SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 21
Download to read offline
Coursera's
2012 Organisational
 Analysis Course
    www.coursera.org

       Summary
Introduction and personal reflection
These are brief notes taken and modified from the course material provided through Coursera by
Professor McFarland on Organizational Analysis.
It was my first experience of Coursera and a "MOOC" and I found the course and its content a
stimulating and challenging experience (particularly the essays required of the advanced path). At the
start it seemed slow and at times a little clunky in delivery and polish (blame too many years of sharp,
professional, consulting presentations raising my expectations), but overall a rewarding experience.
I found that my patience and perspective as a student have changed - I'm much more likely to
challenge and question what I'm told and read now then I was as a young man. This is probably a
good thing.
I've produced these slides as an aide memoir for myself, but others may find them useful too.
If you are interested, I strongly recommend you look up the course and participate in the next round.
Doing is a much better way to learn than just observing!
There were many references to academic and other published works provided in the course, I would
be happy to provide lists of the recommended reading material if anyone is interested.
John Phillips, March 2013
A 10 week, Massive Online Open
Course (MOOC), through Coursera
Led By: Professor McFarland from Stanford University
Participants: Over 100,000 signed up. Global participation. Nick and John from CharterMason
When: Last quarter 2012


Course Objective
 ●   Provide participants with an understanding of the different types of organisational analysis
     theories and techniques and how the insights they provide can be used by analysts and
     management.


Course Content
 ●   Organizations and their behavior
 ●   A wide array of cases
 ●   A variety of organizational features to consider
 ●   A variety of theories by which to consider how those features work together
 ●   Given management prescriptions, or lenses, that saw the world in certain ways, as being driven
     by certain facets
The course had two paths: basic and
advanced
 1.   Basic track – demonstrates basic literacy in organizational analysis (involved 2-3 hour time
      commitment per week)
       a. View about 2 hours of video segments each week and complete the online quiz questions
       b. Participate in the forum
       c. Take the final exam

 2.   Advanced track – demonstrates capacity for analysis and application (involved ~10-12 hour time
      commitment per week)
       a. Complete basic requirements above
       b. Read course texts
       c. Take peer evaluation training
       d. Write papers (2 x 1500 word essays)
       e. Evaluate peers’ papers

Both offered a certificate of completion on meeting the course requirements.
Studied lots of cases covering
politics, business and academia...
 1.   Magnet school reform (Metz)
 2.   Cuban Missile Crisis (Allison)
 3.   Chicago public school reforms (Bryk, Shipps)
 4.   Hurricane Katrina
 5.   Milwaukee parental choice plan (Quinn, Witte)
 6.   Lobbyists (Hula)
 7.   School desegregation efforts (Weiner)
 8.   Legislative efforts – No Child Left Behind (Kingdon)
 9.   Academic senates (Birnbaum)
10.   Xerox machine workers (Suchman)
11.   World of Warcraft (Seeley-Brown)
12.   Learning community reforms (Louise and Kruse, Leithwood, Lieberman)
13.   Tech (Kunda)
14.   Ozco (Martin and Meyerson)
... in total over 25 cases were studied
during the course
15.   University of Chicago – Northwestern merger effort (Barnes)
16.   Attempted Union Strike – Silicon Systems (Krackhardt)
17.   Classroom and school networks (McFarland)
18.   National park service (Eggers and Goldsmith)
19.   Charter school networks (Smith & Wohlstetter)
20.   Schools and High Schools (Metz and Meyer-Rowan)
21.   Intelligent design and teaching of evolution debate (NY Times)
22.   Presidential platforms (Bai)
23.   Massive Open Online Courses
24.   U.S. microbrewery (Carroll)
25.   Wine industry (Swaminathan)
26.   Charter School movement (Renzulli)
One key image depicted 5
    organizational elements




From Leavitt’s Diamond: A Model of Organization (adapted by
Richard W. Scott)
We reviewed 10 organisational
analysis theories
 1.   Rational choice models
 2.   Bureaucratic models / organizational process
 3.   Coalition theory
 4.   Organizational anarchy / garbage can theory
 5.   Organizational learning
 6.   Organizational culture
 7.   Resource dependence theory
 8.   Network forms of organization
 9.   Neo-institutional theory
10.   Organizational ecology


For each of these we have a brief summary...
Rational Actor
When does it apply?
 ● Exists when there is a unified or centralized actor with consistent preferences, lots of
    information, and clear goals (and time calculate).

Summary or Basic Argument
 ● Unitary actor or team that confronts a problem, assesses objectives (goals), identifies options,
    the consequences of said options, and then chooses option that minimizes costs.
 ● Variant: Bounded rationality and satisficing. Recognize imperfect info, ambiguity, and select first
    satisfactory option (good enough).

Dominant Pattern of Inference
 ● Action = Maximization ("satisficing") of means to ends.

Management Strategies
 ● Know alternatives and their consequences for the shared goal, and select wisely. Improve
    information and analysis. Management by consequences.
Organizational Process
When does it apply?
 ● Exists when organization is divided into clear positions and routines and when the problem can
    be modularized.

Summary or Basic Argument
 ● Dividing up problem, coordinating / activating organizational actors who have special capacities /
    standard operating procedure’s (SOP’s) for parts of the problem, conducting sequential attention
    to objectives (localized searches until problems resolved). Action guided by available routines.

Dominant Pattern of Inference
 ● Action = cueing of SOP’s appropriate to problem and actions are path dependent (SOP)

Management Strategies
 ● Know SOP’s, what problems they go with (matching), and who cues them. Improve rules and
    matching with problems. Management by rules.
Coalitions
When does it apply?
 ● Exists when there are multiple actors with inconsistent preferences and identities, and none of
    whom can go it alone without assistance of others.

Summary or Basic Argument
 ● Focus on the players occupying various positions; their parochial interests (their conceptions of
    problems and solutions); their resources (expertise, money, people) and stakes in game; and
    enact bargaining processes between them so as to establish agreements / coalitions.

Dominant Pattern of Inference
 ● Action = result of political bargaining.

