1. The Meaning of Additive Substance
Additive food is a substances that are
added to food in a little amount on purpose to
improve shape, composition, or property of
food. Meanwhile in “Kamus Besar Bahasa
Indonesia”, additive is substance that is added to
a product, for example colouring additive or
seasoning, and as preservatives in food.
Meanwhile in WIKIPEDIA, food additives are
substances added to food to preserve flavor or
enhance its taste and appearance.
2. Kind of Additive Based on The
• Natural additives
• Synthetic additives
Synthetic additives have some advantages such as:
• The ability to be mass-produced
• Relatively more durable
• Easy to get and more cheaper
3. Kind of Additive Stuff
There are two kind of additive stuffs, those are
reasonable additive and unreasonable additive.
• Reasonable Additive
Reasonable additive is additive that is on purposely put
into food so the food is interested and durable.
• Unreasonable Additive
Unreasonable additive is additive found in foor
naturally in limited amount or it can also appear
because the presence of mistake during the process.
For example, caffein, blue acid in potato, and so on.
Colourant matter is additive matter that
can improve or give colour to food, so that food
can be more attractive. There are two kind of
colourant matter : natural colouring matter and
synthetic colouring matter.
Natural Colouring Matter
Caramel Black brown
Suji leaf Green
Pandan leaf Green
Red chili pepper Red
Natural color are obtain
from natural sources such
as grasses, leafy
vegetable, fruit skins,
roots, and seed of plants.
Table in the left show
some example of natural
Synthetic Colouring Matter
Sunset yellow Yellow
Yellow poncean 4R Yellow
Patent blue V Blue
Brilliant black BN Black
Brilliant blue FCF Blue
Green FCF Green
Brown HT Brown
These colors is made in a
factory and do not obtain from
nature. Some advantages of
synthetic colouring matter :
• Much brighter than natural
• Needed only in very low
• Much intense than natural
• More stable than natural
Economically, the synthetic sweeteners are
cheaper than sugar and the synthetic
sweeteners are sweeter than sugar. Synthetic
sweetener are used to keep calories low. There
are the relative sweetness degree of synthetic
sweetener to sucrose.
Sweetener The Relative Sweetness Degree to Sucrose
Aspartame 16.000 X
Saccharine 50.000 X
Sucralose 60.000 X
P-400 400.000 X
Neotam 1.300.000 X
Flavoring is a food additive that can give or
sharpen taste and flavor. There are two kind of
flavoring: Natural flavoring and Synthetic
There are some example of natural flavor, such as table salt,
turmeric, celedry, onions, pepers, chili, nutmegs, ginger, laurellike
leaves, caraway, coriander, and pandanus leaves. The other example of
•Natural citrate is extracted from lemon grass
•Natural benzaldehyde is extracted from bitter almonds
•Vanilin is obtained from vanila pods
Except natural flavoring, there are some example of natural
•Amyl acetate for banana flavor
•Benzaldehyde for cherry flavor
•Ethyl butyrate for pineapple flavor
•Methyl anthranilate for grape flavor
Synthetic flavoring which are most often
used in everyday life is MSG (monosodium
glutamat). Its more known as “vetsin”. MSG is
made of syrup from sugar refining fermented
using micrococcus glutamicus bacteria.
Besides MSG, there are other synthetic
chemicals which are usually used as flavoring for
foods, among others are diacetyl, menthol, and
Preservatives is additive matter to prevent
or inhibit fermentation, decomposition, or
acidification that is caused by micro-organism
on purpose to preserve food or giving fresh taste
in food. Preservatives are used to increase the
shelf life of food by preventing the growth of
microorganisms like yeast or bacteria in food.
Table of Preservation and Method of
2. Freezing / chilling
Foods are sealed into cans and then
heated to a high temperature (above 100oC).
This kills any microbes in the food an the sealed
can prevents fresh contamination.
Freezing / chilling
Lowering the temperature slowed up
enzyme activity in the spoiling microbes. This
slows cellular respiration and its growth.
Removes water from the food and
dehydrates the microbes. This prevents their
growth but does not remove any tocins that may
already be present.
Vinegar is acidic and lowering the pH of
the food can prevent the growth of microbes.
The acidic environment reduces the enzyme-
activity of the food-spoiling microbes.
