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Glycosides

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Glycosides

  1. 1. Introduction A glycoside is an organic compound, usually of plant origin, that is composed of a sugar portion linked to a non-sugar moiety. Sugar portion ……….. Glycone Non-sugar portion…... Aglycone / Genin Linkage between sugar and non-sugar is usually an “oxygen linkage”
  2. 2. Types Based on atoms involved in glycosidic linkage O- glycosides C- glycosides S- glycosides N- glycosides
  3. 3. Types According to Sugar moiety Glucosides Ribosides Rhamnosides
  4. 4. Classification )a) Cardioactive glycosides: Digitalis, Strophanthus and white squill )b) Anthraquinone glycosides: Cascara, Aloe, Rhubarb, Cochineal and Senna )c) Saponin glycosides: Glycyrrhiza, Sarsaparilla )d) Cyanophore glycosides: Wild cherry )e) Isothiocyanate glycosides: Black Mustard )f) Lactone glycosides: Cantharide )g) Aldehyde glycosides: Vanilla )h) Miscellaneous glycosides: Gentian, Quassia, Dioscorea
  5. 5. Therapeutic activity depends upon; 1.Chemical nature of aglycone 2.Number of sugars
  6. 6. Aglycone is steroidal. Aglycone may be; Cardenolide (5-membered lactone at place of R( Bufanolide (6-membered lactone at place of R(
  7. 7. Pharmacological Action of Cardiac Glycosides •Effectiveness depends on both the aglycones and the sugar attachments. •Medicinal action depends on the aglycone •But the sugars make the compound more soluble in increases the fixation of the glycoside to the heart muscle
  8. 8. Pharmacological Action of Cardiac Glycosides •The overall action of Digitalis glycosides is complicated by the number of different effects produced. •The exact mode of action on the myocardial muscle still needs investigation. •It is thought to act in competition with K ions for specific receptor enzymes )ATPase) sites in the cell membranes of the heart muscle when there is an influx of Na ions. •Effect is to increase the force of heart contraction •Diuretic action relates to the improved circulatory effects.
  9. 9. a) Digitalis Botanical Origin: Digitalis purpurea Digitalis lanata Family: Plantigenaceae Part used: Dried leaves Collection: Leaves collected from 2nd year growth of plant in June before opening of flower. Drying is done by applying artificial heat (temperature not more than 65°C(.
  10. 10. Chemistry: Four aglycons in Digitalis Digitoxigenin Gitoxigenin Gitatoxigenin Digoxigenin (only in Digitalis lanata(
  11. 11. Derivatives D. purpurea D. lanata Digitoxigenin Digitoxin Glucodigitoxin (Digitoxin + 1 glucose( Acetyl digitoxin Lanatoside A (Acetyl digitoxin + 1 glucose( Gitoxigenin Gitoxin Glucogitoxin (Gitoxin + 1 glucose( Lanatoside B (Acetyl gitoxin + 1 glucose( Gitatoxigenin Gitatoxin Lanatoside E (Acetyl Gitatoxin + 1 glucose( Digoxigenin Digoxin Acetyl digoxin Lanatoside C (Acetyl digoxin + 1 glucose( Deslanoside (Digoxin + 1 glucose(
  12. 12. b) Strophanthus Botanical Origin: Strophanthus kombe Strophanthus hispidus Family: Apocynaceae Part used: Dried ripe seeds Collection: Fruits are collected when fully ripen i.e. in June and July
  13. 13. Chemistry: Active constituent is Strophanthin. Upon hydrolysis it yields; Strophanthidin Sugars (alpha D-glucose + beta D-glucose + beta D-cymarose( Apart from Strophanthin, there are; 30%fixed oils Resin / Mucilage Nitrogenous bases ( Trigonellin, Choline(
  14. 14. Uses: Cardiac stimulant Diuretic
  15. 15. c) White squill Botanical Origin: Urginea maritima Family: Liliaceae Part used: Dried fleshy scales of bulb Collection: Bulbs are collected in August. Outer scale is removed and inner scale is divided into pieces and dried in sunlight. Uses: Emetic Expectorant Cardiac tonic Diuretic
  16. 16. Chemistry: Active constituent is Scillaren. Upon hydrolysis it yields; Scillarenin Sugars (1 molecule of glucose + 1 molecule of rhamnose(
  17. 17. 18 Anthraquinone Glycosides ) Anthraquinone Anthraquinone derivatives
  18. 18. 19 Introduction to Anthraquinones •Historically: Rhubarb, Senna, Aloes and Cascara were all used as purgative drugs. •Monocotyledons: Only Liliaceae. Most commonly C-glycoside: barbaloin. •Dicotyledons: Rubiaceae, Leguminosae, Polygonaceae, Rhamnaceae, Ericaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lythraceae, Saxifragaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Verbenacacea. Also in certain fungi and lichen.
