Teaching Listening

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Summary of chapter 1 in "The Cambridge Guide to TESOL"

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Teaching Listening

  1. 1. I‘ ‘ I 1-. :ao~. ~»_~ e ~-A L aw. . I 'J . /- . . Presenter: Anita 2()4J'. ‘“ ] [I“0"$
  2. 2. Introduction Listening is used as a conjunction with the other skills of speaking, reading and writing 2007lI10‘0B
  3. 3. (| ntro. ) Listening involves. .. Both bottom-up and top-down processing . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... §LisLeners aiiencl to data Listeners Utilize ‘. ;_~, -'3; fiin the 3: : if'. :_j “star '. ‘:: ‘;3 5.7:‘ : ;:, :=: :» : .'. c.: -s : '5 333:" : ._j : ': ifito create meanings ‘ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . _ - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ‘parallel processing model’ : both take place at various levels of cognitive organization — phonological, grammatical, lexical and propositional — which interact with each other 2U07:'10"0B
  4. 4. Background Prior 19th C. : lg learning was presented in written mode Late 19th C. : Reform Movement fipsychological theory of child lg acquisition applied to lg teaching 2007:'10'08
  5. 5. Background In 1930s and 1940s: 1) (U. S.) Formalize oral approach into audiolingual method with intensive oral —aural drills. 2) Firth & Chomsky -} Hy es Situational Natural _ Communicative competence: approach approach emphasize how lg is used 2U07:'10'08
  6. 6. Background In 1960s to 19808: listening as trigger for acquisition van EK(1973) developed ‘threshold syllabus’ Describe the level learners need to attain to cross the threshold and begin real communication Syllabus specifies topics, functions, situations etc. as well as grammar and vocabulary Communicative Language Teaching Movement: listening as a integral part of communicative competence 200711008
  7. 7. Research Four areas integrate listening into L2 pedagogy: - Listening in SLA - speech processing - listening in interactive settings - strategy use 200711 0'08
  8. 8. In SLA Research ‘Linguistic environment’ provides linguistic input based on — social and academic situations - input adjustment (speaker) + message comprehension strategies (listener) Krashen - comprehensible input - input hypothesis (i+1) How you Join‘? Wlut '1 new? Zoomoms Not mutli Guilt go.
  9. 9. '5.: =.? Speech-processing Research Factors affect L2 speech comprehension /1"‘ single coding (common store of L1/L2 semantic info) vs. dual coding (separated store of L1/L2 phonological info_) fl" bounded language (Japanese) vs. unbounded language (Eg) Each language has its own preferred aural decoding strategies. 200711008
  10. 10. ~52? Speech-processing Research Preferred strategies involve 4 properties of spoken lg: 1. the phonological system 2. phonotatic rules 3. tone melodies 4. stress system (In Eg) ‘ metrical segmentation strategy’ -) stress problem a} eg- 521120’. 200711008
  11. 11. Listening in interactive settings Knowledge of spkers’ culture norms influence listening success Difficulties L2 listeners face arise in conversational analysis at levels of: Phonological processing Informational packaging Grammatical Parsing Conceptual representation word recognition Listeners need to employ ’interactional work’ in addition to linguistic processing 2007110108
  12. 12. Research in ‘listening strategy use’ Ni. V . u _-i’«. ,‘ ___V_ V 7' N ‘ l. ii L’; g :8: ; ;*Rost and Ross: ‘hypothesis’ v Qylgasperz initial interpretation; ’. i 1‘ “W. '°"Vandergrift: meta-cognitive 8 y cognitive strateggipes socio-affective '
  13. 13. Practice Effective listening teaching ‘EB Careful selection of input 67)‘ Helflmerenactstratefiies Learner training: 5 listening strategies Predicting, monitoring, inferencing, clarifying and responding Use of target lg for instruction: learning content through listening and integration with other skills 200711008
  14. 14. Current and future trends Individual lmers’ listening process Role of phonology in L2 listening R. Ellis: ‘input enhancement’ ‘awareness-triggering learning’ ‘Academic listening’ or extended listening for specific purposes 2007110'08
  15. 15. Listening technolog L I‘ .0 ‘ i ' (4 Ill’-' '1'! "/[4~lA')’I‘l" With intelligent methodology, ,1, it's vital to help students focus __ ' ; 5’ " 1 ' on key listening skills and ' 'l"‘- " f}; '— - '- ""'~ strategies. I faint ; i~. '.w. -
  16. 16. Conclusion Teaching methodology in the mainstream has not yet caught up with theory. (e. g. curriculum design, leamer training and input selection, etc. ) 2007110'08
  17. 17. Question From your own experience, which listening strategy benefits more : Meta-cognitive or cognitive strategy? Can you give an example of how cross-culture norms makes listening difficult? (on the content of the information or conversation features) 2007110'08
  18. 18. Question Recall listening training in high school. What kind of materials were used most for learner training? Are they focused on listening for language practice or listening for meaning? What’s your opinions about Kasper’s initial interpretation of a topic prior listening? 2007110'08

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