Prior 19th C. : lg learning was presented in
Late 19th C. : Reform Movement
ﬁpsychological theory of child
lg acquisition applied to lg teaching
In 1930s and 1940s:
1) (U. S.) Formalize oral approach into audiolingual method
with intensive oral —aural drills.
2) Firth & Chomsky -} Hy es
Situational Natural _ Communicative competence:
approach approach emphasize how lg is used
In 1960s to 19808: listening as trigger for acquisition
van EK(1973) developed ‘threshold syllabus’
Describe the level learners need to attain
to cross the threshold and begin real
Syllabus speciﬁes topics, functions,
situations etc. as well as grammar and
Communicative Language Teaching Movement:
listening as a integral part of communicative competence
Four areas integrate listening into L2
- Listening in SLA
- speech processing
- listening in interactive settings
- strategy use
In SLA Research
‘Linguistic environment’ provides linguistic
input based on
— social and academic situations
- input adjustment (speaker) + message
comprehension strategies (listener)
- comprehensible input
- input hypothesis (i+1)
How you Join‘?
Wlut '1 new?
Zoomoms Not mutli Guilt go.
'5.: =.? Speech-processing Research
Factors affect L2 speech comprehension
/1"‘ single coding (common store of L1/L2 semantic info) vs.
dual coding (separated store of L1/L2 phonological info_)
fl" bounded language (Japanese) vs. unbounded language (Eg)
Each language has its own preferred
aural decoding strategies.
~52? Speech-processing Research
Preferred strategies involve 4 properties of spoken lg:
1. the phonological system
2. phonotatic rules
3. tone melodies
4. stress system
(In Eg) ‘ metrical segmentation strategy’
-) stress problem
a} eg- 521120’.
Listening in interactive settings
Knowledge of spkers’ culture norms inﬂuence
Difficulties L2 listeners face arise in conversational
analysis at levels of:
Phonological processing Informational packaging
Grammatical Parsing Conceptual representation
Listeners need to employ ’interactional work’ in
addition to linguistic processing
Research in ‘listening strategy use’
Ni. V .
u _-i’«. ,‘ ___V_
V 7' N
‘ l. ii
:8: ; ;*Rost and Ross: ‘hypothesis’ v
Qylgasperz initial interpretation; ’. i 1‘
'°"Vandergrift: meta-cognitive 8 y
Effective listening teaching
‘EB Careful selection of input 67)‘ Helflmerenactstrateﬁies
Learner training: 5 listening strategies
Predicting, monitoring, inferencing, clarifying and responding
Use of target lg for instruction:
learning content through listening and integration
with other skills
Current and future trends
Individual lmers’ listening process
Role of phonology in L2 listening
R. Ellis: ‘input enhancement’
‘Academic listening’ or extended listening for
I‘ .0 ‘ i ' (4 Ill’-' '1'! "/[4~lA')’I‘l"
With intelligent methodology, ,1,
it's vital to help students focus __ ' ; 5’ " 1 '
on key listening skills and ' 'l"‘- " f}; '— - '- ""'~
faint ; i~. '.w. -
Teaching methodology in the
mainstream has not yet caught up with
theory. (e. g. curriculum design, leamer
training and input selection, etc. )
From your own experience, which listening strategy
beneﬁts more : Meta-cognitive or cognitive strategy?
Can you give an example of how cross-culture norms
makes listening difficult? (on the content of the
information or conversation features)
Recall listening training in high school. What kind
of materials were used most for learner training?
Are they focused on listening for language practice
or listening for meaning?
What’s your opinions about Kasper’s initial
interpretation of a topic prior listening?