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ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS
Presented by:
Preeti Bartwal
CONTENT
Sweeteners
Types of sweeteners
Reason for use
Types of artificial sweeteners and their metabolism
Characteristics ...
Sweetener
Types of sweeteners
Natural
sweeteners
Artificial
sweeteners
Weight loss
Dental care
Diabetes mellitus
Reactive
hypoglycemia
Cost
5 Artificial
sweeteners
approved by
FDA
Saccharin
Aspartame
Acesulfame
K
sucralose
Neotame
6
Saccharin
Oldest artificial sweetener still in use today
Discovered in 1879
300 times sweeter than sucrose
Slightly bi...
Chemistry and Metabolism
Contd…
Following ingestion, saccharin is not absorbed
or metabolized.
Excreted unchanged, via the kidneys.
It is not me...
Aspartame
Discovered in 1965
Combination of two amino acids:
phenylalanine and aspartic acid
 200 times sweeter than su...
Food containing aspartame
Metabolism of aspartame
Acesulfame-K (ACE-K)
General-purpose sweetener
White crystalline structure
180-200 times sweeter than sucrose
commonly...
Contd....
FDA continues to support the use of
acesulfame k in diabetic and low-
calorie foods.
Extraordinarily long shel...
Sucralose
 Discovered in 1976
 6oo times sweeter than sucrose
 Sold under the trade name
SPLENDA
 Made from the sucros...
Chemistry and Metabolism
Sucralose is a sucrose molecule in which three of
the hydroxyl groups have been replaced by chlo...
Sucrose vs Sucralose
Structure
Cyclamate
Approved by the FDA in 1958 but then banned in
1969
Useful as a flavor enhancer as well as a good
flavoring ag...
NEWER ARTIFICIAL
SWEETENERS
Neotame
Similar to aspartame
7000 to 13000 times sweeter than sucrose
Chemical modification to the structure make it
30-40...
Chemistry and metabolism of
Neotame
t-butyl group is added to the free
amine group of aspartic acid
This addition adds a s...
Contd….
Rapidly metabolized by hydrolysis of the methyl
ester present throughout the body.
Yields de-esterified neotame, t...
Characteristics of Artificial
Sweeteners
Common
Name
Brand
Names
FDA Approval kcal/g FDA
(ADI)
mg/kg
bw
JCEFA
(ADI)
mg/kg
...
Common
Name
Brand
Names
FDA Approval kcal/g FDA
(ADI)
Mg/kg
bw
WHO
(ADI)
mg/kg
bw
Cyclamate 1958- General
purpose and
bann...
COMMERCIAL USE OF ARTIFICIAL
SWEETENERS
Used as tabletop sweeteners.
Used extensively in the beverage
industry in both hot...
Diabetic foods mainly contain
sucralose and saccharin
Used as a bulking agents or
diluents with many
sweeteners
Many hygie...
USE OF ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS IN
VARIOUS CONDITIONS
Behavioral Disorders
Excessive consumption of sugar in growing childr...
Conti..
Children
 Aspartame is restricted in children as this compound
diffuses easily across the blood-brain barrier an...
Pregnancy
 GRAS sweeteners are accepted
 Saccharin is restricted in pregnancy as the placenta
actively concentrates it
...
Health
effects and
associated
studies
Weight gain or obesity
Artificial sweeteners play a crucial role in weight
management strategies.
Cutting down 500 calor...
Source: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002; 76,721.
By: Anne Raben, Tatjana H Vasilaras, A Christina
Møller, ...
For 10 week, overweight
men and women
consumed daily
supplements of either
sucrose n= 21( BMI =
28.0) or artificial
sweete...
CONCLUSION of the study:
Overweight subjects who consumed fairly
large amounts of sucrose (28% of energy),
mostly as bever...
35
36
Study:
Two-generation saccharin bioassays
Source: Environmental Health Perspectives. 1983; 50, 27-36.
By- Arnold, D. L.
Design:
• Saccharin provide both positive
and negative results, including
the potential to induce cancer in
rats, dogs, an...
Results
when rats
were exposed
to diet
containing 5%
or 7.5%
saccharin from
the time of
conception to
death, an
increased
...
Lifespan exposure to low doses of aspartame
beginning during prenatal life increases cancer
effects in rats.
Study:
Source...
design
Studied groups of 70–95 male and female
Sprague-Dawley rats
Administered aspartame (2,000, 400, or 0 ppm)
with feed...
Result and conclusion:
• Significant dose related to increase of
malignant tumors in males, an increase in
incidence of ly...
GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT
Bloating and irregular bowel
movements are common in the
use of artificial sweeteners
Effect that a...
Contd….
Aspartame hydrolyzes into its component
molecules within the gut and the increase of
these components were conside...
Brain Damage
Negative effects on the central
nervous system, causing
difficulty to concentrate and
carry out mental opera...
Effects of aspartame on the
brain
Aspartame is
composed of
phenylalanine
(50%),
aspartic acid
(40%) and
methanol
(10%)
Phe...
Contd….
Consumption of
aspartame
could cause
neurological
and behavioural
disturbances in
sensitive
individuals
Excessive
...
Neonat al exposur e t o sucr al ose does not
al t er bi ochemi cal mar ker s of neur onal
devel opment or adul t behavi or...
Design of study
Mice were orally
exposed to 5-125
mg of sucralose per
kilogram of body
weight per day
during postnatal
day...
Result and conclusion
Protein analysis showed no alterations in
calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II,
growth-ass...
Impair brain ability
Beverage with low
calorie artificial
sweetener
Beverage with
high calorie
sweetwner Rat group 1
Rat g...
RESULT
 Experiment shows
how the consumption
of artificial
sweeteners may
cause the brain to
underestimate the
amount of ...
Toxic Potential of Artificial Sweeteners
Common
Name
Known
Metabolites
Acute Chronic
Acesulfame-
K
- Headache Clastogenic,...
Neotame De-esterified
neotame, methanol
Headache,
hepatotoxic at
high doses
Lower birth rate,
weight loss (due to
decrease...
Sugar free
Natura pellets
Price:Rs.65/
100 pellets
Sugar free
Natura sweet
drop
Price:Rs.135/
10 gm
Sugar free gold
pellet...
Sugar free Natura
sachets
Price:Rs.45/ 25
sachets
Sugar free Natura
gold power
Price:Rs.120/ 100gm
Sugar free Natura
powde...
Splenda
Vanilla butter
sugar free
cookies
Price:Rs.85/
132gm
Natural ginger
& cinnamon
cookies
Price:Rs.155/
200gm
Chocola...
58
Products of Aspartame
Nutrasweet sucra
Price- Rs.55/ 100 pellets
Equal sweetener tablet
Price- Rs.70/ 100 tablet
59
OTHER PROPERTIES OF ARTIFICIAL
SWEETENERS
Aspartame is available in tablet as well as powder form in
sachets.
Tablet pro...
Reference:
O Whitehouse et al. The Potential Toxicity of Artificial Sweeteners.
American Association of Occupational Healt...
Thank
you
Artificial sweeteners
Artificial sweeteners
Artificial sweeteners
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Artificial sweeteners

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Artificial sweeteners

  1. 1. ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS Presented by: Preeti Bartwal
  2. 2. CONTENT Sweeteners Types of sweeteners Reason for use Types of artificial sweeteners and their metabolism Characteristics of artificial sweeteners Commercial use of artificial sweeteners Use of artificial sweeteners in various conditions Health effects and associated studies Products of artificial sweeteners Other properties of artificial sweeteners Conclusion Reference
  3. 3. Sweetener
  4. 4. Types of sweeteners Natural sweeteners Artificial sweeteners
  5. 5. Weight loss Dental care Diabetes mellitus Reactive hypoglycemia Cost
  6. 6. 5 Artificial sweeteners approved by FDA Saccharin Aspartame Acesulfame K sucralose Neotame 6
  7. 7. Saccharin Oldest artificial sweetener still in use today Discovered in 1879 300 times sweeter than sucrose Slightly bitter taste and metallic aftertaste and for this reason is sometimes combined with other sweeteners .
  8. 8. Chemistry and Metabolism
  9. 9. Contd… Following ingestion, saccharin is not absorbed or metabolized. Excreted unchanged, via the kidneys. It is not metabolized, FDA considers this sweetener safe.
  10. 10. Aspartame Discovered in 1965 Combination of two amino acids: phenylalanine and aspartic acid  200 times sweeter than sucrose Aspartame, sold under the brand names NUTRASWEET and EQUAL, is the most popular artificial sweeteners.
  11. 11. Food containing aspartame
  12. 12. Metabolism of aspartame
  13. 13. Acesulfame-K (ACE-K) General-purpose sweetener White crystalline structure 180-200 times sweeter than sucrose commonly known as Sunett and Sweet One. Popular sweetener like aspartame, stable in high- heat situations and therefore often used in baked products
  14. 14. Contd.... FDA continues to support the use of acesulfame k in diabetic and low- calorie foods. Extraordinarily long shelf life and because of this is ideal for use in candies, canned foods and alcoholic beverages. Not metabolized or stored in the body.
