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### Data

• 2. INDEX •Data •Collection of data •Organization of data •Presentation of data •Analysis of data
• 3. DATA Data is any information in raw or organized form using alphabets , numbers or symbols that refers to or represents preferences, ideas, objects, traits, categories etc.
• 4. FOR EXAMPLE : 1. There is a lot Food that goes waste in India every year. • The amount of Food that goes waste in India every year was more than 40% valued at 58,000 crore. 2. The Population of India is Growing Rapidly. • In India, 96.5% kids go to School : Survey
• 6. QUALITATIVE DATA Qualitative data is a categorical measurement expressed not in terms of numbers, but rather by means of a natural language description.
• 7. QUANTITATIVE DATA Quantitative data is a numerical measurement expressed not by means of a natural language description, but rather in terms of numbers.
• 8. DISTINCTION Qualitative Data Quantitative Data •Deals with descriptions. •Data can be observed but not measured. •Colors, textures, smells, tastes, appearance, beauty, etc. •Qualitative → Quality Deals with numbers. • Data which can be measured. • Length, height, area, volume, weight, speed, time, temperature, humidity, sound levels, cost, members, ages, etc. • Quantitative → Quantity
• 9.
• 11. DATA COLLECTION Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on variables of interest, in an established systematic fashion that enables one to answer stated research questions, test hypotheses, and evaluate outcomes
• 12. SOURCES OF DATA Primary Sources INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE INVESTIGATION Secondary Sources PUBLISHED UNPUBLISHED
• 13. PRIMARY DATA Primary data is a type of information that is obtained directly from first-hand sources by means of surveys, observation or experimentation. It is data that has not been previously published and is derived from a new or original research study and collected at the source such as in marketing.
• 14. SOURCES OF COLLECTION OF PRIMARY DATA Direct Personal Interview – Data is personally collected by the interviewer Telephonic interviews – Data is collected through an interview over the telephone with the interviewer.
• 15. SOURCES OF COLLECTION OF PRIMARY DATA Indirect Oral Investigation – Data is collected from third parties who have information about subject of enquiry. Information from correspondents – Data is collected from agents appointed in the area of investigation.
• 16. SOURCES OF COLLECTION OF PRIMARY DATA Mailed questionnaire – Data is collected through questionnaire mailed to the informant. Questionnaire filled by enumerators – Data is collected by trained enumerators who fill questionnaires.
• 17. ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD QUESTIONNAIRE • A covering letter with objectives and scope of survey. • Minimum number of questions. • Avoid personal questions. • Questions should be clear and simple. • Questions should be logically arranged
• 18. HOW TO COLLECT PRIMARY DATA? These are the ways to collect primary data: 1. Sampling : It is a process through which we choose a smaller group to collect data that can be the best representative of the population. 2. Survey : It can be done in face to face mode(interviews) or indirect mode (Telephone, Internet etc.). 3. Census : It is method in which data is collected from every unit of population.
• 19. TYPES OF SAMPLING : Random Sampling : It is a sampling method in which all the items have equal chance of being selected and the individuals who are selected are just like the ones who are not selected. Stratified Random Sampling : It is a process to gather data by separating the actual population into the distinct subset or strata, and then choosing simple random samples from each stratum.
• 20. Census Method Sampling Method 1) Every unit of population studied 2) Reliable and accurate results 3) Expensive method 4) Suitable when population is of homogenous nature. 1) Few units of population are studied 2) Less Reliable and accurate results 3) Less expensive method 4) Suitable when population is of heterogeneous nature.
• 21. SECONDARY DATA Secondary data is data that is not collected by the person who is doing research. An example of secondary data is a community assessment done by another organization but used to substantiate another organization's research.
