Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

America- the first colonies


Published on

A history of early Colonial America on 64 slides, each with animations and most with Q and A.

The Pilgrims and Puritans

The Roanoke Colony

The Jamestown Colony

The Plymouth Colony

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

America- the first colonies

  1. 1. The story of the Roanoke Colony Jamestown Colony Plymouth Colony First Thank The Pilgrims The Separatists The Puritans
  2. 2. • Early Colonial America • The Pilgrims and Puritans • The Roanoke Colony • The Jamestown Colony • The Plymouth Colony 64 slides with each having multiple lines of information and a multiple choice question. After each remote “click,” time is provided for discussion, lecture, even arguing. A star appears in the lower right part of the slide to indicate next “click” will take you to the next slide. For the Instructor:
  3. 3. 15th Century: Fat galleons crimson and gold pennants flying above their white sails…..across the blue Atlantic Ocean. Their holds laden with fabulous treasure from the Spanish Main. England, France, and the other European powers looked on with envy, as Spain’s coffers filled with golden booty. Within a single generation, Spain had
  4. 4. Who is this “Genoese visionary”? a.Vasco de Gama b.Christopher Columbus c.Magellan d.Sir Walter Raleigh Columbus
  5. 5. a. No thanks b. Good Idea, but I cannot give you any funds. c. I will support your endeavor completely. d. Not a response No thanks.
  6. 6. The ruling monarch in England is now Queen Elizabeth. She was known as an aggressive monarch, iron-willed. 1585 The Queen wants the remaining land in the Americas.
  7. 7. That left 1000 miles of coastline unclaimed. Map of the Americas 1580 Who does Queen Elizabeth send to America with her blessing? a.Columbus b.William Bradford c.Sir Walter Raleigh d.John Winthrop Where were they headed in the New World? a.Massachusetts b.West Indies c.Jamestown d.Roanoke
  8. 8. 2014 1590 Sir Walter Raleigh Roanoke Island Roanoke Island
  9. 9. Finances? How would Sir Walter Raleigh’s voyage to America be financed? a. The Queen, the Crown paid it all. b. Sir Walter Raleigh himself paid it all. c. The Virginia Company d. Two silent partners of the elite rich of England paid it all. How did the Virginia Company finance the voyage? a. Money from the crown. b. Many investors. c.Two silent partners of the elite rich of England paid it all. d. Raleigh was the Virginia Company. 600 individuals and 50 commercial firms invested in the Virginia Company. The company was granted a charter which means the Crown approves of the voyage, gives their blessing to the voyage, and expects some return, some profit, from the voyage. The Virginia Company
  10. 10. Roanoke Island This was Sir Walter Raleigh’s second expedition to Roanoke Island. The first group of settlers abandoned their effort. Why? a.Unfriendly Indians had killed over half of the settlers. b.They were starving to death. c.There was no leadership which led to too many conflicts within the group. d.They had run out of supplies and would all return with the second voyage. They were Starving to death
  11. 11. Many stories were coming back from other vessels that had sailed the American coast. Many were rumors. Which of the following represented the bulk of the rumors? a. The Indians living near the coast of North America are very friendly and willingly want to trade. b. The Indians living near the coast of North America are very dangerous, not wanting to trade, using bows and arrows and spears before any talking takes place. c. There is good soil, all kinds of animals, trees for building, clear fresh water- a paradise. d. There is gold! The Indians have chamber pots made of gold! d. “There is gold! The Indians have chamber pots made of gold!”
  12. 12. Characterize the Englishmen who would choose to sail to the New World (six choices). a. Tenant farmers evicted from the land his family had worked for generations. b. Wandering beggars. c. Skilled workers unable to enter the guild system-too many skilled workers looking for too few jobs. d. Thieves given the chance to accept the Queen’s pardon to go on the expedition. e. Professional soldiers with nothing to do between wars. f. Gentlemen, in debt, searching for a financial windfall in the New World. ALL
  13. 13. In 1786 the colony had established itself, but there were troubles. Hostile Indian attacks and an alarming loss of supplies led them to send the colony’s governor, John White, back to England for emergency relief.
  14. 14. It would be two years before White could embark with supplies for the Roanoke Colony. What was going on in England that would delay White by two years? a. Preparation for an invasion by Spain-the Spanish Armada. b. The making of money to purchase the supplies. c. Dealing with the plague that was spreading throughout Europe. d. Other expeditions to South America where they were assured would bring more gold and wealth than anything in North America. The Spanish Armada
