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  1. 1.  ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM - the range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation
  4. 4.  electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength longer than that of visible light, measured from the nominal edge of visible red light at 0.74 micrometres (µm), and extending conventionally to 300 µm.Infrared light is used in industrial, scientific, and medical applications.
  5. 5. Night-vision devices using infraredillumination allow people or animals to beobserved without the observer being detected.In astronomy, imaging at infrared wavelengthsallows observation of objects obscured byinterstellar dust. Infrared imaging cameras areused to detect heat loss in insulated systems,observe changing blood flow in the skin, andoverheating of electrical apparatus.
  6. 6.  gaining importance in the applied spectroscopy particularly in the fields of NIR, SWIR, MWIR, and LWIR spectral regions Typical applications include biological, mineralogical, defense, and industrial measurements.
  7. 7.  collects and processes information from across the electromagnetic spectrum Much as the human eye sees visible light in three bands (red, green, and blue), spectral imaging divides the spectrum into many more bands. This technique of dividing images into bands can be extended beyond the visible.
  8. 8.  Engineers build sensors and processing systems to provide such capability for application in agriculture, mineralogy, physics, and surveillance. Hyperspectral sensors look at objects using a vast portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  9. 9. Hyperspectral (AVIRIS) image of Mammoth Mountans,California. 1024 x 512 pixles, 224 bands, approximately300 Mbytes od data.
  10. 10.  Hyperspectral surveillance is the implementation of hyperspectral scanning technology for surveillance purposes. Hyperspectral imaging is particularly useful in military surveillance because of countermeasures that military entities now take to avoid airborne surveillance.
  11. 11. The idea that drives hyperspectral surveillance is that hyperspectral scanning draws information from such a large portion of the light spectrum that any given object should have a unique spectral signature in at least a few of the many bands that are scanned.
  12. 12.  The soldiers from DEVGRU who killed Osama bin Laden in May 2011 used this(hyperspectral surveillance) technology while conducting the raid (Operation Neptunes Spear) on Osama bin Ladens compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan.
  13. 13. Hyperspectral thermal infrared emission measurement, an outdoor scanin winter conditions, ambient temperature -15°C - relative radiancespectra from various targets in the image are shown with arrows.
  14. 14. In infrared photography, infraredfilters are used to capture the near-infrared spectrum. Digital cameras often useinfrared blockers.
  15. 15. Radio waves have frequencies from 300 GHz to as low as 3 kHz, and corresponding wavelengths from 1 millimeter to 100 kilometers.Naturally occurring radio waves are made by lightning, or by astronomical objects.Artificially generated radio waves are used for fixed and mobile radio communication, broadcasting, radar and other navigation systems, satellite communication, computer networks and innumerable other applications.
  16. 16. Mobile radio communication Navigation system broadcasting Satellite communication
  17. 17.  subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies
  18. 18. Subsequent observations have identified anumber of different sources of radio emission. Radio astronomy is conducted using large radio antennas referred to as radio telescopes, that are either used singularly, or with multiple linked telescopes utilizing the techniques of radio interferometry and aperture synthesis.
  19. 19.  To “image” a region of the sky in more detail, An optical image of the multiple overlapping scans can be recorded and pieced together in a mosaic image. M87 galaxy (HST), a radio image of same galaxy using Interferometry
  20. 20. A radio image ofthe centralregion of theMilky Waygalaxy.
  21. 21. Very Long BaselineInterferometry (VLBI)
  22. 22. Very Long BaselineInterferometry (VLBI) It allows observations of an object that are made simultaneously by many telescopes to be combined, emulating a telescope with a size equal to the maximum separation between the telescopes.
  23. 23. Very Long BaselineInterferometry (VLBI) The Parkes VLBI is most well known for imaging (210-ft) 64-m distant cosmic radio sources, spacecraft radio tracking, and for applications intelescope in astrometry. Australia produced this radio map of the Large Magellanic Cloud.
  24. 24. Very Long BaselineInterferometry (VLBI)
  25. 25. • V ideo1
  26. 26. refers to any study or application of sound waves higher in frequency than the human audible range They are used in many applications including plastic welding, medicine, jewelry cleaning, and nondestructive test.
  27. 27. Plastic welding Jewelry Cleaning
  28. 28. Non destructive test
  29. 29.  the visualization of living animals for research purposes, such as drug development These imaging systems can be categorized into primarily morphological/anatomical and primarily molecular imaging techniques.
  30. 30.  High-frequency micro-ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are usually used for anatomical imaging, while optical imaging (fluorescence and bioluminescence), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are usually used for molecular visualizations.
  31. 31. High-frequency micro-ultrasound works through the generation of harmless sound waves from transducers into living systems. As the sound waves propagate through tissue, they are reflected back and picked up by the transducer, and can then be translated into 2D and 3D images.Micro-ultrasound is specifically developed for small animal research by VisualSonics, with frequencies ranging from 15 MHz to 80 MHz,[3] compared with clinical ultrasound systems which range from 3-15 MHz
  32. 32. VEVO 2100 BY VisualSonic Tech. Vevo 2100 is a portableimaging modality whichmeans the system can beeasilytransported from one siteto the next and allows formultiple users to performandstore multipleexaminations/ studies. Theaddition of more animals toeach study ispossible as well as re-assessment of study data alater dates for the purposeofanalysis of that data.