• 22. SOURCES OF SECONDARY DATA • Published Source • Government publications, Semi-government publications etc. • Unpublished Source • Census of India, National Sample Survey Organization [They are collected by the organizations for their own record]
• 23. PRIMARY DATA VS SECONDARY DATA Primary Data Secondary Data Original and New Re-used and Old Customized as per the need of the research May not be directly linked with research Primary Sources Secondary Sources Less economical More economical High on reliability Low on reliability
• 24. POINTS TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION BEFORE COLLECTION OF DATA • Identify the problem or research on whatever you need to explore. • How will you differentiate b/w figures or record. • How to present data in more meticulous way. • What are the things required in collection of DATA • What is the purpose of collection of DATA • Source of DATA collection
• 25. PROCESS OF DATA COLLECTION Data Collection Data Analysis Drawing Inferences Population Sample
• 27. ORGANIZATION OF DATA Organization of Data: The process of grouping and organizing data according to their characteristics is known as Organization of data. Steps in Organization: • Classify the data for further statistical analysis; • Prepare a frequency distribution table; • Form classes; • The method of tally marking.
• 28. BASIC TERMS • Class : Each given internal is called a class e.g., 0-5, 5-10. • Class limit: There are two limits upper limit and lower limit. • Class interval: Difference between upper limit and lower limit. • Range: Difference between upper limit and lower limit. • Mid-point or Mid Value: ½(Upper limit - Lower limit) • Frequency: Number of items [observations] falling within a particular class. • Cumulative Frequency Series: It is obtained by successively adding the frequencies of the values of the classes according to a certain law.
• 30. INDIVIDUAL SERIES The arrangement of raw data individually. It can be expressed in two ways. • Alphabetical arrangement : Alphabetical order • Array: Ascending or descending order. EXAMPLE: Marks in Maths in a class of 20 students: 68 89 78 92 74 85 76 83 89 59 78 95 64 89 51 47 37 76 87 91
• 31. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION Frequency distribution refers to a table in which observed values of a variable are classified according to their numerical magnitude. It has two types: • Discrete Series: A variable is called discrete if the variable can take only some particular values. • Continuous Series: A variable is called continuous if it can take any value in a given range.
• 32. DISCRETE SERIES AGE OF STUDENTS NO. OF STUDENTS 16 4 17 12 18 21 19 8 20 5 CONTINUOUS SERIES CLASS INTERVAL FREQUENCY CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY 0-10 4 4 10-20 12 16 20-30 21 37 30-40 8 45 40-50 5 50
• 33. TYPES OF CONTINUOUS SERIES • Exclusive Series: Excluding the upper limit of these classes, all the items of the class are included in the class itself. E.g., : • Inclusive Series: Upper class limits of classes are included in the respective classes . E.g., Marks 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 Number of Students 2 5 2 1 Marks 0-9 10-19 20-29 30-39 Number of Students 2 5 2 1
• 35. PRESENTATION OF DATA The mass data collected should be presented in a suitable, concise form for further analysis. The collected data may be presented in the form of tabular or diagrammatic or graphic form.
• 37. TABULAR FORM Data is presented in a form of table with the help of inserting rows and column.
• 38. PIE CHART Pie chart is a specialized graph used in statistics. The independent variable is plotted around a circle in either a clockwise direction or a counterclockwise direction.The dependent variable (usually a percentage) is rendered as an arc whose measure is proportional to the magnitude of the quantity.
• 39. HISTOGRAM A histogram is a representation of tabulated frequencies, shown as adjacent rectangles, erected over discrete intervals (bins), with an area equal to the frequency of the observations in the interval.
• 40. BAR DIAGRAMS A bar chart or bar graph is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values that they represent. The bars can be plotted vertically or horizontally. A vertical bar chart is sometimes called a column bar chart.
• 41. OGIVES A distribution curve in which the frequencies are cumulative is called Ogive. It can be More than Ogive or Less than Ogive.
• 42. METHOD TO DRAW OGIVES
• 43. ANALYSIS OF DATA The data presented should be carefully analysed for making inference from the presented data such as measures of central tendencies, dispersion, correlation, regression etc
• 44. • MEAN • The mean is the sum the total observations divided by the number of observations. It refers to an average. • MODE • Mode gives the most frequently used common value. • MEDIAN • In statistics, the median is the numerical value separating the higher half of a data from the lower half.
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