Management Strategies
 ● Bargain with players (log-roll, horse-trade, hinder opposition’s coalition formation, etc). Learn
    others’ interests / weaknesses so you know how to manipulate and win. Direct management of
    relations via bargaining.
Th
                                                                                      is
                                                                                Ga was
                                                                                    r
                                                                              wh bage also i
                                                                                  ere          C     nt
                                                                            op
                                                                               p        ga an T rodu
                                                                                            r
                                                                          ga ortun bage heory ced a
                                                                             rba         itie                   s
                                                                                              s fo cans , or "G
Organized Anarchies                                                      an
                                                                            oth
                                                                                  ge
                                                                                   (so
                                                                                      i
                                                                                er tems r cho are re CT",
                                                                                                      i
                                                                                        luti might ces, a prese
                                                                                             on                   nt
                                                                                                s to stick nd
                                                                                                    pro    to
When does it apply?                                                                                     ble one
                                                                                                           m)
 ●   Exists when there are independent streams of problems, solutions and participants that collide in
     choice arenas (meetings where decisions are made).

Summary or Basic Argument
 ● Focus on choice arenas (when choice opportunities / windows arise); the distinct and decoupled
    streams of problems, solutions, and participants; access to the arena (whether structural or
    timed); and the process of connecting problems-solutions and participants.

Dominant Pattern of Inference
 ● Action / decision = result of streams’ collision in choice arena and deadlines

Management Strategies
 ● Time when your solution is raised to maximize energy (to coincide with right participants and
    cycle of problems); abandon entangled initiatives; know how to overload the system for policies
    you oppose; and generate choice opportunities that work to your interests (access/timing).
    Indirectly manage choice arenas.
Organizational Learning
When does it apply?
 ● Exists when there are feedback loops, adaptations, memories, and support of actor-expertise /
    adaptations of rules to local reality (practice / “doing” focus).

Summary or Basic Argument
 ● Acknowledges routines, but focuses on practices and the effort to continually adapt, remember,
    and improve upon their returns to outcomes via internal communities of practice and external
    outreach through networks of practice – i.e., organization demonstrates intelligence.

Dominant Pattern of Inference
 ● Action = results from inspection of practice and assessment of its returns to the organization, all
    through local collaboration and external network searches.

Management Strategies
 ● Find ways to create lateral ties among workers so “knowledge” is passed / transferred more
    readily / quickly (if possible, quickly), create means to organizational memory of what works.
    Create applied, social learning experiences with means to retaining and transferring expertise.
    Want communication, collective improvisation, practice and knowledge sharing to arise.
Organizational Culture
When does it apply?
 ● When the cognitive and normative aspects of social structure are of concern and guide
    organizational outcomes (informal relations & intrinsic motives matter).

Summary or Basic Argument
 ● Actors seek expression and fulfillment of identity, and organizational culture is the medium for it.
    Through ritual expression, members either align with or against the organization’s mission and
    identity.

Dominant Pattern of Inference
 ● Action = result of deep structure or culture that is generated in the organization, but which is
    mediated by the member’s relation to it.

Management Strategies
 ● Manage themes (beliefs & norms), their expression via practices (interpersonal rituals), and their
    manifestation in artifacts (reports, mission statements, etc) so as to confer an ideology and lead
    others to identify with it. Give room for autonomy and self-expression so distancing isn’t
    necessary, and encourage members to generate a culture of their own.
Resource Dependency Theory
When does it apply?
 ● Exists when there is a firm interested in increasing autonomy and certainty in their environment.
    (environmental dependence concerns)

Summary or Basic Argument
 ● Organizations manage their resource dependence relations with firms in the environment so as
    to generate autonomy and certainty.

Dominant Pattern of Inference
 ● Action = Scan environment for resource opportunities and threats, attempt to strike favorable
    bargains so as to minimize dependence and maximize autonomy / certainty (external
    adaptations).

Management Strategies
 ● Buffer – protect the technical core from environmental threats (coding, stockpiling, leveling,
    forecasting and adjusting scale). Bridge – create relations with other firms in the environment
    (partial absorption via cooptation [interlocks, joint ventures, strategic alliances, associations];
    total absorption via merger [vertical, horizontal, and diversification]).
Network Form of Organization
When does it apply?
 ● When the network of inter-organizational relations matters; when delivery of a service entails
    managing networks of collaboration, contracting and outsourcing.

Summary or Basic Argument
 ● Organizations focus on network relations, positions, and larger context in developing strategy.
    Multiple types of networks are feasible and guide exchanges.

Dominant Pattern of Inference
 ● Action = identify complementary strengths, form alliances, establish collaborative/reciprocal
    norms, create open-ended mutual benefits where possible, and outsource secondary tasks (to
    focus on core) – all for survival and creation of positive network environment that delivers
    service.

Management Strategies
 ● Design network to deliver service (select partners carefully); establish informal, active
    communication channels; coordinate member activities (group processing skills – align members
    culturally, remove competition, create open information, form joint governance, and focus on
    discrete functions / coordination of actual tasks); reinforce norms of collaboration and reciprocity.
Neo-Institutional Theory
When does it apply?
 ● Exists when the level of analysis is an institutional field and the focus is on conformity to cultural
    scripts and/or norms in the environment. Firm structures are based on the external culture.

Summary or Basic Argument
 ● Organizations in a field conform to cultural norms to insure survival and to reduce ambiguity.
    Legitimacy is a key “resource”, and it can come at the expense of organizational efficiency.
    Professionals and the nation-state carry the modern cultural recipes and give them authority in
    translations to the organizational context.

Dominant Pattern of Inference
 ● Action = Organizations in a field conforming to normative and regulative environments; the
    process can be strategic and planned or cognitive and taken-for-granted.

Management Strategies
 ● Buffer through symbolic coding (systematizing and classifying) and decoupling organizational
    elements (loose coupling); Bridge through institutional Isomorphism (external pressures via
    rationalized myths) and acquisition of legitimacy. Use coercive, mimetic, and normative means
    to become isomorphic.
Organizational Ecology
When does it apply?
 ● Exists when the level of analysis is an organizational population and the primary concern is with
    inter-firm competition and environmental selection.

Summary or Basic Argument
 ● The environment constantly changes. Populations of organizations form niches of isomorphic
    fitting organizations that establish temporary environmental equilibrium. Firms vary and
    compete, and then some are environmentally selected and reproduced until the niche reaches
    carrying capacity.