  33. 33.  Micro-ultrasound is the only real-time imaging modality per se, capturing data at up to 1000 frames per second. Micro-ultrasound systems are portable, do not require any dedicated facilities, and is extremely cost-effective compared to other systems. Currently, imaging of up to 30 µm is possible, allowing the visualization of tiny vasculature in cancer angiogenesis. Micro-ultrasound devices have unique properties pertaining to an ultrasound research interface, where users of these devices get access to raw data typically unavailable on most commercial ultrasound (micro and non-micro) systems.
  34. 34.  Typically, micro-ultrasound can image tissue of around 3 cm below the skin, and this is more than sufficient for small animals such as mice.The performance of ultrasound imaging is often perceived as to be linked with the experience and skills of the operator.
  35. 35. The advances in micro-ultrasound has been able to aid cancer research in a plethora of ways. For example, researchers can easily quantify tumor size in two and three dimensions. Because of its real-time nature, micro-ultrasound can also guide micro-injections of drugs, stem cells, etc. into small animals without the need for surgical intervention.
  36. 36. Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including vibration, sound, ultrasound andinfrasound. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician while someone working in the field of acoustics technology may be called an acoustical engineer Five basic steps :The study of acoustics revolves around the generation, propagationand reception of mechanical waves and vibrations.The steps shown in the above diagram can be found in any acousticalevent or process.
  37. 37. The five basic steps are found equally well whether we are talking about an earthquake, a submarine using sonar to locate its foe, or a band playing in a rock concert. Acoustic Micro Imaginga method of evaluating materials and bonding for variousmicro electronic applications. Acoustic micro imaging useshigh frequency ultrasound (5 to 300 MHz) to image theinternal features of samples Acoustic Micro Imaging can be optimized for analytical studies where layer-by-layer analysis is needed. The higher the frequency the shorter the wavelength and the higher the resolution potential. broadband pulse viewed in the time domain
  38. 38. pulse content in the frequency time domain imagedomain frequency domain image
  39. 39. `Analytic instruments such asthe Spectrum analyzer facilitatevisualization and measurementof acoustic signals and theirproperties.The Spectrogram produced bysuch an instrument is a graphicaldisplay of the time varyingpressure level and frequencyprofiles which give a specificacoustic signal its definingcharacter. Spectrogram of a young girl saying "oh, no"
  40. 40. AudioPaintAudioPaint generatessounds from pictures.The program can readJPEG, GIF and BMP filesand translates each pixelposition and color intofrequency, amplitude andpan information. Its akind of massive additivesynthesis tool.
  41. 41. Hyperupic [Imageto Sound Tool Hyperupic is a tool for creating sounds from digital images. Hyperupic is intended to be a musical tool for composers, but it is sufficiently general for many sonification applications as well. Hyperupic is available for MacOS X.
  42. 42. Virtual RealityIn Virtual Reality (VR) systems -all human sensory systemshave to be stimulated in a natural way to enhance immersioninto computer-generated environments with which users caninteract freely and naturallyOne of the major contributions of this comprehensive system isthe realization as a software-only solution that makes it possibleto use this technology on a standard PC basis. It frees the userof any costly DSP technology or other custom hardware whichadditionally is hard to maintain. In addition to that it is to ourknowledge the first approach to install a versatile and stablereal-time binaural acoustics system with dynamic CTC in aCAVE-like environment.
  43. 43. shows a measurement of theartificial head of the Institute ofTechnical Acoustics (ITA) ofRWTH Aachen University under120 degree relating to the frontaldirection in the horizontal plane.The Interaural Time Difference(ITD) can be assessed in thetime domain plot. The InterauralLevel Difference (ILD) is shownin the frequency domain plot andclarifies the frequencydependent level increase at theear turned toward the soundsource and the decrease at theear that is turned away from thesound source.
  44. 44. Methods forAcoustical ImagingThe basic theory of the wave fieldsynthesis is the Huygens′ principle.An array of loudspeakers (rangingfrom just a few to some hundreds innumber) is placed in the sameposition as a microphone array wasplaced at the time of recording thesound event in order to reproducean entire real sound field. In a VRenvironment the loudspeaker signalwill then be calculated for a givenposition of one or more virtualsources.
  45. 45. Five sided projection CAVE-like virtual environment using opticaltracking. Possible loudspeakers are colored in green andmounted on the rack on top of the device
  46. 46. 12 Sources for images34-8 ) 5 basic steps(acoustic)9) refers to any study or application of sound waves higher in frequency than the human audible range10)TRUE/FALSE: In astronomy, imaging at infrared wavelengths allows examination of objects obscured by interstellar dust.