. Consumption of a high dose of heroin will cause death.
  46. 46. Morphine Morphine is a natural opioid that is made from the sap of opium fruit. Morphine is a white crystals, almost like cocaine, that can depress the respiration center. In a morphine-overdose case, the user usually experiences a fatal respiration failure. Morphine can disturb the menstruation cycle of women, cause impotency in men, constipation, and many other dangerous side effect.
  47. 47. Codeine Codeine is a weak analgesic. Its power is only about one-twelfth of morphine’s. codeine is often used as an analgesic in strong cough medicine.
  48. 48. Drug Dependency The user will enter the phase of drug dependency if addiction to consuming this substance. Drug dependency classified into two types, which are physical dependency and psychological dependency.
  49. 49. Physical Dependencyand Psychological Dependency Physical dependency is the desire to keep consuming and adding more doses. Psychological dependency is the unbearable desire to consume the drugs. If this desire is not fulfilled, the user will become nervous, stressed, and extremely anxious. This condition called sakau.
  50. 50. The Classification and Effects of Addictives All addictives, whether hey are natural or synthetic, are usually called drugs or NAPZA (Narkotika, psikotropika, dan zat adiktif lainnya). The regulation of use of narcotics and the punishment for narcotics misuse are stated in the UU RI No. 22/1997.
  51. 51. Prevent Drugs Addiction • Do not ever try any dose and or kind of drugs with any excuse, • Find a good social network in a reliable place, with good people, and at a proper time, • Strengthen the affection of your family by watching each other’s back, loving each other, and encouraging each other. Develop love and care for your siblings, family, and friends, • Be aware of your life and your environment. Say no to drugs, • Intensity your faith in God for strength and blessings. Without God’s power, humans will be weak.
  52. 52. Drug Addiction Treatment Treatment for drug users take a very long time depending on the addiction level. Drug addiction are different from smoking habit or a cigarette addiction. Drug addicts therapy and medication. In many places in Indonesia, there are many rehabilitation centers for drug-addicts. In those rehabilitation centers, there are professionals, medical and non medical that will give therapy and medication to the people with drugs addictions. Most of drug addicts cannot self-medicate at home no matter how tight the surveillance. Ex-users need to have a community where they can strengthen, motivate, and remind each other.
  53. 53. Illegal Addictive Substances
  54. 54. Cannabis Marijuana, hashish. The most commonly used illegal drug in US. It is relaxes the user and concentrated doses may bring euphoria, hallucinations or paranoia. Long-term use can be addictive for some people. Prescribed legally in some states for medical use because it curbs nausea.
  55. 55. Hemp Hemp is made from Cannabis sativa leaves that contain a psychoactive substance, a kind of substance that can affect someone’s mental state and behavior. The tree and branches of a hemp plant also contain psychoactive substance, but in a low content. The highest content can be found in sprout of this plant, which is +- 10%. Hashish (a psychoactive substance) is produced from dried hemp’s sap.
  56. 56. Cocaine Such as coke, crack. Cocaine is natural substance that comes from the leaves of the coca plant or erythroxylon coca. Bring users a strong sense of euphoria and energy before leading to agitation, depression and paranoia. A white powder, cocaine comes from the coca plant. Can be snorted, sniffed, injected or smoked (crack). Cocaine acts as both a stimulant (small doses) and anesthetic (large doses)
  57. 57. Hallucinogens Such as LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide). Change the way users perceive time, motion, color, sound and their own thought. Disruption of normal thinking can lead to dangerous behavior
  58. 58. Alcohol Alcohol is an example of a depressant. Alcohol is chemically known as ethanol with the formula of C2H5OH. Alcohol originated from the fermentation of plants. Cassava, for example, can be fermented to yield tapai and if the process continues it will yield ethanol. In a low dose, consuming alcohol will cause euphoria or happiness without any reason. But, if it is consumed in a high dose, it will cause someone to become drunk. In a higher dose, it will cause death. In the medical world, alcohol is a chemical substance that has an important role. Alcohol is often used as a solvent and antiseptic.