Dominant Pattern of Inference
 ● Action = Organizations in a population compete to fit an organizational niche (set of other orgs
    engaged in same form of activity and relations of interdependence) and become isomorphic with
    others in it. Non-fit firms are culled; new firms that are selected and retained produce change.
Management Strategies
 ● Adaptation is hard, so the main effort is to be competitively isomorphic in organizational niches.
    Organizations succeed by establishing fit with a niche – what population you are in, what the
    composition is, what change is occurring, and then whether it makes sense to adopt a generalist
    or specialist orientation.
Each theory has a different scope
and gives a different perspective
The theories vary
●   Idealised - (more) realistic
●   Narrow - broad focus (decision-context)
●   Adaptive - deterministic
●   Internal - external
●   Deep structure - surface action


So pick the one that fits best (gives a more or less complete explanation of how
and why the organisation behaves), and if possible choose more than one to
ensure that you can cover different perspectives.
Multiple theories can be applied in
different combination approaches
How might we apply different theories at different times/places/levels?
Narratives of combination:
●   Staged (plan → implement)
●   Embedded (macro [micro])
●   Differentiated (culture/sense - resource/efficiency)
●   Industry based
     ○ Finance
     ○ Knowledge
     ○ Politics
     ○ Bureaucracy
End of Slides

More Related Content

What's hot

Operational and financial control techniques
Operational and financial control techniquesOperational and financial control techniques
Operational and financial control techniquesSusmi Harsha
 
HRM - Organisational Structure
HRM - Organisational StructureHRM - Organisational Structure
HRM - Organisational Structuretutor2u
 
Concept and role of culture in International human resource management
Concept and  role of culture in International human resource managementConcept and  role of culture in International human resource management
Concept and role of culture in International human resource managementSundar B N
 
Strategic hrm approaches
Strategic hrm approachesStrategic hrm approaches
Strategic hrm approachesMeera Cherian
 
Debt Recovery Management or Debt Recovery Mechanism by Banks
Debt Recovery Management or Debt Recovery Mechanism by BanksDebt Recovery Management or Debt Recovery Mechanism by Banks
Debt Recovery Management or Debt Recovery Mechanism by BanksVishak G
 
Debentures- Types, Advantages and Disadvantages
Debentures- Types, Advantages and DisadvantagesDebentures- Types, Advantages and Disadvantages
Debentures- Types, Advantages and Disadvantagesnezreen ashraf
 
Role of board of directors -Corporate Governance
Role of board of directors -Corporate GovernanceRole of board of directors -Corporate Governance
Role of board of directors -Corporate GovernanceRehan Ehsan
 
Role of BODs in Corporate Governance
Role of BODs in Corporate GovernanceRole of BODs in Corporate Governance
Role of BODs in Corporate GovernanceBijay Karmacharya
 
strategic management process.pptx
strategic management process.pptxstrategic management process.pptx
strategic management process.pptx2116082KIRAN
 

What's hot (20)

Departmentation
DepartmentationDepartmentation
Departmentation
 
International Performance Management
International Performance ManagementInternational Performance Management
International Performance Management
 
Operational and financial control techniques
Operational and financial control techniquesOperational and financial control techniques
Operational and financial control techniques
 
HRM - Organisational Structure
HRM - Organisational StructureHRM - Organisational Structure
HRM - Organisational Structure
 
Concept and role of culture in International human resource management
Concept and  role of culture in International human resource managementConcept and  role of culture in International human resource management
Concept and role of culture in International human resource management
 
Types of Cheque
Types of ChequeTypes of Cheque
Types of Cheque
 
Strategic hrm approaches
Strategic hrm approachesStrategic hrm approaches
Strategic hrm approaches
 
consumer behaviour
consumer behaviourconsumer behaviour
consumer behaviour
 
Banker & customer
Banker & customerBanker & customer
Banker & customer
 
Cheque
ChequeCheque
Cheque
 
Debt Recovery Management or Debt Recovery Mechanism by Banks
Debt Recovery Management or Debt Recovery Mechanism by BanksDebt Recovery Management or Debt Recovery Mechanism by Banks
Debt Recovery Management or Debt Recovery Mechanism by Banks
 
Models of Corporate Governance
Models of Corporate GovernanceModels of Corporate Governance
Models of Corporate Governance
 
Compensation management - Questions and answers for 1st internal assessment i
Compensation management - Questions and answers for 1st internal assessment iCompensation management - Questions and answers for 1st internal assessment i
Compensation management - Questions and answers for 1st internal assessment i
 
Debentures- Types, Advantages and Disadvantages
Debentures- Types, Advantages and DisadvantagesDebentures- Types, Advantages and Disadvantages
Debentures- Types, Advantages and Disadvantages
 
Workers Participation In Management
Workers Participation In ManagementWorkers Participation In Management
Workers Participation In Management
 
Collecting and paying banker
Collecting and paying bankerCollecting and paying banker
Collecting and paying banker
 
Designing compensation system Part IV
Designing compensation system Part IVDesigning compensation system Part IV
Designing compensation system Part IV
 
Role of board of directors -Corporate Governance
Role of board of directors -Corporate GovernanceRole of board of directors -Corporate Governance
Role of board of directors -Corporate Governance
 
Role of BODs in Corporate Governance
Role of BODs in Corporate GovernanceRole of BODs in Corporate Governance
Role of BODs in Corporate Governance
 
strategic management process.pptx
strategic management process.pptxstrategic management process.pptx
strategic management process.pptx
 

Viewers also liked

Organization analysis final
Organization analysis finalOrganization analysis final
Organization analysis finaldezell
 
MOOC - Organizational Analysis - Daniel McFarland
MOOC - Organizational Analysis - Daniel McFarlandMOOC - Organizational Analysis - Daniel McFarland
MOOC - Organizational Analysis - Daniel McFarlandVPOL_ID
 
Organizational Analysis In Personnel Management
Organizational Analysis In Personnel Management Organizational Analysis In Personnel Management
Organizational Analysis In Personnel Management Abu Jaiyana
 
Syllabus inspiring leadership through emotional intelligence
Syllabus inspiring leadership through emotional intelligenceSyllabus inspiring leadership through emotional intelligence
Syllabus inspiring leadership through emotional intelligenceEdward Villa
 
Power, politics and stakeholder management
Power, politics and stakeholder managementPower, politics and stakeholder management
Power, politics and stakeholder managementazmatmengal
 
Internal Scanning: Organizational Analysis
Internal Scanning: Organizational AnalysisInternal Scanning: Organizational Analysis
Internal Scanning: Organizational AnalysisRakshit Rekhi
 
Poter's generic strategy model
Poter's generic strategy modelPoter's generic strategy model
Poter's generic strategy modelBharti Bhutani
 
Strategy in strategic hrm part 1
Strategy in strategic hrm part 1Strategy in strategic hrm part 1
Strategy in strategic hrm part 1Anilesh Seth
 