Jams contain high concentrations of sugar.
This effectively draws water put of any microbes
in the food and dehydrates them.
Foods are hung in wood smoke and
chemicals in the smoke act to kill microbes in
the food and also give it a distinctive flavor.
The used of additives. These substances
reduce the growth of microbes. There are two
kind of preservatives, natural preservatives and
Natural preservatives also can be antioxidant (prevent
oxidation in fruit and vegetables). The example of natural
preservatives are : sugar, salt, ice, and spices, such as
tamarind, cinnamon, honey, and clove.
Sugar can bond water efficiently, so adding sugar into
foods will make the water that used for growth of
decomposer organism is gone. Jam, candied fruits, the
essence of fruits are examples of foods preserved using sugar.
Salt used in preservering food such as fishes, meat, and
vegetables. Food that preserved using salt are often called
salty foods. Ice enables bacteria to be in non ideal
temperature for doing activity. Meanwhile spices contain the
benzoic acid compound inhibiting the process in food
Because the quantity of natural preservative are
limited in the nature, hence food producers make
synthetic preservatives. Beside that, the quality of the
natural preservatives is relatively not good compared with
There are some example of synthetic preservatives.
Addictives are substances that can cause their user to become
Addition is a physical and psychological condition of someone
that doesn’t function properly without the consumption of a
Kind of AddictiveSubstancesAccordingto the
1. Stimulant : Make a person fell more energic
2. Depressants : Bring a felling or relaxation
3. Hallucinogens : Change the way someone experiences reality.
The Effectsof Addictives
Stimulation is a symptom
that happens in the central
nervous system to
accelerate processes in the
human body, such as
hearth rate, blood
pressure, and respiration.
As a result of this
someone who uses
stimulants will seem
healthy, alert, happy,
fresh, and so on. Examples
of stimulants are caffeine
in coffee, nicotine in
cigarettes, cocaine, and
Depression is a symptom
that happens in the
central nervous system to
slow down processes in
the human body.
someone’s awareness of
the world around
him/her. Substances that
cause depression are
called depressants. In the
depressants are employed
for people with insomnia.
Examples of depressants
are alcohol, sedatives,
and so on.
Hallucination is a
symptom that happens to
human nerves that leads
to fantasy. Hallucination
makes a person hear
sounds, see things, and
feel something which
Hallucination can make
someone laugh by
him/her self, talk and
move with no purpose.
Example of hallucinogen
is LSD (lysergic acid
Can be found in coffee. Moderate
consumption is three cups or less
of coffee per day. Ten cup is
considered excessive and results
in nervousness, sleeping
difficulty, increased heartbeat,
headaches, anxiety and nausea.
According to the effect of caffein,
this substance belongs to
Can be found in the cigarette,
this substance increases
dopamine levels and boost
adrenaline raises the user’s
hearth rate and blood
pressure, and interferes with
release of insulin by pancreas,
leading to elevated blood
Such as beer, wine and liquor.
Alcohol is an ancient drug.
Alcohol is depressant that
effect neuron in the central
nervous system which lead
relaxation, drowsiness, lack of
inhibition sleep, coma and
even death. Addiction to
alcohol is called alcoholism.
Such as aerosols, solvents, gases and
nitrates. Product range from paint thinners
to hair spray to propane tanks, and
inhalation result in a high similar to that of
alcohol. Even one-time use of inhalants can
kill or cause hearth failure.
Three main characteristics of inhalant :
• Volatile (easily converted to a vapor at room
• Do not fall into the category of drugs that
are usually inhaled, such as nicotine or
• Deliberately inhaled by users in
concentrated form so that the users can get
A psychotropic is a substance which is not
included as a narcotic or alcohol but has
abilities and effects like alcohol and narcotics.
Examples of psychotropic are amphetamines
Speed, crystal meth. Stimulant that
boots alertness and concentration.
Adderall, Dexedrine and other drug
are normally prescribed for
treatment of attention deficit
hyperactive disorder. Abuse occurs
when they’re taken in quantities
other than those prescribed or by
someone other than the intended
Ecstasy contains an
amphetamine. Ecstasy can
cause a sense of revitalization,
alertness, and stamina.