  15. 15. Sucralose  Discovered in 1976  6oo times sweeter than sucrose  Sold under the trade name SPLENDA  Made from the sucrose  Heat stable in cooking and baking  Marketed in India under the brand name NATURA SWEET  Very soluble in many different types of liquids
  16. 16. Chemistry and Metabolism Sucralose is a sucrose molecule in which three of the hydroxyl groups have been replaced by chlorine atoms. Although sucralose is made from table sugar, it adds no calories because it is not digested in the body. Most of the sucralose given orally to mice, rats, dogs, and humans passes through the gastrointestinal tract and is eliminated in the feces unchanged.
  17. 17. Sucrose vs Sucralose Structure
  18. 18. Cyclamate Approved by the FDA in 1958 but then banned in 1969 Useful as a flavor enhancer as well as a good flavoring agent for many pharmaceuticals and toiletries. 30–50 times sweeter than sucrose
  19. 19. NEWER ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS
  20. 20. Neotame Similar to aspartame 7000 to 13000 times sweeter than sucrose Chemical modification to the structure make it 30-40 times sweeter than aspartame Used in beverages and soy based nutritionally fortified products
  21. 21. Chemistry and metabolism of Neotame t-butyl group is added to the free amine group of aspartic acid This addition adds a second hydrophobic group and results in a product that is 30 to 40 times sweeter than aspartame
  22. 22. Contd…. Rapidly metabolized by hydrolysis of the methyl ester present throughout the body. Yields de-esterified neotame, the major metabolite, and an insignificant amount of methanol. Neotame and de-esterified neotame are rapidly cleared from the plasma. Completely eliminated from the body with recovery in urine and feces within 72 hours.
  23. 23. Characteristics of Artificial Sweeteners Common Name Brand Names FDA Approval kcal/g FDA (ADI) mg/kg bw JCEFA (ADI) mg/kg bw Acesulfame-K Sunett Sweet One 1988-tabletop sweetener 1993- Beverages 2003- General use 0 15 9 Saccharin Sweet’N Low Sweet twin Necta sweet 1938- GRAS 0 5 2.5 Aspartame Nutra sweet Equal 1981- Tabletop sweetener 4 50 40
  24. 24. Common Name Brand Names FDA Approval kcal/g FDA (ADI) Mg/kg bw WHO (ADI) mg/kg bw Cyclamate 1958- General purpose and banned in 1970 0 Neotame 2002- General purpose 0 18 2 Sucralose Splenda Natura sweet 1998- Tabletop sweetener 1999- General- purpose sweetener 0 5 5
  25. 25. COMMERCIAL USE OF ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS Used as tabletop sweeteners. Used extensively in the beverage industry in both hot and cold beverages. Sucralose and acesulfame-K are used in baked products. Saccharin and aspartame are mainly used in cold beverages.
  26. 26. Diabetic foods mainly contain sucralose and saccharin Used as a bulking agents or diluents with many sweeteners Many hygiene products such as toothpaste, mouthwashes contain sucralose as sweeteners
  27. 27. USE OF ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS IN VARIOUS CONDITIONS Behavioral Disorders Excessive consumption of sugar in growing children causes extreme hyperactivity, restlessness and leads to attention deficit disorder (ADD). There is no clear evidence that carbohydrate rich foods are linked to this condition. Artificial sweeteners would be a tremendous help in preventing this situation.
  28. 28. Conti.. Children  Aspartame is restricted in children as this compound diffuses easily across the blood-brain barrier and high levels of this causes alteration in brain activity. Diabetes Mellitus  In type 2 obese diabetics, artificial sweeteners are recommended. Use of these would increase adherence to the diet regime.  Artificial sweeteners like equal, Sweet’n low and splenda do not increase blood sugar level.
  29. 29. Pregnancy  GRAS sweeteners are accepted  Saccharin is restricted in pregnancy as the placenta actively concentrates it  Aspartame was found to have no adverse effect on fetal exposure but it is restricted in pregnant women with hyperphenylalaninemia.  Sucralose is found in low levels in the placenta so it is safe in pregnancy.