Mc kinsey 7s model - strategic implementation- Manu Melwin Joy
Mc kinsey 7s model - strategic implementation- Manu Melwin JoyMc kinsey 7s model - strategic implementation- Manu Melwin Joy
Mc kinsey 7s model - strategic implementation- Manu Melwin Joymanumelwin
 
Introduction to business policy
Introduction to business policyIntroduction to business policy
Introduction to business policyHanish Sharma
 
Hr & Organizational Strategies
Hr & Organizational StrategiesHr & Organizational Strategies
Hr & Organizational StrategiesNISHA SHAH
 
Strategic Management And Strategic Alternatives
Strategic Management And Strategic AlternativesStrategic Management And Strategic Alternatives
Strategic Management And Strategic AlternativesDr. Trilok Kumar Jain
 
A business organisation -TATA GROUP- pdf
A business organisation -TATA GROUP- pdfA business organisation -TATA GROUP- pdf
A business organisation -TATA GROUP- pdfsimplyidontcare
 
environmental analysis and its technique
environmental analysis and its technique environmental analysis and its technique
environmental analysis and its technique Sonu Nitish
 
Ch03 - Organisation theory design and change gareth jones
Ch03 - Organisation theory design and change gareth jonesCh03 - Organisation theory design and change gareth jones
Ch03 - Organisation theory design and change gareth jonesAnkit Kesri
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Organisational analysis
Organisational analysisOrganisational analysis
Organisational analysis
 
Organization analysis final
Organization analysis finalOrganization analysis final
Organization analysis final
 
MOOC - Organizational Analysis - Daniel McFarland
MOOC - Organizational Analysis - Daniel McFarlandMOOC - Organizational Analysis - Daniel McFarland
MOOC - Organizational Analysis - Daniel McFarland
 
Organizational Analysis In Personnel Management
Organizational Analysis In Personnel Management Organizational Analysis In Personnel Management
Organizational Analysis In Personnel Management
 
Strategic HRM
Strategic HRMStrategic HRM
Strategic HRM
 
Syllabus inspiring leadership through emotional intelligence
Syllabus inspiring leadership through emotional intelligenceSyllabus inspiring leadership through emotional intelligence
Syllabus inspiring leadership through emotional intelligence
 
BMBE Law, IRR and Forms
BMBE Law, IRR and FormsBMBE Law, IRR and Forms
BMBE Law, IRR and Forms
 
Power, politics and stakeholder management
Power, politics and stakeholder managementPower, politics and stakeholder management
Power, politics and stakeholder management
 
Internal Scanning: Organizational Analysis
Internal Scanning: Organizational AnalysisInternal Scanning: Organizational Analysis
Internal Scanning: Organizational Analysis
 
Poter's generic strategy model
Poter's generic strategy modelPoter's generic strategy model
Poter's generic strategy model
 
Change agent
Change agentChange agent
Change agent
 
Strategy in strategic hrm part 1
Strategy in strategic hrm part 1Strategy in strategic hrm part 1
Strategy in strategic hrm part 1
 
Mc kinsey 7s model - strategic implementation- Manu Melwin Joy
Mc kinsey 7s model - strategic implementation- Manu Melwin JoyMc kinsey 7s model - strategic implementation- Manu Melwin Joy
Mc kinsey 7s model - strategic implementation- Manu Melwin Joy
 
Introduction to business policy
Introduction to business policyIntroduction to business policy
Introduction to business policy
 
Hr & Organizational Strategies
Hr & Organizational StrategiesHr & Organizational Strategies
Hr & Organizational Strategies
 
Strategy formulation
Strategy formulationStrategy formulation
Strategy formulation
 
Strategic Management And Strategic Alternatives
Strategic Management And Strategic AlternativesStrategic Management And Strategic Alternatives
Strategic Management And Strategic Alternatives
 
A business organisation -TATA GROUP- pdf
A business organisation -TATA GROUP- pdfA business organisation -TATA GROUP- pdf
A business organisation -TATA GROUP- pdf
 
environmental analysis and its technique
environmental analysis and its technique environmental analysis and its technique
environmental analysis and its technique
 
Ch03 - Organisation theory design and change gareth jones
Ch03 - Organisation theory design and change gareth jonesCh03 - Organisation theory design and change gareth jones
Ch03 - Organisation theory design and change gareth jones
 

Similar to Coursera's 2012 Organisational Analysis Course Summary

Back To The Grassroots – CED and Building Local Power
Back To The Grassroots – CED and Building Local PowerBack To The Grassroots – CED and Building Local Power
Back To The Grassroots – CED and Building Local PowerRaïmi Osseni
 
The world is a garage: designing services is a messy job
The world is a garage: designing services is a messy jobThe world is a garage: designing services is a messy job
The world is a garage: designing services is a messy job31Volts
 
Preview of Taxonomy of Teaching Learning and Assessing Workshop
Preview of Taxonomy of Teaching Learning and Assessing WorkshopPreview of Taxonomy of Teaching Learning and Assessing Workshop
Preview of Taxonomy of Teaching Learning and Assessing WorkshopDr. N. Asokan
 
Tyler Capital Group: Sequential Proxy Optimization Tools
Tyler Capital Group: Sequential Proxy Optimization Tools Tyler Capital Group: Sequential Proxy Optimization Tools
Tyler Capital Group: Sequential Proxy Optimization Tools Jonathan Buffa
 
SoLAR-FlareUK-2012.11.19-lightningtalks
SoLAR-FlareUK-2012.11.19-lightningtalksSoLAR-FlareUK-2012.11.19-lightningtalks
SoLAR-FlareUK-2012.11.19-lightningtalksSimon Buckingham Shum
 
Centre for population and public health research2
Centre for population and public health research2Centre for population and public health research2
Centre for population and public health research2TCV Scotland
 

Similar to Coursera's 2012 Organisational Analysis Course Summary (7)

Back To The Grassroots – CED and Building Local Power
Back To The Grassroots – CED and Building Local PowerBack To The Grassroots – CED and Building Local Power
Back To The Grassroots – CED and Building Local Power
 
The world is a garage: designing services is a messy job
The world is a garage: designing services is a messy jobThe world is a garage: designing services is a messy job
The world is a garage: designing services is a messy job
 
Preview of Taxonomy of Teaching Learning and Assessing Workshop
Preview of Taxonomy of Teaching Learning and Assessing WorkshopPreview of Taxonomy of Teaching Learning and Assessing Workshop
Preview of Taxonomy of Teaching Learning and Assessing Workshop
 
