Steam Basics

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Steam Basics

  1. 1. ©2008 Armstrong International, Inc. Steam Basics
  2. 2. 2 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R Steam Basics - Overview • What is Steam?What is Steam? • Why is Steam Used?Why is Steam Used? • How Do We Create Steam?How Do We Create Steam? • How Do We Identify Steam Properties?How Do We Identify Steam Properties? 2 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R
  3. 3. 3 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R This Is Not Steam! • Steam is a vapor form of water, and is colorless, tasteless, and odorless
  4. 4. What is Steam Used For? Steam is Used to Transfer HeatSteam is Used to Transfer Heat Energy From One Location toEnergy From One Location to AnotherAnother 4 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R
  5. 5. Why Use SteamWhy Use Steam Steam is an efficient heat transfer medium Steam is easily controlled We have a lot of knowledge concerning steam We have already developed the equipment and expertise to design and install steam systems for many different applications
  6. 6. 6 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R How We Create Steam • Steam is created by adding Heat Energy to water. • Heat Energy is expressed in Btu’s. • 1 Btu is the amount of Heat Energy required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1°F.
  7. 7. 7 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R How We Create Steam The Heat Energy required to create steam has two forms: Sensible Heat Latent Heat
  8. 8. 8 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R Heat Energy – Sensible Heat • Sensible Heat is the amount of Heat Energy required to raise the temperature of water from 32°F to the boiling point (saturated liquid) at a given pressure – Sensible Heat raises the temperature of the water and can be sensed with a thermometer
  9. 9. 9 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R O PSIG 212° F. Heat Energy – Sensible HeatHeat Energy – Sensible Heat 1 lb. Water1 lb. Water HEAT 1 Lb. of Saturated1 Lb. of Saturated WaterWater atat Atmospheric Pressure ContainsAtmospheric Pressure Contains 180 Btu’s of Sensible Heat180 Btu’s of Sensible Heat
  10. 10. 10 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R 15 PSIG HEAT 250 °F. 1 Lb. of Saturated1 Lb. of Saturated WaterWater atat 15 PSIG Contains15 PSIG Contains 218 Btu’s of Sensible Heat218 Btu’s of Sensible Heat Adding Heat Energy – Sensible HeatAdding Heat Energy – Sensible Heat
  11. 11. 11 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R Heat Energy – Sensible HeatHeat Energy – Sensible Heat 60 PSIG HEAT 308 °F. 1 Lb. of Saturated1 Lb. of Saturated WaterWater atat 60 PSIG Contains60 PSIG Contains 277 Btu’s of Sensible Heat277 Btu’s of Sensible Heat
  12. 12. 12 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R Heat Energy – Latent Heat • Latent Heat is the amount of Heat Energy required to transform water at the boiling point (saturated liquid) to steam – Adding Latent Heat does not raise the temperature – saturated liquid and steam have the same temperature for a given pressure
  13. 13. 13 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R O PSIG 212° F. Adding Heat Energy – Latent HeatAdding Heat Energy – Latent Heat 1 lb. Steam1 lb. Steam HEAT 1 Lb. of Steam1 Lb. of Steam at Atmosphericat Atmospheric Pressure ContainsPressure Contains 970 Btu’s of Latent Heat970 Btu’s of Latent Heat
  14. 14. 14 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R 15 PSIG HEAT 250 °F. Adding Heat Energy – Latent HeatAdding Heat Energy – Latent Heat 1 Lb. of Steam1 Lb. of Steam at 15 PSIGat 15 PSIG Contains 945 Btu’s ofContains 945 Btu’s of Latent HeatLatent Heat
  15. 15. 15 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R Adding Heat Energy – Latent HeatAdding Heat Energy – Latent Heat 60 PSIG HEAT 308 °F. 1 Lb. of Steam1 Lb. of Steam at 60 PSIGat 60 PSIG Contains 904 Btu’s ofContains 904 Btu’s of Latent HeatLatent Heat
  16. 16. 16 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R What is the Effect of Pressure? Increased Pressure: – Decreases the amount of Latent Heat – Increases the amount of Sensible Heat
  17. 17. 17 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R What is the Effect of Pressure? 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Latent Heat BTU/lb Sensible Heat BTU/lb 0 psig 15 pig 50 psig