  15. 15. John White, with his ship and the needed provisions, landed at the Colony. What did he find? a.A thriving colony as the local Indians finally had befriended the colonists and helped them survive. b.The colony had moved and it would take White three months to find their new location built on a hill for protection. c.All buildings in a state of disrepair and not a soul in sight. d.Only half the buildings were standing and only twelve men and a few women remained, the rest had died. C. All buildings in a state of disrepair and not a soul in sight. . The mystery has never been solved, and to this day no one knows the fate of those first Americans.
  16. 16. The Lost Colony of Roanoke dampened the enthusiasm of the New World adventurers. A generation would pass before one of Raleigh’s captains, Bartholomew Gosnold, was finally able to fan a spark of speculative interest into flame and an interested company. What was the name of the company formed with new plans for an expedition to the New World? a. Virginia Company b. Massachusetts Company c. New Roanoke Company d. Mayflower Company a. Virginia Company
  17. 17. The Virginia Company partners staked the voyage. Read the quotes of others regarding the purpose of the voyage. First, the clergy in London, in sermon after sermon, proclaimed the virtues of this “noble evangelical outreach.” (Marshall and Manuel, The Light and the Glory, p. 83) Second, the Partners of the Virginia Company previously advised their first colonists, “the way to prosper and achieve good success is to make yourselves all of one mind for the good of your country and your own, and to serve and fear God, the giver of all goodness, for every plantation which our heavenly Father hath not planted shall be rooted out.” (Alexander Brown, The First Republic in America, p. 31. )
  18. 18. And…….the English Monarch voiced approval of the endeavor. Who was the English Monarch in 1606 when the three Virginia Company ships weighed anchor on the Thames in London? a. Queen Elizabeth b. King Henry VIII c. King James I d. King James II c. King James I Note what King James I ‘s said in his preamble to the Company’s charter. “…propagating of Christian religion to such people as yet live in darkness and miserable ignorance of the true knowledge and worship of God, and may in time bring the infidels and savages, living in these parts, to human civility and to a settled and quiet governments.”
  19. 19. But….the rumors of gold had not been disproved!!! The effort to evangelized may have been just words as only one minister, Robert Hunt, was among the 144 men aboard the three ships. Evangelizing and gold. For what other reasons would investors support the voyage? a. Indian artifacts b. Northwest Passage to the Indies c. Abundance of wood badly needed in England. d. Coal
  20. 20. What were the reasons for the voyages to the new world? No choices. List t he reasons. Not in order, the reasons were: 1. Missions- “save the lost.” 2. Gold, silver, precious metals. 3. Find the northwest passage to India and the riches of the orient. 4. Religious freedom. 5. A new start in life in a new world. 6. Profits for investors. 7. Land ownership (nearly impossible in England).
  21. 21. The dangers of the voyage to the New World No Choices. List t he dangers. 1. Weather-storms 2. Illness-disease 3. Pirates-John Hawkins and Francis Drake 4. Run out of food. A worthy study is offered here.
  22. 22. The three ships took how long to cross the Atlantic? a. Two weeks b. One month c. Five months d. Nine months Where did they land? a.Jamestown b.Chesapeake Bay c.Yorktown d.Hampton JAMESTOWN
  23. 23. Upon setting foot on shore…………………the quarreling began. The captain of the three ships, the representative for the Virginia Company, broke open the sealed box which contained the names of those who would serve on the seven-man Council: Captain Newport himself Bartholomew Gosnold, a captain for Raleigh Edward Wingfield John Smith, to be infamous John Ratcliffe John Martin George Kendall
  24. 24. Introducing Bartholomew Gosnold Before this power-point, have you heard of Gosnold before? a.Yes b.No c.None of the above d.I should care Gosnold was a ship’s captain for Sir Walter Raleigh. He led the effort to get funding for the Jamestown expedition. When the quarreling continued, Gosnold was alone in his desire to build the colony on higher ground, near fresh water with good drainage, and open land, easier to clear and defensively strong. The others, all six, disagreed. History will show that Gosnold was right in every way. Since you are not familiar with Gosnold you can only guess at what happened to him. a.He was proven right over the next 6 months and was elected the leader of the Colony b.Alone in his plans, he was forced out of the Colony. c.He left to parlay with a local Indian tribe and was never heard from again. d.He died of Typhoid Fever in the next four months. His remains were found in 1950s.