Tyler Capital Group: Sequential Proxy Optimization Tools
Tyler Capital Group: Sequential Proxy Optimization Tools Tyler Capital Group: Sequential Proxy Optimization Tools
Tyler Capital Group: Sequential Proxy Optimization Tools
 
SoLAR-FlareUK-2012.11.19-lightningtalks
SoLAR-FlareUK-2012.11.19-lightningtalksSoLAR-FlareUK-2012.11.19-lightningtalks
SoLAR-FlareUK-2012.11.19-lightningtalks
 
Centre for population and public health research2
Centre for population and public health research2Centre for population and public health research2
Centre for population and public health research2
 
Canada-CARICOM "Trade-not-Aid" Strategy: Important and Achievable
Canada-CARICOM "Trade-not-Aid" Strategy: Important and AchievableCanada-CARICOM "Trade-not-Aid" Strategy: Important and Achievable
Canada-CARICOM "Trade-not-Aid" Strategy: Important and Achievable
 

More from John Phillips

SSI and verifiable vaccination credentials
SSI and verifiable vaccination credentialsSSI and verifiable vaccination credentials
SSI and verifiable vaccination credentialsJohn Phillips
 
Major Implementation Projects - Persist pivot or quit?
Major Implementation Projects - Persist pivot or quit?Major Implementation Projects - Persist pivot or quit?
Major Implementation Projects - Persist pivot or quit?John Phillips
 
Managing Dependencies
Managing DependenciesManaging Dependencies
Managing DependenciesJohn Phillips
 
Decision making models
Decision making modelsDecision making models
Decision making modelsJohn Phillips
 
What Matters Now? Gary Hamel on how to win in a world of relentless change
What Matters Now? Gary Hamel on how to win in a world of relentless changeWhat Matters Now? Gary Hamel on how to win in a world of relentless change
What Matters Now? Gary Hamel on how to win in a world of relentless changeJohn Phillips
 
Cost to deliver elements and price points for professional services
Cost to deliver elements and price points for professional servicesCost to deliver elements and price points for professional services
Cost to deliver elements and price points for professional servicesJohn Phillips
 
6 Perspectives on Organisational Design
6 Perspectives on Organisational Design6 Perspectives on Organisational Design
6 Perspectives on Organisational DesignJohn Phillips
 
Technology enabled business change projects
Technology enabled business change projectsTechnology enabled business change projects
Technology enabled business change projectsJohn Phillips
 

More from John Phillips (8)

SSI and verifiable vaccination credentials
SSI and verifiable vaccination credentialsSSI and verifiable vaccination credentials
SSI and verifiable vaccination credentials
 
Major Implementation Projects - Persist pivot or quit?
Major Implementation Projects - Persist pivot or quit?Major Implementation Projects - Persist pivot or quit?
Major Implementation Projects - Persist pivot or quit?
 
Managing Dependencies
Managing DependenciesManaging Dependencies
Managing Dependencies
 
Decision making models
Decision making modelsDecision making models
Decision making models
 
What Matters Now? Gary Hamel on how to win in a world of relentless change
What Matters Now? Gary Hamel on how to win in a world of relentless changeWhat Matters Now? Gary Hamel on how to win in a world of relentless change
What Matters Now? Gary Hamel on how to win in a world of relentless change
 
Cost to deliver elements and price points for professional services
Cost to deliver elements and price points for professional servicesCost to deliver elements and price points for professional services
Cost to deliver elements and price points for professional services
 
6 Perspectives on Organisational Design
6 Perspectives on Organisational Design6 Perspectives on Organisational Design
6 Perspectives on Organisational Design
 
Technology enabled business change projects
Technology enabled business change projectsTechnology enabled business change projects
Technology enabled business change projects
 

Recently uploaded

Send Files | Sendbig.comSend Files | Sendbig.com
Send Files | Sendbig.comSend Files | Sendbig.comSend Files | Sendbig.comSend Files | Sendbig.com
Send Files | Sendbig.comSend Files | Sendbig.comSendBig4
 
WSMM Media and Entertainment Feb_March_Final.pdf
WSMM Media and Entertainment Feb_March_Final.pdfWSMM Media and Entertainment Feb_March_Final.pdf
WSMM Media and Entertainment Feb_March_Final.pdfJamesConcepcion7
 
20200128 Ethical by Design - Whitepaper.pdf
20200128 Ethical by Design - Whitepaper.pdf20200128 Ethical by Design - Whitepaper.pdf
20200128 Ethical by Design - Whitepaper.pdfChris Skinner
 
business environment micro environment macro environment.pptx
business environment micro environment macro environment.pptxbusiness environment micro environment macro environment.pptx
business environment micro environment macro environment.pptxShruti Mittal
 
How To Simplify Your Scheduling with AI Calendarfly The Hassle-Free Online Bo...
How To Simplify Your Scheduling with AI Calendarfly The Hassle-Free Online Bo...How To Simplify Your Scheduling with AI Calendarfly The Hassle-Free Online Bo...
How To Simplify Your Scheduling with AI Calendarfly The Hassle-Free Online Bo...SOFTTECHHUB
 
Excvation Safety for safety officers reference
Excvation Safety for safety officers referenceExcvation Safety for safety officers reference
Excvation Safety for safety officers referencessuser2c065e
 
Pitch Deck Teardown: Geodesic.Life's $500k Pre-seed deck
Pitch Deck Teardown: Geodesic.Life's $500k Pre-seed deckPitch Deck Teardown: Geodesic.Life's $500k Pre-seed deck
Pitch Deck Teardown: Geodesic.Life's $500k Pre-seed deckHajeJanKamps
 
20220816-EthicsGrade_Scorecard-JP_Morgan_Chase-Q2-63_57.pdf
20220816-EthicsGrade_Scorecard-JP_Morgan_Chase-Q2-63_57.pdf20220816-EthicsGrade_Scorecard-JP_Morgan_Chase-Q2-63_57.pdf
20220816-EthicsGrade_Scorecard-JP_Morgan_Chase-Q2-63_57.pdfChris Skinner
 
Kenya Coconut Production Presentation by Dr. Lalith Perera
Kenya Coconut Production Presentation by Dr. Lalith PereraKenya Coconut Production Presentation by Dr. Lalith Perera
Kenya Coconut Production Presentation by Dr. Lalith Pereraictsugar
 
1911 Gold Corporate Presentation Apr 2024.pdf
1911 Gold Corporate Presentation Apr 2024.pdf1911 Gold Corporate Presentation Apr 2024.pdf
1911 Gold Corporate Presentation Apr 2024.pdfShaun Heinrichs
 