However, ecstasy can make
the used suffer from
dehydration. It happens
because the user does not fell
thirsty. Frequent use of
ecstasy will cause memory
damage and disturb the
coordination system such as
the movement of the hands
Such as Benzodiazepines, xanax,
valium, barbiturates, seconol, and
Phenobarbital. Barbiturates are
drug that act as depressants and
used as sedatives or sleeping pills.
Benzodiazepines are also known
as depressants because they
depress brain activities. These
drugs are prescribed for insomnia,
anxiety, seizures and symptoms of
bipolar and manic-depressive
disorder. Even a small overdose of
barbiturates and used for
anesthesia can result in coma,
respiratory distress or death
Such as heroin, morphine, oxycodone, codeine and other
narcotic pain relievers are very useful when prescribed. They
interfere with the way pain messages are sent to the brain
and how their brain receives them. Heroin, an illegal drug
processed from the opium poppy plant product, morphine is
highly additive substance. Can be injected, smoked or
Heroin is a variety of narcotics that
can cause an extraordinarily happy
feeling to the user and make the user
forget all troubles that he/she has.
Heroin is the most misused
psychoactive substance. Although its
color is white, on the black market
heroin is often found in many colors.
To deceive law enforcement, heroin is
often mixed with sugar, flour or
powdered milk with the
concentration of 2-4 %. The
hazardous narcotic called patauw also
contains heroin. Consumption of a
high dose of heroin will cause death.
Morphine is a natural opioid
that is made from the sap of
opium fruit. Morphine is a white
crystals, almost like cocaine, that
can depress the respiration center.
In a morphine-overdose case, the
user usually experiences a fatal
respiration failure. Morphine can
disturb the menstruation cycle of
women, cause impotency in men,
constipation, and many other
dangerous side effect.
Codeine is a weak
analgesic. Its power is
only about one-twelfth
of morphine’s. codeine is
often used as an
analgesic in strong cough
The user will enter the phase of drug dependency if
addiction to consuming this substance. Drug
dependency classified into two types, which are
physical dependency and psychological dependency.
Physical Dependencyand Psychological
Physical dependency is the desire to keep consuming and
adding more doses. Psychological dependency is the
unbearable desire to consume the drugs. If this desire is not
fulfilled, the user will become nervous, stressed, and
extremely anxious. This condition called sakau.
The Classification and Effects of Addictives
All addictives, whether hey are natural or synthetic, are
usually called drugs or NAPZA (Narkotika, psikotropika, dan
zat adiktif lainnya). The regulation of use of narcotics and the
punishment for narcotics misuse are stated in the UU RI No.
Prevent Drugs Addiction
• Do not ever try any dose and or kind of drugs with any excuse,
• Find a good social network in a reliable place, with good
people, and at a proper time,
• Strengthen the affection of your family by watching each
other’s back, loving each other, and encouraging each other.
Develop love and care for your siblings, family, and friends,
• Be aware of your life and your environment. Say no to drugs,
• Intensity your faith in God for strength and blessings. Without
God’s power, humans will be weak.
Drug Addiction Treatment
Treatment for drug users take a very long time depending
on the addiction level. Drug addiction are different from
smoking habit or a cigarette addiction. Drug addicts therapy
In many places in Indonesia, there are many rehabilitation
centers for drug-addicts. In those rehabilitation centers,
there are professionals, medical and non medical that will
give therapy and medication to the people with drugs
addictions. Most of drug addicts cannot self-medicate at
home no matter how tight the surveillance. Ex-users need
to have a community where they can strengthen, motivate,
and remind each other.
Marijuana, hashish. The
most commonly used illegal
drug in US. It is relaxes the
user and concentrated doses
may bring euphoria,
hallucinations or paranoia.
Long-term use can be
addictive for some people.
Prescribed legally in some
states for medical use
because it curbs nausea.
Hemp is made from Cannabis
sativa leaves that contain a
psychoactive substance, a kind
of substance that can affect
someone’s mental state and
behavior. The tree and
branches of a hemp plant also
substance, but in a low
content. The highest content
can be found in sprout of this
plant, which is +- 10%. Hashish
(a psychoactive substance) is
produced from dried hemp’s
Such as coke, crack. Cocaine is
natural substance that comes
from the leaves of the coca plant
or erythroxylon coca. Bring users
a strong sense of euphoria and
energy before leading to
agitation, depression and
paranoia. A white powder,
cocaine comes from the coca
plant. Can be snorted, sniffed,
injected or smoked (crack).