  25. 25. Three months have passed…………………………………………………………… The 7 quarreling Councilors- their conflicts are boiling over. Captain Newport- returned to England with samples of ore Bartholomew Gosnold- dead Edward Wingfield-caught stealing from the common store and sent back to England. John Smith- began to steal corn from the Indians, was caught and imprisoned with 8 of his men by Powhatan’s tribe. John Ratcliffe- off searching for the Northwest Passage. John Martin George Kendall- caught stealing from the common store and shot to death.
  26. 26. As summer came on, and the heat and humidity grew steadily more oppressive, the true face of Jamestown began to emerge. The peninsula where they had built their fortress colony was a low and perpetually damp place, surrounded by marshlands which fairly exuded pestilence-swamp fever (malaria), and other ills. By midsummer the colonists were in such woeful condition that scarcely five of their number were fit to man a guard station (the palisade). Could they have avoided this situation? a.Yes b. Yes c. Yes d. Yes How????? They simply could have listened to Bartholomew Gosnold’s wise plan when they landed.
  27. 27. John Smith Before Powhatan It was said that Smith talked and traded his way out of a sentence of death. Smith and eight men had killed two Indians and had stolen their corn. They were all brought before Powhatan. A myth exists involving Powhatan’s daughter who convinced Powhatan to show mercy to Smith. Who was this daughter of Powhatan? a. Sacajawea b. Pocahontas c. Stands with a Fist d. Powhatmas Pocahontas
  28. 28. a. Powhatan’s mercy
  29. 29. The only thing that kept the colony alive that first year was the corn they could buy, beg, or steal from the Indians. Why did they not plant the seeds, farm the land, which would have fed them???? a. It was easier to depend on the Indians to care for them. b. Few of them were real farmers, most knowing little of farming. c. Most were just LAZY. d. Lack of leadership- Council members escaping, threatening each other. ALL were true ALL were true ALL were true ALL were true Of the original 144 only 38 remained alive Finally, the end of the Jamestown Colony arrived when Captain Christopher Newport arrived to find what was left. The colony was abandoned.
  30. 30. Sir Thomas Gates soon decided to abandon the colony and had to restrain the weary colonists from burning their settlement to the ground. But while sailing down the James, they encountered a ship bearing the new governor, and a year's worth of supplies. That evening the colonists returned, many of them unhappily, to Jamestown and to a new, stricter regime.
  31. 31. Spring 1610, settlers with supplies arrived from England, eager to find wealth in Virginia. This charter provided for stronger leadership under a governor, and the introduction of a period of military law that carried harsh punishments for those who did not obey. King James I ‘s Second Charter 1610
  32. 32. In order to make a profit for the Virginia Company, settlers tried a number of small industries until the introduction of tobacco as a cash crop about 1613 by colonist John Rolfe. Tobacco cultivation required large amounts of land and labor and stimulated the rapid growth of the Virginia colony. Settlers moved onto the lands occupied by the Powhatan Indians.
  33. 33. John Rolfe marries Powhatan’ s daughter Pocahonta s A famous historical event in the Virginia colony- a Marriage in 1614! Powhatan’s daughter, Pocahontas married….. a.John Smith b.John Rolfe c.Captain Christopher Newton d.Roger Williams
  34. 34. What lay in the future for the Jamestown Colony? a.A war with the Powhatan Indians b.Misconduct and theft by the leaders c.The King dissolved the Virginia Company, and with it the loss of support. d.The colony fell apart and never prospered. A bad scenario all around as all of the four occurred. The colony did fall apart but did not disappear.
  35. 35. Follow t he “Great
  36. 36. Separatists held that their differences with the Church of England were irreconcilable and that their worship should be organized independently of the trappings, traditions and organization of a central church.
  37. 37. What was the religion of Great Britain in 16th /17th Century? a. They mostly followed the teachings of Martin Luther. b. By decree of the monarch, the Church of England is the one and only ’’church.” c.The Scottish Rebellion of 1560 led England to adopt the church formed by John Knox. d. Thanks to Queen Elizabeth the English people had freedom of religion with the majority following the Protestant Reformation. The Church of England Anglican Church You have no choice.
  38. 38. What was the problem with the group’s disagreement with the Crown over attending the official Church of England? a. No problem, but also they would receive no support from the Crown if they left the church. b. They could not form a church in competition with the Church of England. c. No problem, but too many members of the group were wanted by the local constables. d. It was illegal to NOT attend the Church of England, even fines for missing a Sunday. . d. Underthe 1559 Act of Uniformity, it was illegal NOT to attend the official Church of England services, with a fine of one shilling foreach missed Sunday and holy day.