MAHA Global and IPR: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?
MAHA Global and IPR: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?MAHA Global and IPR: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?
MAHA Global and IPR: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?Olivia Kresic
 
WSMM Technology February.March Newsletter_vF.pdf
WSMM Technology February.March Newsletter_vF.pdfWSMM Technology February.March Newsletter_vF.pdf
WSMM Technology February.March Newsletter_vF.pdfJamesConcepcion7
 
Pitch Deck Teardown: Xpanceo's $40M Seed deck
Pitch Deck Teardown: Xpanceo's $40M Seed deckPitch Deck Teardown: Xpanceo's $40M Seed deck
Pitch Deck Teardown: Xpanceo's $40M Seed deckHajeJanKamps
 
Traction part 2 - EOS Model JAX Bridges.
Traction part 2 - EOS Model JAX Bridges.Traction part 2 - EOS Model JAX Bridges.
Traction part 2 - EOS Model JAX Bridges.Anamaria Contreras
 
Cybersecurity Awareness Training Presentation v2024.03
Cybersecurity Awareness Training Presentation v2024.03Cybersecurity Awareness Training Presentation v2024.03
Cybersecurity Awareness Training Presentation v2024.03DallasHaselhorst
 
Supercharge Your eCommerce Stores-acowebs
Supercharge Your eCommerce Stores-acowebsSupercharge Your eCommerce Stores-acowebs
Supercharge Your eCommerce Stores-acowebsGOKUL JS
 
Entrepreneurship lessons in Philippines
Entrepreneurship lessons in  PhilippinesEntrepreneurship lessons in  Philippines
Entrepreneurship lessons in PhilippinesDavidSamuel525586
 
NAB Show Exhibitor List 2024 - Exhibitors Data
NAB Show Exhibitor List 2024 - Exhibitors DataNAB Show Exhibitor List 2024 - Exhibitors Data
NAB Show Exhibitor List 2024 - Exhibitors DataExhibitors Data
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Send Files | Sendbig.comSend Files | Sendbig.com
Send Files | Sendbig.comSend Files | Sendbig.comSend Files | Sendbig.comSend Files | Sendbig.com
Send Files | Sendbig.comSend Files | Sendbig.com
 
WSMM Media and Entertainment Feb_March_Final.pdf
WSMM Media and Entertainment Feb_March_Final.pdfWSMM Media and Entertainment Feb_March_Final.pdf
WSMM Media and Entertainment Feb_March_Final.pdf
 
20200128 Ethical by Design - Whitepaper.pdf
20200128 Ethical by Design - Whitepaper.pdf20200128 Ethical by Design - Whitepaper.pdf
20200128 Ethical by Design - Whitepaper.pdf
 
business environment micro environment macro environment.pptx
business environment micro environment macro environment.pptxbusiness environment micro environment macro environment.pptx
business environment micro environment macro environment.pptx
 
How To Simplify Your Scheduling with AI Calendarfly The Hassle-Free Online Bo...
How To Simplify Your Scheduling with AI Calendarfly The Hassle-Free Online Bo...How To Simplify Your Scheduling with AI Calendarfly The Hassle-Free Online Bo...
How To Simplify Your Scheduling with AI Calendarfly The Hassle-Free Online Bo...
 
Excvation Safety for safety officers reference
Excvation Safety for safety officers referenceExcvation Safety for safety officers reference
Excvation Safety for safety officers reference
 
Pitch Deck Teardown: Geodesic.Life's $500k Pre-seed deck
Pitch Deck Teardown: Geodesic.Life's $500k Pre-seed deckPitch Deck Teardown: Geodesic.Life's $500k Pre-seed deck
Pitch Deck Teardown: Geodesic.Life's $500k Pre-seed deck
 
20220816-EthicsGrade_Scorecard-JP_Morgan_Chase-Q2-63_57.pdf
20220816-EthicsGrade_Scorecard-JP_Morgan_Chase-Q2-63_57.pdf20220816-EthicsGrade_Scorecard-JP_Morgan_Chase-Q2-63_57.pdf
20220816-EthicsGrade_Scorecard-JP_Morgan_Chase-Q2-63_57.pdf
 
Corporate Profile 47Billion Information Technology
Corporate Profile 47Billion Information TechnologyCorporate Profile 47Billion Information Technology
Corporate Profile 47Billion Information Technology
 
Kenya Coconut Production Presentation by Dr. Lalith Perera
Kenya Coconut Production Presentation by Dr. Lalith PereraKenya Coconut Production Presentation by Dr. Lalith Perera
Kenya Coconut Production Presentation by Dr. Lalith Perera
 
1911 Gold Corporate Presentation Apr 2024.pdf
1911 Gold Corporate Presentation Apr 2024.pdf1911 Gold Corporate Presentation Apr 2024.pdf
1911 Gold Corporate Presentation Apr 2024.pdf
 
MAHA Global and IPR: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?
MAHA Global and IPR: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?MAHA Global and IPR: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?
MAHA Global and IPR: Do Actions Speak Louder Than Words?
 
WSMM Technology February.March Newsletter_vF.pdf
WSMM Technology February.March Newsletter_vF.pdfWSMM Technology February.March Newsletter_vF.pdf
WSMM Technology February.March Newsletter_vF.pdf
 
The Bizz Quiz-E-Summit-E-Cell-IITPatna.pptx
The Bizz Quiz-E-Summit-E-Cell-IITPatna.pptxThe Bizz Quiz-E-Summit-E-Cell-IITPatna.pptx
The Bizz Quiz-E-Summit-E-Cell-IITPatna.pptx
 
Pitch Deck Teardown: Xpanceo's $40M Seed deck
Pitch Deck Teardown: Xpanceo's $40M Seed deckPitch Deck Teardown: Xpanceo's $40M Seed deck
Pitch Deck Teardown: Xpanceo's $40M Seed deck
 
Traction part 2 - EOS Model JAX Bridges.
Traction part 2 - EOS Model JAX Bridges.Traction part 2 - EOS Model JAX Bridges.
Traction part 2 - EOS Model JAX Bridges.
 