  19. 19. 20 •Reduced derivatives of anthraquinones –Oxanthrones, anthranols and anthrones •Compounds formed by the union of 2 anthrone molecules –Dianthrones •Aglycones: –Chrysophanol/Chrysophanic acid  Rhubarb and Senna. –Rhein  Rhubarb and Senna –Aloe-emodin  Rhubarb and Senna –Emodin  Rhubarb and Cascara
  20. 20. 21 Anthraquinones – Chemical Properties •Anthraquinone derivatives: orange-red compounds •Soluble in hot water/dilute alcohol. •Identified via Borntrager’s test –Powdered drug – macerated with ether –Filter –Add ammonia/caustic –Shake  pink, red or violet colour – positive for anthraquinone derivatives –If the Anthraquinones are reduced (within the herb) or stable (glycosides) test will be negative
  21. 21. 22 Anthranonls and Anthrones •Reduced anthraquinone derivatives. •Occur either freely )aglycones) or as glycosides. •Isomers. •Anthrone: Parent structure )pale yellow, non- soluble in alkali, non-fluorescent) •Anthronol: brown-yellow, soluble in alkali, strongly fluorescent –Anthronol derivatives )e.g. in Aloe – have similar properties – fluorescence used for identification)
  22. 22. 23 Mechanism of Action: •The glycosides are absorbed from the small intestine and re-excreted in the large intestine where they increase the motility so produce laxation. •Aglycones produce griping effect so it is recommended to prescripe antispasmodic with them.
  23. 23. 24 Mechanism of action •Molecules have to possess certain features for activity: ]1[glycosides ]2[carbonyl keto function on centre ring ]3[1,-8-positions have to have –OH •Potency: –anthrone > anthraquinone> dianthrone •Aglycones not therapeutically active in animals , lipid soluble absorbed in stomach and never reach colon to produce a local effect.