  39. 39. The group, to be known as the “Pilgrims” or the “Separatists”, began in a small town in England. Just a trivia question but what was the name of that town? a. Nottingham b. Scrooby c. Leiden d. London This radical faction became known as the English Separatist Church. In 1607, after illegally breaking from the Church of England felt the need to leave England before considering America. Where did they go? a. Netherlands b. Norway c. That was a myth, they never left England until they left for America. d. France They remained in the Netherlands for ten years! What led them to leave Netherlands? a. The Dutch culture was making too many deep inroads into the Separatists’ group. b. The decision to go to America meant starting from England who had all the needed supplies. c. The King of the Netherlands objected to the Separatists’ Church doctrine, as it differed from their own. d. None of the Separatists were Dutch which handicapped their ability to make a living. Scrooby Netherlands a. The Dutch culture’s influence and the Separatists’ fear of losing their own heritage and language.
  40. 40. b. The Speedwell was not Sea-worthy
  41. 41. The colonists of the Mayflower elected a governor, William Bradford When was this election held? a.On the Mayflower while docked at Plymouth, England. b. On the Mayflower while in route to America. c. On the Mayflower while at anchor in Cape Cod Bay. d. While standing upon the shore at Cape Cod Bay.
  42. 42. An economic study should be done here. The Joint-Stock-Company and the Charters, the Royal Charter: the Virginia Company, the Massachusetts Bay Company, the Plymouth Company, Joint-Stock Company • The company does not dissolve with the death of the primary owner and thus it was permanent. • Limited liability for investors • Middle class investors were thus financially capable of supporting the ventures. For more information check your text book and the search engines, Google. OPTIONAL SLIDE-Study the Joint Stock Company
  43. 43. Review: The desire of the Pilgrims/Separatists was to separate completely from the Church of England, the Anglican Church. This was against the laws of England and they were forced to leave and set up their church in the Netherlands. Later, they received assurances from King James that they could exercise their religious beliefs freely, so they returned to England and opened negotiations with the Virginia Company and obtained a grant of land in Virginia. They landed in Cape Cod, naming it Plymouth. There was a major conflict brewing as they approached the coast of Massachusetts. The conflict was over what? a. By landing 500 miles north of their land grant, they would be breaking their Charter agreement by landing in Massachusetts. b. During the long voyage, the colonists had lost faith in their young leader William Bradford. c. It was December and they had run out of food. It would not be possible to make it through the winter. d. The sponsors, the Virginia Company had withdrawn their support and their supplies which were following in a second ship. a. By landing 500 miles north of their land grant, they would be breaking their Charter agreement by landing in Massachusetts.
  44. 44. What did they do in the next 24 hours? a. Headed for Virginia b. Unloaded everything onto land c. Stayed aboard ship d. Argued and argued and argued.
  45. 45. The Mayflower Compact Can you read it? Do you find these words? •In ye name of God Amen. •Loyal subjects •Lord King James •Grace of God •Defender of the faith •Glory of God •Advancement of Christian Faith •In the presence of God •Covenant •Promise ..submission and obedience •11th November 1620 Please discuss……………..
  46. 46. The Mayflower Compact stated clearly that their purpose in sailing to Virginia was not for the purposes of rebellion but “for the glory of God, and advancement of the Christian faith, and honor
  47. 47. So they landed……what next? a. Clear the land b. Build one shelter c. Make contact with the local Indians d. Move inland
  48. 48. The Plymouth Colony suffered through their first winter. Which of the following events occurred during that first winter. a.An Indian attack with many colonists killed. b.A spreading disease that killed many colonists. c.Food ran out leading to deaths by starvation. d.A rebellion by the non-Separatists who left the colony.
  49. 49. • List the “troubles” experienced by the colonists: • Host ile I ndians • Lack of f ood • Diseases and illnesses • Accident s • Surviving harsh wint ers • Lack of leadership • Crop f ailures • Laziness of some workers
  50. 50. All of the early colonists from Florida to Maine had major problems with food. Landing in the winter meant no plantings. Some didn’t even think of planting, relying on the stores they brought with them. The Plymouth Colony, landing in the middle of winter, made it. How did they make it through that first winter? a. The local Indians supplied them with corn. b. The Colony had planned well and they had stored just enough food to make it through the first winter. c. They had planned for a relief ship to arrive in January with food enough for the winter d. They traded with fishing vessels sailing up and down the American coast. One Indian became friendly with the colonists that first winter. Name him. a. Samoset b. Tecumseh c. Pequot d. Squanto d. Samoset