Cybersecurity Awareness Training Presentation v2024.03
Cybersecurity Awareness Training Presentation v2024.03Cybersecurity Awareness Training Presentation v2024.03
Cybersecurity Awareness Training Presentation v2024.03
 
Supercharge Your eCommerce Stores-acowebs
Supercharge Your eCommerce Stores-acowebsSupercharge Your eCommerce Stores-acowebs
Supercharge Your eCommerce Stores-acowebs
 
Entrepreneurship lessons in Philippines
Entrepreneurship lessons in  PhilippinesEntrepreneurship lessons in  Philippines
Entrepreneurship lessons in Philippines
 
NAB Show Exhibitor List 2024 - Exhibitors Data
NAB Show Exhibitor List 2024 - Exhibitors DataNAB Show Exhibitor List 2024 - Exhibitors Data
NAB Show Exhibitor List 2024 - Exhibitors Data
 

Coursera's 2012 Organisational Analysis Course Summary

  • 1. Coursera's 2012 Organisational Analysis Course www.coursera.org Summary
  • 2. Introduction and personal reflection These are brief notes taken and modified from the course material provided through Coursera by Professor McFarland on Organizational Analysis. It was my first experience of Coursera and a "MOOC" and I found the course and its content a stimulating and challenging experience (particularly the essays required of the advanced path). At the start it seemed slow and at times a little clunky in delivery and polish (blame too many years of sharp, professional, consulting presentations raising my expectations), but overall a rewarding experience. I found that my patience and perspective as a student have changed - I'm much more likely to challenge and question what I'm told and read now then I was as a young man. This is probably a good thing. I've produced these slides as an aide memoir for myself, but others may find them useful too. If you are interested, I strongly recommend you look up the course and participate in the next round. Doing is a much better way to learn than just observing! There were many references to academic and other published works provided in the course, I would be happy to provide lists of the recommended reading material if anyone is interested. John Phillips, March 2013
  • 3. A 10 week, Massive Online Open Course (MOOC), through Coursera Led By: Professor McFarland from Stanford University Participants: Over 100,000 signed up. Global participation. Nick and John from CharterMason When: Last quarter 2012 Course Objective ● Provide participants with an understanding of the different types of organisational analysis theories and techniques and how the insights they provide can be used by analysts and management. Course Content ● Organizations and their behavior ● A wide array of cases ● A variety of organizational features to consider ● A variety of theories by which to consider how those features work together ● Given management prescriptions, or lenses, that saw the world in certain ways, as being driven by certain facets
  • 4. The course had two paths: basic and advanced 1. Basic track – demonstrates basic literacy in organizational analysis (involved 2-3 hour time commitment per week) a. View about 2 hours of video segments each week and complete the online quiz questions b. Participate in the forum c. Take the final exam 2. Advanced track – demonstrates capacity for analysis and application (involved ~10-12 hour time commitment per week) a. Complete basic requirements above b. Read course texts c. Take peer evaluation training d. Write papers (2 x 1500 word essays) e. Evaluate peers’ papers Both offered a certificate of completion on meeting the course requirements.
  • 5. Studied lots of cases covering politics, business and academia... 1. Magnet school reform (Metz) 2. Cuban Missile Crisis (Allison) 3. Chicago public school reforms (Bryk, Shipps) 4. Hurricane Katrina 5. Milwaukee parental choice plan (Quinn, Witte) 6. Lobbyists (Hula) 7. School desegregation efforts (Weiner) 8. Legislative efforts – No Child Left Behind (Kingdon) 9. Academic senates (Birnbaum) 10. Xerox machine workers (Suchman) 11. World of Warcraft (Seeley-Brown) 12. Learning community reforms (Louise and Kruse, Leithwood, Lieberman) 13. Tech (Kunda) 14. Ozco (Martin and Meyerson)
  • 6. ... in total over 25 cases were studied during the course 15. University of Chicago – Northwestern merger effort (Barnes) 16. Attempted Union Strike – Silicon Systems (Krackhardt) 17. Classroom and school networks (McFarland) 18. National park service (Eggers and Goldsmith) 19. Charter school networks (Smith & Wohlstetter) 20. Schools and High Schools (Metz and Meyer-Rowan) 21. Intelligent design and teaching of evolution debate (NY Times) 22. Presidential platforms (Bai) 23. Massive Open Online Courses 24. U.S. microbrewery (Carroll) 25. Wine industry (Swaminathan) 26. Charter School movement (Renzulli)
  • 7. One key image depicted 5 organizational elements From Leavitt’s Diamond: A Model of Organization (adapted by Richard W. Scott)
  • 8. We reviewed 10 organisational analysis theories 1. Rational choice models 2. Bureaucratic models / organizational process 3. Coalition theory 4. Organizational anarchy / garbage can theory 5. Organizational learning 6. Organizational culture 7. Resource dependence theory 8. Network forms of organization 9. Neo-institutional theory 10. Organizational ecology For each of these we have a brief summary...
  • 9. Rational Actor When does it apply? ● Exists when there is a unified or centralized actor with consistent preferences, lots of information, and clear goals (and time calculate). Summary or Basic Argument ● Unitary actor or team that confronts a problem, assesses objectives (goals), identifies options, the consequences of said options, and then chooses option that minimizes costs. ● Variant: Bounded rationality and satisficing. Recognize imperfect info, ambiguity, and select first satisfactory option (good enough). Dominant Pattern of Inference ● Action = Maximization ("satisficing") of means to ends. Management Strategies ● Know alternatives and their consequences for the shared goal, and select wisely. Improve information and analysis. Management by consequences.
  • 10. Organizational Process When does it apply? ● Exists when organization is divided into clear positions and routines and when the problem can be modularized. Summary or Basic Argument ● Dividing up problem, coordinating / activating organizational actors who have special capacities / standard operating procedure’s (SOP’s) for parts of the problem, conducting sequential attention to objectives (localized searches until problems resolved). Action guided by available routines. Dominant Pattern of Inference ● Action = cueing of SOP’s appropriate to problem and actions are path dependent (SOP) Management Strategies ● Know SOP’s, what problems they go with (matching), and who cues them. Improve rules and matching with problems. Management by rules.
  • 11. Coalitions When does it apply? ● Exists when there are multiple actors with inconsistent preferences and identities, and none of whom can go it alone without assistance of others. Summary or Basic Argument ● Focus on the players occupying various positions; their parochial interests (their conceptions of problems and solutions); their resources (expertise, money, people) and stakes in game; and enact bargaining processes between them so as to establish agreements / coalitions. Dominant Pattern of Inference ● Action = result of political bargaining. Management Strategies ● Bargain with players (log-roll, horse-trade, hinder opposition’s coalition formation, etc). Learn others’ interests / weaknesses so you know how to manipulate and win. Direct management of relations via bargaining.