  30. 30. Health effects and associated studies
  31. 31. Weight gain or obesity Artificial sweeteners play a crucial role in weight management strategies. Cutting down 500 calories in a weight reduction diet. A reduction of direct sugar i.e. about 100 calories from the diet by replacing it with an artificial sweetener. If this is done daily for about 2 months, one has lost approximately 1 kg weight.  Helps in improving the adherence to the diet program.
  32. 32. Source: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002; 76,721. By: Anne Raben, Tatjana H Vasilaras, A Christina Møller, and Arne Astrup Study Role of artificial sweeteners in body- weight regulation
  33. 33. For 10 week, overweight men and women consumed daily supplements of either sucrose n= 21( BMI = 28.0) or artificial sweeteners n= 20(BMI = 27.6). On average, sucrose supplements provided 3.4 MJ and 152 g sucrose/d and artificial sweetener supplement provided 1.0MJ and 0 g sucrose/d.
  34. 34. CONCLUSION of the study: Overweight subjects who consumed fairly large amounts of sucrose (28% of energy), mostly as beverages had increased energy intake, body weight, fat mass, and blood pressure after 10 week. These effects were not observed in a similar group of subjects who consumed artificial sweeteners. 34
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. 36 Study: Two-generation saccharin bioassays Source: Environmental Health Perspectives. 1983; 50, 27-36. By- Arnold, D. L.
  37. 37. Design: • Saccharin provide both positive and negative results, including the potential to induce cancer in rats, dogs, and humans. • Animal were exposed to saccharin at all stages of development (i.e., in utero, during lactation and in feed as an adult). • Provided information on two-generation saccharin bioassays. • Two-generation studies are beneficial in researching the potential effects of substances.
  38. 38. Results when rats were exposed to diet containing 5% or 7.5% saccharin from the time of conception to death, an increased frequency of urinary bladder cancers was found predominantly in rat males Pathway for saccharin linked cancer in rat does not exist in human being and saccharin consumption therefore does not trigger bladder cancer in human population Saccharin is not metabolized, it is nucleophilic and does not bind to DNA At dosages of 5% or greater, saccharin does not act as a typical chemical carcinogen
  39. 39. Lifespan exposure to low doses of aspartame beginning during prenatal life increases cancer effects in rats. Study: Source: Environmental Health Perspectives. 2007; 115(9), 1293-97 By- Soffritti, M., Belpoggi, F., Tibaldi, E., Esposti, D. D., & Lauriola, M.
  40. 40. design Studied groups of 70–95 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats Administered aspartame (2,000, 400, or 0 ppm) with feed from the 12th day of fetal life until natural death.
  41. 41. Result and conclusion: • Significant dose related to increase of malignant tumors in males, an increase in incidence of lymphomas and leukemia in males and females, and an increase in the incidence of mammary cancer in females; particularly in 2000 ppm group. • These results confirm the carcinogenic potential of aspartame and increased carcinogenic potential if exposure occurs during gestation.
  42. 42. GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT Bloating and irregular bowel movements are common in the use of artificial sweeteners Effect that artificial sweeteners have on the gastrointestinal tract mostly has to do with their interaction with the microbial flora
  43. 43. Contd…. Aspartame hydrolyzes into its component molecules within the gut and the increase of these components were considered a possibility for gastrointestinal problems sucralose has been proved through scientific experimentation to cause decrease in beneficial micro-organisms
  44. 44. Brain Damage Negative effects on the central nervous system, causing difficulty to concentrate and carry out mental operations. Aspartame has been thought to cause brain damage because of one of its component molecule, phenylalanine.
  45. 45. Effects of aspartame on the brain Aspartame is composed of phenylalanine (50%), aspartic acid (40%) and methanol (10%) Phenylalanine plays an important role in neurotransmitter regulation, whereas aspartic acid is also thought to play a role as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system Methanol, which forms 10% of the broken down product, is converted in the body to formic acid, which can either be excreted or can give rise to formaldehyde, diketopiperazine (a carcinogen) and a number of other highly toxic derivatives
  46. 46. Contd…. Consumption of aspartame could cause neurological and behavioural disturbances in sensitive individuals Excessive aspartame ingestion might be involved in the pathogenesis of certain mental disorders and also in compromised learning and emotional functioning Headache, insomnia and seizure are also some of the neurological effects that have been encountered, and these may be accredited to changes in regional brain concentrations of catecholamines, which include norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine
  47. 47. Neonat al exposur e t o sucr al ose does not al t er bi ochemi cal mar ker s of neur onal devel opment or adul t behavi or . study By- : Viberg, H., Fredriksson, A. Source: : Nutrition. 2011; 27(1), 81-85
  48. 48. Design of study Mice were orally exposed to 5-125 mg of sucralose per kilogram of body weight per day during postnatal days 8-12 24 hours after last exposure, brains were analyzed for calcium/calmodulin- dependent protein kinase II, growth- associated protein- 43, synaptophysin, and tau protein At the age of 2 month the animals were tested for spontaneous behavior
  49. 49. Result and conclusion Protein analysis showed no alterations in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, growth-associated protein-43, synaptophysin, or tau protein. No disturbances in adult behavior or habituation after neonatal sucralose exposure. Repeated neonatal exposure to the artificial sweetener sucralose does not result in neurotoxicity, which supports that sucralose seems to be a safe alternative for people who want or need to reduce or substitute glucose in their diet.
