WHAT AN OPERATING SYSTEM IS…An operating system is the first thing to be loaded on to your computer. You willnot always personally load it up yourself as the it will have already beenpre-loaded on to your computer, without the operating system your computerwould be useless.Operating systems have now started to be built into small computers and gamesconsoles such as netbooks, XBOX 360, PlayStation, laptops and even mobilephones.The purpose of operating systems is to manage the hardware and softwarewhich then allows the device that it is in to act in an ordinary fashion. In PCs theoperating system controls many things such as the memory, the processor andthe keyboard/keypad.
DEVICE DRIVERSThe driver is a program which makes apathway for pretty much all of acomputers hardware that is notconnected to the motherboard. Themain function of the Driver is totranslate data sent from the operatingsystem into data that the differenttypes of hardware are ableto understand, but due to the amountof different types of hardware there aredifferences in which the driver runs.The driver allows higher levelcomputer programmes to connect tothe hardware.
DEVICE DRIVERSThe reason for the driver beingseparate from the operating systemis because it allows you to add newfunctions to it. The device driver canbe made into logical or physicallayers. The logical layers processthe data for a group of devices likeEthernet cables or disk drives.Whereas the physical layersThe driver normally communicateswith other devices via buses or bythe computers subsystem in whichthe device is connected to.
OPERATING SYSTEM APPLICATIONSSingle user, single application operatingsystem: this is an operating system which is onlyused by one person at a time and is onlycapable of running one application at a time.Most of the devices which use thisapplication are standard mobile phones.Single user multi-tasking, this is the sort ofoperating system which is built into your ordinarypersonal computer. Although designed with thesingle user in mind you can run lots of differentapplications at the same time. This is better thanthe single user, single application operatingsystem because it is able to run lots of differentapps at the same time whereas the single user,single application operating system can only runone app at a time.
OPERATING SYSTEM APPLICATIONSMulti-user, multi-tasking operatingsystem: This is the sort of operatingsystem used on mainframes andsupercomputers. They are designed tobe able to cope with lots of differentpeople on lots of different applications atthe same time.With this the operating system needs tomake sure that the requirements of everyuser on the server is balanced, and thateach program that is being used on theserver has enough and separateresources so that if there is a problemwith one user it doesnt affect the entireserver.
MEMORY MANAGEMENT Input / output management The Operating system needs to make sure that the applications are able to When data and applications are not being used they run with the amount of RAM on the are stored onto thing like the hard disk, optical drives computer available and also that the and magnetic tape. Input/output management on the memory on the applications does not operating system allows control of access to interfere with one another. programmes to resources via the driver. There are two different places where the operating system manages the memory. The logic address- this is powered by the CPU and is also known as the virtual address. The physical address- this is the address which is seen by the memory unit.
USER INTERFACEThe three main user interfaces used today are windows, Linux, The user interface is said toand Macintosh. The user interface brings the structure and be one of the most importantcommunication between the user and the computer. User parts of any computerinterfaces are a set of commands or menus which allows the program because ituser to interact with the different programmes on their determines how easy a usercomputer. There is a command driven interface which can only is able to make a program bebe run by commands, there is also a menu driven userinterface which is run by commands from the user selecting able to do what you want itfrom a number of choices from the menus which are displayed to.on your screen.
Storage management GUI This is the term commonly used when talking about the tools, processes and policies thatGUI the acronym for graphical user interface is are used when your computer is storingan interface that takes advantage of your networks and storage services likecomputers graphical capabilities and then virtualization and replication. Whenmakes programs easier to use. The more applications are loaded onto the memory theadvanced and well designed GUI’s save the operating system loads them into block sizes.users learning complicated command If the block size is 4KB then every processlanguages. But people who already know thecommand languages prefer to use the which is then loaded will be given a chunk ofcommand driven interfaces rather than the memory which is a multiple of 4. ApplicationsGUI. are then loaded in the fixed block sizes. This helps to ensure that applications wont be loaded up on top of each other memory space.
PROCESSOR MANAGEMENTThe main reasons for processor management are: to ensure that each and every process andapplication is given enough time from the processor to be able to run properly, to use as manyprocessor cycles as possible for real work.There are a number of different processes that run without giving you any clue that they areeven there. The application you can see such as, word processor or spread sheet are bothprocessors but could cause up to several different processes to begin, for some tasks likecommunication with other devices or computers.