  18. 18. 18 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R What Is The Effect Of Pressure? • Increased Pressure: – Decreases the Specific Volume 26.8 13.8 5.8 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1 Specific Volume vs. Pressure (cu. ft / lb) (psig) 0 PSIG 15 PSIG 60PSIG
  19. 19. 19 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R What Is The Effect Of Pressure? • Increased Pressure: – Increases the Steam Temperature 212 250 308 0 100 200 300 400 1 Steam Temperature vs. Pressure (Deg. F) (psig) 0 PSIG 15 PSIG 60PSIG
  20. 20. 20 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R The Pressure / Temperature / Volume Relationship LatentHeat SensibleHeat SpecificVolume SteamPressure SteamTemperature
  21. 21. 21 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R Identifying Steam Properties Steam Tables
  22. 22. 22 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R Steam tables allow us to identify all of the important properties of steam, given either the steam temperature or the steam pressure
  23. 23. Example: Steam at 250o F is at 15 psig, with 945 Btu’s/lb of Latent Heat Steam at 5 psig is at 228o F, with 196 Btu’s/lb of Sensible Heat
  24. 24. 24 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R Now That We’ve Made Steam What Do We Do With ItWhat Do We Do With It
  25. 25. 25 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R Since Steam is used to Transfer Heat Energy From One Location to Another . . .
  26. 26. 26 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R It only makes sense that we takeIt only makes sense that we take the heat energy back out andthe heat energy back out and use it to do work.use it to do work.
  27. 27. 27 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R Removing Latent Heat Atmospheric Pressure Btu's 32 180212 970 1150 212 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1 lb. of Steam at 212°F, with a TOTAL HEAT content of 1150 Btu/lb. – 970 Btu’s of LATENT HEAT = 1 lb. of boiling water (Saturated Liquid) at 212°F with a heat content of 180 BTU’s/lb.
  28. 28. Remember: The Latent Heat added at the boiler is what we have available to do work in our equipment BUT . . . When we remove Latent Heat we create Condensate 28 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R
  29. 29. 29 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R Latent Heat can be removedLatent Heat can be removed intentionally, in a piece of heatintentionally, in a piece of heat exchange equipment, orexchange equipment, or unintentionally, fromunintentionally, from radiationradiation heat loss in pipingheat loss in piping
  30. 30. 30 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R What does this Unintentional Heat Loss Mean to your Steam System? 100 psig 337.9°F 50.3 psig 297.97°F PRV Trap Trap Trap Trap Trap Trap Vent Condensate Steam Vapor
  31. 31. 31 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R It Means: The Steam System is Constantly Being Filled With Water (Condensate)
  32. 32. 32 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R It Means: Your Steam System is Subject to Corrosion Subcooled Condensate + CO2 Forms Carbonic Acid ( CO2 + H2 O = H2 CO3 )
  33. 33. 33 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R It Means: Your Steam System is Subject to Water Hammer
  34. 34. 34 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R It Means: Your Heat Exchange Equipment is Less Efficient
  35. 35. 35 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R It Means: Your System Must Be Properly Piped
  36. 36. 36 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R It Means: Your Equipment Must Be Properly TrappedYour Equipment Must Be Properly Trapped
  37. 37. 37 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R Armstrong Promise We provide intelligent system solutions that improve utility performance, lower energy consumption, and reduce environmental emissions . . . while providing an “enjoyable experience”! Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R 37 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®
  38. 38. 38 “Expect many enjoyable experiences!” David M. Armstrong ®Intelligent System Solutions S T E A M • A I R • H O T W A T E R
  39. 39. ©2008 Armstrong International, Inc.

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