  24. 24. 25 •Highly active phenolic group irritant to mucosa •Glycosides very water soluble – reach large intestine where they are hydrolysed by E.coli enzymes and become lipid soluble and absorbed into circulation. •5-8hours to act –take night before –in low doses – drug metabolised by liver and recirculated via bile to give more effect –people especially elderly can become reliant on them needing higher dose to produce an effect –carcinogenic to melanosis coli
  25. 25. Senna - Leguminosae •Definition: Consists of the dried leaflets of Cassia senna (Alexandrian senna), or Cassia angustifolia (Tinnevelly senna). 26
  26. 26. Cassia - Senna •Indigenous to Africa (tropical regions) •Used since 9th and 10th century •Itroduced into medicine by Arab physicians (used both the leaves and pods) •Exported by Alexandria – name of the Sudanese drug. 27
  27. 27. Senna - Collection •Collected in September •Whole branches bearing leaves are dried in the sun. •Pods and large stalks are separated with sieves. •Leaves are graded (whole leaves and half- leave mix, siftings). •Whole leaves – sold to public 28
  28. 28. 29 Senna - Constituents •Senna consist four types of glycosides: Sennoside A Sennoside B Sennoside C Sennoside D In their active costituents are sennoside A, sennosides B Upon hydrolysis of sennosides it gives two molecules glucose+aglycones: Sennidin A and Sennidin B. •Sennoside C & Sennoside D •Rhein •Aloe-emodin •Palmidin A (Rhubarb)
  29. 29. 30
  30. 30. Senna - Constituents •Kaempferol (yellow flavanol) +glucoside (kaempferin) •Mucilage •Calcium oxalates •Resin 31
  31. 31. Comparison of Alexandrian and Tinnevelly Senna •Macroscopical –Seldom larger than 4 cm in length –Grey-green –Asymmetric at base –Broken and curled at edges –Few press markings •Macroscopical –Seldom exceeds 5cm in length –Yellow-green –Less asymmetric at base –Seldom broken and normally flat –Often shows impressions (mid vein) 32
  32. 32. Senna – Allied Drugs & Substitutes Allied drugs Bombay, Mecca and Arabian Sennas (found in Cassia angustifolia from Arabia). •Dog senna – Cassia obovata •Cassia auriculata – Indian Senna •Cassia podocarpa •Substitutes or Adulterants –Argel leaves – Solenostemma argel –Coriario myrtifolia 33
  33. 33. Senna Fruit •Definition: Senna pods are the dried, ripe fruits of Cassia senna and Cassia angustifolia, which are commercially known as Alexandrian and Tinnevelly senna pods respectively. Both have separate monographs 34
  34. 34. Senna Fruit - Collection •Pods are collected with the leaves and dried in a similar fashion. •After separation of the leaves, the pods are hand-picked into various qualities, the finer being sold (commercially), while the finer pieces are used to make galenicals. 35
  35. 35. Senna Fruit - Constituents •Active constituents are found in the pericarp. •Similar to those actives of the leaves –Sennoside A –Sennidin 36
  36. 36. Senna – Additional uses •Medicinal Actions •Vermifuge, diuretic, febrifuge •Other uses: laxative candy (bitter taste). –Also used to treat flatulence, gout, fever. •Topically: poultice prepared with vinegar to treat pimples. •NOTE: Senna may cause urine to become reddish – no clinical significance. Contra-indications –Gout, colitis, GI inflammation. •Should not be used with cardiac glycosides. •Seeds/pods give gentler action than leaves: more appropriate for the young, elderly and those prone to stomach cramps. •NB: Over-use causes dependency. •Overdose: nausea, bloody diarrhoea, vomiting and nephritis. •Long-term use: dehydration & electrolyte depletion, worsening constipation and weakening intestinal muscles. 37
  37. 37. Cascara Bark- Rhamnaceae •Definition: Official cascara sagrada is the dried bark of Rhamnus purshianus. Bark is collected from wild trees (depletion is leading to the increase of cultivation) 38
  38. 38. Rhamnus purhsianus - Cascara •Etymology –Rhamnos – Greek, branch, shiny shrub. Purshiana after Pursh, botanist 1st described herb in 1814 •Other Common Names –Bearwood, bitterbark, buckthorn, coffeeberry, mountain cranberry, persiana, sacred bark. 39
  39. 39. Cascara – Collection & Preparation •Collected form mid-April to end of August, when it separates readily from the rest of the trunk. •Longitudinal incisions are made 10cm apart and the bark removed. •Tree is then usually felled and the branch bark separated. •Bark is then dried in the shade with the cork facing upwards. This is referred to as ‘natural’ cascara. Commercial supplies are comminuted to give small, even fragments called ‘evenized’, ‘processed’, or ‘compact’ cascara.40