  • 12. Th is Ga was r wh bage also i ere C nt op p ga an T rodu r ga ortun bage heory ced a rba itie s s fo cans , or "G Organized Anarchies an oth ge (so i er tems r cho are re CT", i luti might ces, a prese on nt s to stick nd pro to When does it apply? ble one m) ● Exists when there are independent streams of problems, solutions and participants that collide in choice arenas (meetings where decisions are made). Summary or Basic Argument ● Focus on choice arenas (when choice opportunities / windows arise); the distinct and decoupled streams of problems, solutions, and participants; access to the arena (whether structural or timed); and the process of connecting problems-solutions and participants. Dominant Pattern of Inference ● Action / decision = result of streams’ collision in choice arena and deadlines Management Strategies ● Time when your solution is raised to maximize energy (to coincide with right participants and cycle of problems); abandon entangled initiatives; know how to overload the system for policies you oppose; and generate choice opportunities that work to your interests (access/timing). Indirectly manage choice arenas.
  • 13. Organizational Learning When does it apply? ● Exists when there are feedback loops, adaptations, memories, and support of actor-expertise / adaptations of rules to local reality (practice / “doing” focus). Summary or Basic Argument ● Acknowledges routines, but focuses on practices and the effort to continually adapt, remember, and improve upon their returns to outcomes via internal communities of practice and external outreach through networks of practice – i.e., organization demonstrates intelligence. Dominant Pattern of Inference ● Action = results from inspection of practice and assessment of its returns to the organization, all through local collaboration and external network searches. Management Strategies ● Find ways to create lateral ties among workers so “knowledge” is passed / transferred more readily / quickly (if possible, quickly), create means to organizational memory of what works. Create applied, social learning experiences with means to retaining and transferring expertise. Want communication, collective improvisation, practice and knowledge sharing to arise.
  • 14. Organizational Culture When does it apply? ● When the cognitive and normative aspects of social structure are of concern and guide organizational outcomes (informal relations & intrinsic motives matter). Summary or Basic Argument ● Actors seek expression and fulfillment of identity, and organizational culture is the medium for it. Through ritual expression, members either align with or against the organization’s mission and identity. Dominant Pattern of Inference ● Action = result of deep structure or culture that is generated in the organization, but which is mediated by the member’s relation to it. Management Strategies ● Manage themes (beliefs & norms), their expression via practices (interpersonal rituals), and their manifestation in artifacts (reports, mission statements, etc) so as to confer an ideology and lead others to identify with it. Give room for autonomy and self-expression so distancing isn’t necessary, and encourage members to generate a culture of their own.
  • 15. Resource Dependency Theory When does it apply? ● Exists when there is a firm interested in increasing autonomy and certainty in their environment. (environmental dependence concerns) Summary or Basic Argument ● Organizations manage their resource dependence relations with firms in the environment so as to generate autonomy and certainty. Dominant Pattern of Inference ● Action = Scan environment for resource opportunities and threats, attempt to strike favorable bargains so as to minimize dependence and maximize autonomy / certainty (external adaptations). Management Strategies ● Buffer – protect the technical core from environmental threats (coding, stockpiling, leveling, forecasting and adjusting scale). Bridge – create relations with other firms in the environment (partial absorption via cooptation [interlocks, joint ventures, strategic alliances, associations]; total absorption via merger [vertical, horizontal, and diversification]).
  • 16. Network Form of Organization When does it apply? ● When the network of inter-organizational relations matters; when delivery of a service entails managing networks of collaboration, contracting and outsourcing. Summary or Basic Argument ● Organizations focus on network relations, positions, and larger context in developing strategy. Multiple types of networks are feasible and guide exchanges. Dominant Pattern of Inference ● Action = identify complementary strengths, form alliances, establish collaborative/reciprocal norms, create open-ended mutual benefits where possible, and outsource secondary tasks (to focus on core) – all for survival and creation of positive network environment that delivers service. Management Strategies ● Design network to deliver service (select partners carefully); establish informal, active communication channels; coordinate member activities (group processing skills – align members culturally, remove competition, create open information, form joint governance, and focus on discrete functions / coordination of actual tasks); reinforce norms of collaboration and reciprocity.
  • 17. Neo-Institutional Theory When does it apply? ● Exists when the level of analysis is an institutional field and the focus is on conformity to cultural scripts and/or norms in the environment. Firm structures are based on the external culture. Summary or Basic Argument ● Organizations in a field conform to cultural norms to insure survival and to reduce ambiguity. Legitimacy is a key “resource”, and it can come at the expense of organizational efficiency. Professionals and the nation-state carry the modern cultural recipes and give them authority in translations to the organizational context. Dominant Pattern of Inference ● Action = Organizations in a field conforming to normative and regulative environments; the process can be strategic and planned or cognitive and taken-for-granted. Management Strategies ● Buffer through symbolic coding (systematizing and classifying) and decoupling organizational elements (loose coupling); Bridge through institutional Isomorphism (external pressures via rationalized myths) and acquisition of legitimacy. Use coercive, mimetic, and normative means to become isomorphic.
  • 18. Organizational Ecology When does it apply? ● Exists when the level of analysis is an organizational population and the primary concern is with inter-firm competition and environmental selection. Summary or Basic Argument ● The environment constantly changes. Populations of organizations form niches of isomorphic fitting organizations that establish temporary environmental equilibrium. Firms vary and compete, and then some are environmentally selected and reproduced until the niche reaches carrying capacity. Dominant Pattern of Inference ● Action = Organizations in a population compete to fit an organizational niche (set of other orgs engaged in same form of activity and relations of interdependence) and become isomorphic with others in it. Non-fit firms are culled; new firms that are selected and retained produce change. Management Strategies ● Adaptation is hard, so the main effort is to be competitively isomorphic in organizational niches. Organizations succeed by establishing fit with a niche – what population you are in, what the composition is, what change is occurring, and then whether it makes sense to adopt a generalist or specialist orientation.
  • 19. Each theory has a different scope and gives a different perspective The theories vary ● Idealised - (more) realistic ● Narrow - broad focus (decision-context) ● Adaptive - deterministic ● Internal - external ● Deep structure - surface action So pick the one that fits best (gives a more or less complete explanation of how and why the organisation behaves), and if possible choose more than one to ensure that you can cover different perspectives.
  • 20. Multiple theories can be applied in different combination approaches How might we apply different theories at different times/places/levels? Narratives of combination: ● Staged (plan → implement) ● Embedded (macro [micro]) ● Differentiated (culture/sense - resource/efficiency) ● Industry based ○ Finance ○ Knowledge ○ Politics ○ Bureaucracy