  59. 59. Cigarettes
  60. 60. A cigarette is a roll of tobacco that contains a psychoactive compound called nicotine.
  61. 61. 1. CarbonMonoxide(CO) Carbon monoxide is poisonous. In a certain amount, it will kill humans who inhale it. The monoxide gas will bind with hemoglobin in human blood so that the blood’s ability to bind oxygen is reduced.
  62. 62. 2. Nicotine Nicotine is a dangerous chemical compound with the chemical formula C10H14N2. nicotine can cause addiction and cause cancer in human lungs. Nicotine in smoke only needs 9 seconds to reach the human brain. As a result, the blood pressure rises, respiration rhythm accelerates, and central nervous system is stimulated.
  63. 63. 3. Tar Tar is the burnt residue of a cigarette that we can see on a cigarette filter. The color is black, and it is sticky. It will make the teeth, fingers, and nails of a smoker become dark yellow. It is very dangerous because it is carcinogenic (able to cause cancer).moreover, tar makes the oscillation of respiratory hair in the respiratory track stop, though, this respiratory hair should oscillate to prevent hazardous materials from coming inside the respiratory system.
  64. 64. 4. Nitrogen Oxide In a certain dose, this gas can causes a spontaneous laugh without any clear reasons. This gas, with the chemical formula N2O, can reduce pain in humans so that it is used as anesthetic in the medical word.
  65. 65. 5. Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) Hydrogen Cyanide is a very poisonous gas and very dangerous for human health. 6. Ammonia Ammonia is gas that smells bad, is poisonous, and corrosive. 7. Methanol Methanol is a simple compound of a alcohol which is also poisonous.
  66. 66. The Effects of Cigarettes on Body Brain The nicotine contained in a cigarette can affect the brain function and cause addiction Skin Skin becomes dull and wrinkled because the blood flows to skin is reduced. Can easily suffer from psoriasis, an acute skin disease which is very itchy, marked by reddish and dry sin that peels off in silver pieces. Fingers and nails Tar makes the finger turn yellow and the nails turn black. Eyes It raises the risk of cataracts. Cataracts is an eye disease that causes the lens to become unclear, so the sight is disturbed. Mouth Teeth become yellow and breath smells bad. Smokers have risk of mouth, tongue, and lip cancer . Heart Substances in cigarette make the heart beat harder and faster. The risk is higher for smokers to have heart attacks and strokes. Throat Chemical substances in cigarettes stimulate to mucous membrane to produce more mucous. It cause smokers to produce more phlegm, and cough and frequently. Smokers also have a risk of throat cancer. Lungs Smokers have bigger risk of lung cancer than nonsmokers. There is not only that risk, but smokers also have a risk of bronchitis, asthma, and emphysema Blood Vessel Smoking is damaging to cells in your blood vessel. As a result, it will be easy for fat to accumulate and disturb the blood pressure.
  67. 67. 1. One of the kind of NAPZA is ... a. Narcotics c. additive b. Psychotropic d. addictive
  68. 68. 2. Zat yang dapat menyebabkan perubahan pada aktivitas mental dan perilaku adalah jenis ... a. Narkotika c. Aditif b. Psikotropika d. Adiktif
  69. 69. 3. The following substances that could potentially lead to a strong dependency syndrome is ... a. Amphetamine c. Phenobarbital b. Ekstasi d. DUM
  70. 70. 4.Cannabis is the other name of... a. ectacy c. Morfine b. Ganja d. Heorine
  71. 71. 5. This is the effect of use cocaine, except... a. Loss of appetite b. Adding confidence c. Users will be sleepy d. Eliminate pain and tired
  72. 72. 6. Name the disease caused by psychotropic drugs, Give examples of three kinds..
  73. 73. 7. Explain the negative effects of psychotropic drugs for health.
  74. 74. 8. Explain the meaning of an overdose.
  75. 75. 9. Name the classes of psychotropic drugs.
  76. 76. 10. Differentiate the intended use of addictive substances and psychotropic substances for medical and non-medical.