  40. 40. 41 Cascara Bark - Storage •During preparation and storage the bark should be protected from rain and damp (partial extraction of constituents may occur or bark may become mouldy). •Should be stored for at least 1 year before use. •Bark appears to increase in medicinal value up unto its 4 years old (stored bark)
  41. 41. 42 Cascara Bark – Constituents •Four main glycosides – Called Cascarosides –Cascaroside A –Cascaroside B –Cascaroside C –Cascaroside D
  42. 42. 43 Cascara Bark – Constituents •O-glycosides •Derived from –Emodin –Emodin oxanthrone –Aloe emodin –chrysophanol
  43. 43. 44 Cascara Bark - Uses •Purgative •Similar to Senna •Normally as a tablet •Also used on animals
  44. 44. Cascara Bark – Additional uses •Physiological Action –Astringent (bark – tannins), bitter tonic, chologogue, emetic, hepatic, stomachic. –Medicinal Uses Move stagnation, clear heat. The most widely used laxative world-wide. Topically: Used as a wash for herpes lesions •Excessive use: nausea, vomiting, heamatorrhoea. Long term use: Weakens intestinal muscles. •Contra-indications: children younger than 14, during pregnancy, lactation, IBS, Crohn’s, intestinal obstruction, and idiopathic abdominal pain. 45
  45. 45. Rhubarb - Polygonaceae •Definition: Rhubarb/Chinese Rhubarb is the rhizome ofof Rheum palmatumRheum palmatum.. OtherOther speciesspecies and hybrids ofand hybrids of RheumRheum,, exceptexcept R.R. rhaponticumrhaponticum, may also be, may also be includedincluded. 46
  46. 46. Chinese Rhubarb - History •Chinese Rhubarb has a long history. •Mentioned in a herbal of 2700BC. •Formed an important article of commerce on the Chinese trade routes to Europe. •Still used medicinally today. 47
  47. 47. Chinese Rhubarb – Collection & Preparation •Rhizomes are grown at high altitudes (+3000m). •Collected in Autumn or spring (6- 10yrs old) •Cork is removed, cut. •Artificially dried. •Packed in tin-lined wooden cases. •Inferior quality herbs are packed in hessian bags48
  48. 48. Chinese Rhubarb - Constituents 1.Anthraquinones without a carboxyl group – chrysophanol, emodin, aloe- emodin & physcion. Also the glycosides of these substances. 22..Anthraquinones with a carboxyl groupAnthraquinones with a carboxyl group (rhein and its glycoside: glucorhein(. 49
  49. 49. Chinese Rhubarb - Constituents 3.Anthrones and dianthrones of chrysophanol, emodin, aloe- emodin or physcoin 4.Dianthrone glucosides of rhein (Sennosides A and B(. 5..HetrodianthronesHetrodianthrones derived from 2derived from 2 different anthronedifferent anthrone molecules:molecules: Palmidin A andPalmidin A and Palmidin BPalmidin B.. 50
  50. 50. Chinese Rhubarb - Constituents •Free anthraquinones: chrysophanol, emodin, aloe- emodin and rhein. •Some of the above constituents may also occur as glycosides. 51
  51. 51. Chinese Rhubarb - Uses •Bitter stomachic •Diarrhoea (low doses( – contains tannins •Purgative (high doses( – followed by an astringent effect. •Suitable only for occasional for occasional use, not for chronic constipation. 52
  52. 52. Rhubarb – Additional Uses •Etymology –Rheo – Greek, ‘to flow’, in reference to the purgative properties. •Medicinal Actions –Anti-helminthic, anti- bacterial, anti- inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent (low doses(, sialagoge, vulnerary •Topical Uses: –Poultice to treat boils, burns, wounds. Used to stop bleeding (tannins – stypic and astringent(. Used as a mouthwash for oral ulcers. •Other uses: Acid content: fresh root can be used to polish brass. •Caution –Leaves should be avoided – high calcium oxalate - toxic53
  53. 53. Aloe - Liliaceae •Definition: Aloes are the solid residue obtained by evaporating the liquid which drains from the transversely cut leaves of various Aloe species. The juice is usually concentrated by boiling and solidifies on cooling. •Official varieties are the Cape Aloes from SA and Kenya (Aloe ferox(, and the Curacao Aloes from West Indies (Aloe barbadensis(.54
  54. 54. 55 Preparation of Cape Aloes Cape Aloes are prepared from the wild plants of Aloe ferox. Leaves are cut transversely near the base. Two hundred leaves arranged around a shallow hole in the ground (lined with canvas or goatskin(. Cut ends overlap & drain into the canvas. After 6hrs all the juice is collected. Transferred to a drum. Boiled for 4hrs on an open fire. Poured into tins while hot  solidifies.