Cocaine acts as both a stimulant
(small doses) and anesthetic
Such as LSD (Lysergic acid
diethylamide). Change the
way users perceive time,
motion, color, sound and
their own thought.
Disruption of normal thinking
can lead to dangerous
Alcohol is an example of a depressant.
Alcohol is chemically known as ethanol
with the formula of C2H5OH. Alcohol
originated from the fermentation of
plants. Cassava, for example, can be
fermented to yield tapai and if the
process continues it will yield ethanol.
In a low dose, consuming alcohol will
cause euphoria or happiness without
any reason. But, if it is consumed in a
high dose, it will cause someone to
become drunk. In a higher dose, it will
In the medical world, alcohol is a
chemical substance that has an
important role. Alcohol is often used
as a solvent and antiseptic.
A cigarette is
a roll of
Carbon monoxide is poisonous.
In a certain amount, it will kill
humans who inhale it. The
monoxide gas will bind with
hemoglobin in human blood so
that the blood’s ability to bind
oxygen is reduced.
Nicotine is a dangerous
chemical compound with the
chemical formula C10H14N2.
nicotine can cause addiction
and cause cancer in human
lungs. Nicotine in smoke only
needs 9 seconds to reach the
human brain. As a result, the
blood pressure rises,
accelerates, and central
nervous system is stimulated.
Tar is the burnt residue of a cigarette that we can
see on a cigarette filter. The color is black, and it is
sticky. It will make the teeth, fingers, and nails of a
smoker become dark yellow. It is very dangerous
because it is carcinogenic (able to cause
cancer).moreover, tar makes the oscillation of
respiratory hair in the respiratory track stop,
though, this respiratory hair should oscillate to
prevent hazardous materials from coming inside the
4. Nitrogen Oxide
In a certain dose, this gas
can causes a spontaneous
laugh without any clear
reasons. This gas, with the
chemical formula N2O, can
reduce pain in humans so
that it is used as anesthetic
in the medical word.
5. Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN)
Hydrogen Cyanide is a very poisonous gas and very dangerous
for human health.
Ammonia is gas that smells bad, is poisonous, and corrosive.
Methanol is a simple compound of a alcohol which is also
The Effects of Cigarettes on
The nicotine contained in a cigarette can
affect the brain function and cause
Skin becomes dull and wrinkled because the
blood flows to skin is reduced. Can easily suffer
from psoriasis, an acute skin disease which is
very itchy, marked by reddish and dry sin that
peels off in silver pieces.
Fingers and nails
Tar makes the finger turn yellow and the nails turn black.
It raises the risk of cataracts. Cataracts is an
eye disease that causes the lens to become
unclear, so the sight is disturbed.
Teeth become yellow and breath smells bad. Smokers have risk of
mouth, tongue, and lip cancer .
Substances in cigarette make the heart beat
harder and faster. The risk is higher for
smokers to have heart attacks and strokes.
Chemical substances in cigarettes stimulate to mucous
membrane to produce more mucous. It cause smokers to
produce more phlegm, and cough and frequently. Smokers also
have a risk of throat cancer.
Smokers have bigger risk of lung cancer than
nonsmokers. There is not only that risk, but smokers also
have a risk of bronchitis, asthma, and emphysema
Smoking is damaging to cells in your blood vessel.
As a result, it will be easy for fat to accumulate
and disturb the blood pressure.
1. One of the kind of NAPZA is ...
a. Narcotics c. additive
b. Psychotropic d. addictive
2. Zat yang dapat menyebabkan perubahan
pada aktivitas mental dan perilaku adalah
a. Narkotika c. Aditif
b. Psikotropika d. Adiktif
3. The following substances that could
potentially lead to a strong dependency
syndrome is ...
a. Amphetamine c. Phenobarbital
b. Ekstasi d. DUM
4.Cannabis is the other name of...
a. ectacy c. Morfine
b. Ganja d. Heorine
5. This is the effect of use cocaine, except...
a. Loss of appetite
b. Adding confidence
c. Users will be sleepy
d. Eliminate pain and tired
6. Name the disease caused by psychotropic
drugs, Give examples of three kinds..
7. Explain the negative effects of psychotropic
drugs for health.