  50. 50. Impair brain ability Beverage with low calorie artificial sweetener Beverage with high calorie sweetwner Rat group 1 Rat group 2 10 Days Rat group 2 High calorie sweet chocolate Rat group 1 Rat group 2 given artificially sweetened beverage, shows impaired ability to control calorie intake based on sweeteners
  51. 51. RESULT  Experiment shows how the consumption of artificial sweeteners may cause the brain to underestimate the amount of calories in foods based on sweetness and result in overeating.  Consumption of artificial sweeteners does decrease the caloric intake but it impairs the brain’s ability to estimate caloric intake based on sweetness. 52
  52. 52. Toxic Potential of Artificial Sweeteners Common Name Known Metabolites Acute Chronic Acesulfame- K - Headache Clastogenic, genotoxic at high doses, thyroid tumors in rats Aspartame Methanol, aspartic acid, phenylalanine Headache, dry mouth, dizziness, mood change, nausea, vomiting, thrombocytopenia Lymphomas and leukemia in rats Cyclamate Cyclohexylamine Bladder cancer in mice, testicular atrophy in mice
  53. 53. Neotame De-esterified neotame, methanol Headache, hepatotoxic at high doses Lower birth rate, weight loss (due to decreased consumption at higher doses) Saccharin O-sulfamoylbenzoic acid Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Cancer in offspring of breast-fed animals, low birth weight, bladder cancer, hepatotoxicity Sucralose Diarrhoea Thymus shrinkage and enlargements in rats Source: American Association of Occupational Health Nurses 2008; 56(6) 254
  54. 54. Sugar free Natura pellets Price:Rs.65/ 100 pellets Sugar free Natura sweet drop Price:Rs.135/ 10 gm Sugar free gold pellets Price:Rs.6o/ 100 pellets Sugar free Natura diet sugar Price:Rs.240/ 80gm
  55. 55. Sugar free Natura sachets Price:Rs.45/ 25 sachets Sugar free Natura gold power Price:Rs.120/ 100gm Sugar free Natura powder Price:Rs.140/ 100gm
  56. 56. Splenda Vanilla butter sugar free cookies Price:Rs.85/ 132gm Natural ginger & cinnamon cookies Price:Rs.155/ 200gm Chocolate & blackcurrent cookies Price:Rs.155/ 200 gm Natural fig cookies Price:Rs.91/ 100gm
  57. 57. 58
  58. 58. Products of Aspartame Nutrasweet sucra Price- Rs.55/ 100 pellets Equal sweetener tablet Price- Rs.70/ 100 tablet 59
  59. 59. OTHER PROPERTIES OF ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS Aspartame is available in tablet as well as powder form in sachets. Tablet provides 18 mg of aspartame and is equivalent to one teaspoon of sugar. Sachet contains 35 mg of aspartame and is equivalent to two teaspoons of sugar. Saccharin is available in tablet form and contains 12 mg. It is equivalent to two teaspoons of sugar. High intensity sweeteners e.g. saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K, sucralose are usually promoted as food additives
  60. 60. Reference: O Whitehouse et al. The Potential Toxicity of Artificial Sweeteners. American Association of Occupational Health Nurses Journal. 2008; 56(6),251-259. O Raben Anne et al. Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners. The Americal journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002; 76,721–729. O Humphries et al. Direct and indirect cellular effects of aspartame on the brain. European-Journal-of-Clinical-Nutrition. 2008; 62(4), 451- 462 O Arnold, D. L. Two-generation saccharin bioassays. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1983; 50, 27-36. O Viberg, H et al. Neonatal exposure to sucralose does not alter biochemical markers of neuronal development or adult behavior. Nutrition. 2011; 27(1), 81-85
  61. 61. Thank you

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