  55. 55. Cape Aloes - Characteristics •Dark brown or Green-brown •Glassy masses •Thin fragments have a deep olive colour Semi-transparent. 56
  56. 56. Cape Aloes - Characteristics •Powder: green-yellow •When rubbed two pieces of drug together – powder is found on the surfaces. •Characteristic sour odour (rhubarb/apple-tart odour(. •Taste: nauseous and bitter. •Microscopy: powder in lactophenol – amorphous. 57
  57. 57. Characteristics of Curacao Aloes •Colour: yellow-brown – chocolate brown. •Poor qualities (overheated( black colour. •Opaque •Breaks with a waxy facture •Semi-transparent •More opaque on keeping. •Nauseous and bitter taste. •Characteristic iodoform odour. •Microscopy: lactophenol – acicular crystals 58
  58. 58. Aloes - Constituents •C-glycosides •Resins •Glycosides –Aloin •Barbaloin •Isobarbaloin •Aloe-emodin Cape Aloes: Also Contain Aloinoside A & Aloinoside B (O-glycosides of barbaloin( 59
  59. 59. 60 Aloe - Constituents
  60. 60. Aloe Constituents & Chemical Test Unlike C-glycosides, O-glycosides of Aloe are not hydrolysed by heating with dilute acids or alkali. •Can be decomposed with ferric chloride &chloride & dilute HCl -dilute HCl - NBNB:: Modified Borntrager’s TestModified Borntrager’s Test – oxidative hydrolysis. Anthraquinones give– oxidative hydrolysis. Anthraquinones give aa redred colour when shaken with dilutecolour when shaken with dilute ammoniaammonia.. •NB:NB: All Aloes give a strongAll Aloes give a strong greengreen fluorescencefluorescence with borax (characteristic ofwith borax (characteristic of anthranols( - General test for aloesanthranols( - General test for aloes. 61
  61. 61. Aloe - Uses •Purgative •Seldom prescribed alone – activity is increased when administered with small quantities of soap or alkaline salts; Carminatives moderate griping tendency. •Ingredient in Friar’s Balsam. 62
  62. 62. Aloe – Additional uses •Medicinal Uses: –Anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, chologoge, emmenogogue, anti-inflammatory (juice(, anti-inflammatory , demulcent, vulnerary, immune-stimulating (gel(. Radiation burns (internal and external use( •Contra-indications Pregnancy & lactation (internal uses( •Etymology –Name derives from Arabic alu, meaning shiny or bitter in reference to the gel. •Other uses –Khoi-San hunters rub gel on their bodies to reduce sweating and mask their scent. –Used to break nail-biting habit. 63
  63. 63. Aloe vera Products •These are derived from the mucilage gel – parenchyma cells •Should not be confused with aloes (juice of pericycle – juice used for laxative effect(. •Cosmetic industry (usefulness often exaggerated( - Used as suntan lotions, tonics and food additives. •Mucilage = polysaccharide of glucomannans and pectin 64
  64. 64. Cochineal •Definition: Cochineal is the dried female insect, Dactylopius coccus, containing eggs and larvae. •Insects are indigenous to Central America, commercial supplies are derived from Peru. 65
  65. 65. Cochineal •Eggs are protected during the rainy season are ‘sown’ on cacti – on which it is intended to breed. •Both male and females arise. After a time, fecundation occurs. Females attach themselves to the cacti and the males die out. •Females swell to x2 their original size due to developing larvae & develop red colouring matter. 66
  66. 66. 67 Cochineal –Larvae mature after 14days and escape from the now dead body of the parent. –Only a small portion develop into males. –For next 2 weeks, males fly and young females crawl on the plant. –Life cycle = 6 weeks. –3-5generations may be produced in 1 season
  67. 67. 68 Cochineal - Collection •Insects are brushed from plants with small brooms and killed (some left to provide for subsequent crops(. •First crop killed contains the most colouring matter. •Insects are killed by plunging them in boiling water, stove heat or exposure to fumes by burning sulphur or charcoal. •If heat is used – insects change to purple – black – called ‘black grain’. •Fume killed – turn purple-grey called ‘silver grain’. •Small immature insects and larvae which can be separated by sieves are sold as ‘granilla’ or siftings.