  51. 51. 1. Spoke English 2. Had traveled up and down the coast with other explorers, hunters, fishermen. 3. His own tribe was located far to the north in what is now Maine. 4. He warned the colonists that the closest tribe was preparing to attack them. 5. Demanded of the colonists any wealth they had in precious stones. 6. Made friends with the colonists. 7. Slept overnight in the common building with the other colonists. And the answers are…………………………… 1. Spoke English 2. Had traveled up and down the coast with other explorers, hunters, fishermen. 3. His own tribe was located far to the north in what is now Maine. 4. He warned the colonists that the closest tribe was preparing to attack them. 5. Demanded of the colonists any wealth they had in precious stones. 6. Made friends with the colonists. 7. Slept overnight in the common building with the other colonists. When Samoset first approached the settlers at Plymouth he wore only a loin cloth. True or False? Which of the following was true about Samoset? Seven choices. There were many stories and myths recounted throughout the century about the Indians. Here is one. TRUE!
  52. 52. When Samoset returned a few days later he brought with him another native Indian who would become famous in American history. Name him. a. Massasoit b. Squanto c. Patuxet d. Wampanoag SQUANTO
  53. 53. Squanto did so much for the Plymouth colony ……… read this list and be impressed. how to plant and raise corn the Indian way.  how to fish the Indian way.  how to protect food stuffs from wolves.  how to stalk deer.  how to plant pumpkins.  how to refine maple syrup.  how to discern which herbs were good to eat and good for medicine.  how to find the best berries.  how to catch and profit from beavers.  how to get started with trading with nearby tribes and various ships traveling near them. Squanto taught them….
  54. 54. Discuss this question. “Why would the Plymouth Colony succeed when compared to the Roanoke and Jamestown Colonies?” Discuss the histo ry o f the Ro ano ke and Jamesto wn Co lo nies, the advantages, the disadvantages, the accidents, the mistakes,… … every aspect.
  55. 55. The Plymouth Colony had survived the winter! List those who were thanked for their survival: Their own leadership. Their own hard work. The captain and crew of the Mayflower. Samoset, Squanto and the local tribe. But despite the list, they gave thanks to whom? God!Unlike the Virginia settlers, the Separatists braved the dangers and uncertainties of the voyage and settlement in the New World solely in the name of their Christian faith in God.
  56. 56. Surviving the voyage-surviving the settlement-surviving the first winter. What was to happen next to the colony? a.The population stagnated, no growth. b.The population soared, and the colony prospered. c.The population soared to the point of many leaving Plymouth to form new settlements. d.During the next winter angry, hostile Indian tribes attacked many times driving the people from Plymouth. That response must be a surprise. We examine “WHY?” The Pilgrims, despite their fame in the traditional Thanksgiving celebration and their Mayflower Compact, never achieved the material success of the later Virginia colonists or their own Massachusetts successors at Massachusetts Bay. Since the Separatists’ religious views continued to meet a poor reception in England, no new infusions of people, ideas, money, or investment came from the Old World. The new English monarch, King Charles I (1625), encouraged investors to establish their own settlements in America: Cape Ann, Salem, Massachusetts Bay, Hudson River, and many others over the next fifteen years.
  57. 57. Furtherstudies: The Great Migration Salem witch trials Religious tolerance Religious intolerance John Winthrop Massachusetts Bay Colony. Pequot Wars King Philip’s War RogerWilliams Rhode Island Anne Hutchinson Connecticut Pennsylvania and the QuakeThis concludes the ppt presentation One more slide to be read follows.
  58. 58. The English colonies in Virginia and Massachusetts surpassed the large empire already established by the Spanish. Why did they prosper so when the Spanish failed? * New business practices Joint-stock company the company does not dissolve with the death of the primary owner and thus it was permanent. limited liability for investors middle class investors were thus financially capable of supporting the ventures. * A culture of technological inquisitiveness key inventions or technologies appeared in non-Western countries first but were never developed as they were in the West The societies in the west approved of innovation and entrepreneurship, invention, technical creativity. Western societies were dominated by the individual, not as in the east where the state dominated. Scientists in the non-West risked their lives if they arrived at unacceptable answers. * A climate receptive to political and economic risk taking. ***Faith in Almighty God
  59. 59. St. Wilfrid's Church, Scrooby