  68. 68. Cochineal - Characteristics Oval in shape Half cm in length Examined microscopically after removing the colouring matter (ammonia solution(. Each insect contains 60 to 450 eggs and larvae. 69
  69. 69. 70 Cochineal - Constituents •C-glycoside example anthraquinone derivative is bright purple, water-soluble colouring matter •Carminic acid •Fat •Wax •Adulteration: occurs by increasing the weight of the insects by ‘dressing’ it with inorganic matter in a colour which blends in with that of the insect. •Detected when insects are placed in water
  70. 70. 71 Chemical test Borntrager’s and Modified Borntrager’s test: •For Aglycones: •Extract plant material with organic solvent. •Shake with NH4OH OR KOH. •For O-Glycosides: •Boil plant material with dil. HCl for 10 min, filter and shake with organic solvent (Ether or Benzene(. •Separate the organic solvent. •Shake with NH4OH OR KOH. •For C-Glycosides: •Boil plant material with dil. HCl/FeCl3, filter and shake with organic solvent (Ether or Benzene(. •Separate the organic solvent. •Shake with NH4OH OR KOH. •Positive result indicated by Rose Red colour in the aqueous alkaline layer.
  71. 71. Saponin Glycosides Parts of plants containing saponins are used as detergents. For example; Root of Saponaria officinalis Types: Aglycone may be of two types; Steroidal Tri terpenoidal
  72. 72. a) Glycyrrhiza Botanical origin: Glycyrrhiza glabra Family: leguinosae Part used: Dried rhizome and root Collection: Root and rhizome is excised from 3-4 years old plant i.e. which have not yet grown fruit. It is done to ensure maximum sweetness. These are dried in shade for 3-4 months.
  73. 73. Chemistry: Glycyrrhiza contains Glycyrrhizic acid. Upon hydrolysis, it produces; Glycyrrhizic acid 2molecules of glucuronic acid In addition to this, it contains; Flavonoid glycosides Mannitol Glucose 20%starch Uses: Flavoring agent in Pharmaceutical preparation. Demulcent and expectorant. Treatment of peptic ulcer. Treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis and Inflammatory conditions Sweetener Treatment of liver diseases and liver protection
  74. 74. b) Sarsaparilla Botanical Origin: Smilax febrifuga Smilax regelii Family: Liliaceae Part used: Dried root Collection: Root collected from 2-3 year old plant and sun dried.
  75. 75. Chemistry: Active ingredient is Sarsaponin Upon hydrolysis, it produces; Sarsapogenin 3D-glucose 1L-rhamnose Uses: Flavoring agent Used in skin diseases Used in rheumatism
  76. 76. Cyanophore Glycosides Upon hydrolysis these glycosides produce “Hydrocyanic acid” i.e. HCN
  77. 77. Wild cherry Botanical origin: Prunus serotina Family: Rosaceae Part used: Dried bark Collection: Bark is collected in autumn and sun dried. Drug is almost odorless when dried but attains strong odor of benzaldehyde after moisturizing.
  78. 78. Chemistry: Active principle is Prunasin. It is formed from partial hydrolysis of amygdalin. In addition to this, it contains; Tannins Volatile oil Benzoic acid Uses: Astringent Sedative Flavoring agent Anti-tussive
  79. 79. Isothiocyanate glycosides These glycosides upon hydrolysis, yield Mustard oil. Plants containing these glycosides posses non-specific resistance against infection. These agents posses following properties; Vesicant Rubefacient
  80. 80. Black Mustard Botanical origin: Brassica nigra Brassica juncea Family: Brassicaceae Part used: Dried seeds
  81. 81. Chemistry: Seeds contain active principle Sinigrin (potassium myrinate( Upon hydrolysis, it produces; Mustard oil (allyl Isothiocyanate( In addition to this, it contains; Fixed oils Protein Mucilages Uses: Stimulant Emetic Diuretic Condiment Vesicant Rubefacient
  82. 82. Lacton glycosides Cantharide Zoological origin: Cantharis vesicatoria Part used: Dried insects Collection: Insects are collected during month of June an July in early morning when these are sluggish and inactive. Insects are killed by exposing them to fumes of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide or acetic acid. Insects are dried in an oven at temperature not exceeding 40°C and packed in air tight container with few drops of chloroform or carbon tetra chloride.
  83. 83. Chemistry: Active principle is Cantharidin. In addition to this, it contains; Formic acid Acetic acid Fat Fixed oil Uric acid Uses: Counter irritant Vesicant Rubefacient
  84. 84. Aldehyde glycosides Vanilla Botanical origin: Vanilla planifolia Family: Orchidaceae Part used: Vanilla beans Collection: Fruit is collected when it is ripen to a yellow color. It is cured by dipping in warm water. Fruit is sun dried by placing it between woolen blankets in the sun during day and packing them in woolen blankets during night. After 2 months, 70-80% of original weight of fruit is lost and it takes a characteristic odor and color of vanilla i.e. Color ….. Violet black Odor …... Aromatic
  85. 85. Chemistry: Before curing, vanilla contains 2 glycosides; Glucovanillin Glucovanillic acid After curing, active principle is obtained i.e. Vanillin Uses: Flavoring agent
  86. 86. Miscellaneous glycosides a.Gentian Botanical origin: Gentiana lutea Family: Gentianaceae Part used: Dried rhizome and root Collection: Rhizome and roots are collected from 4-5yeas old plant in autumn and for drying, two methods are used; Quick drying process Slow drying process
  87. 87. Quick drying process Drying is done immediately after collection, in sunlight. This drug contains bitter principle Gentiopicrin. Slow drying process Drying is done in open air. It takes 4-6 months for drug to dry completely. In this process, drug is allowed to ferment and loss most of its bitter principle and acquire aromatic quality that is desirable.
  88. 88. Chemistry: Active principle is Gentiopicrin. After hydrolysis, it produces; Gentiogenin Glucose Uses: Flavoring agent
  89. 89. Quassia Botanical origin: Picrasma excelsa Part used: Dried stem wood Collection: Drug occurs as cubes or chips. It is dried in an oven at temperature not more than 40°C. The drug is dried to protect from fermentation.
  90. 90. Chemistry: Active principle is Quassin. Quassin is complex of; Picrasmin Neoquassin Uses: Bitter tonic Insecticide Anthelmint ic
  91. 91. Dioscorea Botanical origin: Dioscorea bulbifera Dioscorea composita Family: Dioscoreaceae Part used: Dried rhizome and root Collection: Rhizome and roots are collected from 3-5years old plant in autumn.
  92. 92. Chemistry: Active principle is Dioscin. Upon hydrolysis, it produces; Diosgenin Sugars ( 1 molecule of D-glucose + 2 molecules of L-rhamnose( Uses: Synthesis of cortisone and steroidal drugs

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