I did this project because I am interested in medical topics from when I was young. Also my parent’s work in medical field inspired me to always think of medical and I made my decision to become a doctor. And I chose this topic specifically because I myself suffer from my nose and I am not sure if I have allergy or not.
It is important for the people because many people suffer from allergies and many of them don’t even know they have allergies because it is very similar to cold.Also many people don’t know what are the causes of their allergies so it is important for them to know more about what causes their allergies so they will have more knowledge of how to prevent and they will know what to avoid.
It can be more distressing than dangerous (as in hay fever) or life threatening (as in the extreme reaction that can follow a bee sting).When allergens enter the body the immune system attacks them and that causes the person to have itching or other kind of reactions.On the first exposure to allergens nothing happens to the person but on a repeated exposure weather it was second or twelfth exposure the body produces antibodies and attacks the substance. Allergies happens when the immune system reacts to harmless substances as if it were harmful.
For an anaphylactic reaction to occur, you must have been exposed in the past to the substancethat causes the reaction, called the antigen. People with asthma, eczema, or hay fever are at higher risk of developing anaphylactic reaction.
These symptoms will lead to death if the person is not immediately treated.“Immediate emergency treatment is required for this type of shock, including administration of antivenom in the case of bee or wasp stings.”
Epinephrine is the definitive emergency treatment for severe allergic reactions.
Also how long the symptoms last if it last very long and it comes every year during a certain season it is more allergy than it is a cold. Cold is caused in response to harmful substance but allergies are caused in response to usually harmless substance. In allergy there can’t possibly be fever and in cold there is no any kind of itching.
An allergen is a substance that's capable of producing an allergic reaction. IgE is the type of immunoglobulin that plays major role in allergic reactions for that reason IgE level in blood is expected to be elevated in allergic patients.Immunoglobulins are proteins produced by plasma cells and lymphocytes that function as antibodies.“IgE antibodies are found in the lungs, skin and mucous membranes. “
Through the respiratory system. Through the nose and the mouth.Their symptoms effect the respiratory system like they cause nasal allergy, and asthma.
Through the mouth.They cause allergies as mouth itching, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and even other systemic symptoms as skin rash..
Through the skin.They effect the skin and cause allergic reactions in the skin.Plants like poison ivy. Reaction would be like itching redness and tumors.
Through any kind of injection as intravenous, or intramuscular. It effect different parts of the body because it will go around the body after it enters the body.
Pollen from weeds, grass, flowers and trees, mold and mold fungus( appear in summer and fall), House dust mites, animal dander (fur from cats and dogs,and other animals), and medicines. Animal dander is a dead skin cells from an animal, fur is not an allergen.
Flowering plants have heavier, waxy pollens that do not trigger allergies. Not all pollens trigger allergy.When the temperature is high and the humidity is low that encourages release of pollen.
Weed:common in late summer and fall. Mostly in fall.Ragweed is the type common in the US.Grass can cause allergies during any time of the year but it mostly causes allergies during late spring and early summer.
Tree: common in early spring.
What are dust mites“Dustmites are microscopic organisms that thrive in warm and humid houses with lots of food - human skin. The mites prefer to live in beds and, because we spend about a third of the day in bed, we inhale large quantities of dust mite allergens. Dust mites are harmless to most people. They live on dead skin cells and eat dead cells. Most people are allergic to a protein in the waste that dust mites produce. “
Called chronic the perennialBetween 15 percent and 20 percent of people in the UK have hay fever.35 million Americans with pollen allergies.
Risk factor is something that increase your likelihood of getting the disease.“If both of your parents have allergic rhinitis, you have a 75% chance of developing it. If only one parent has allergic rhinitis, your risk is decreased to 50%.”Your risk of developing allergic rhinitis increases if you have other allergies.Allergic rhinitis often appears in childhood. If it occurs in childhood, it may not recur in adulthood. If it appears at age 20 years or older, allergic rhinitis may continue through middle age.People with reduced exposure to allergens and highly sanitized living conditions will have higher risk.
From its name it comes during certain seasons, in winter, autumn, summer, or spring . It is the most common of all allergic diseases about 15 percent of the population in industrialized countries suffer from this condition. In the spring it is due to tree pollen. In the summer it is due to grass pollen. In the fall it is due to weed pollen.Hay does not cause this allergy and it is not a fever.Children and young adults are the most people who are affected by it.
Allergic shiners are dark circles around the eyes and are related to vasodilation or nasal congestion.Nasal crease is a horizontal crease across the lower half of the bridge of the nose that is caused by repeated upward rubbing of the tip of the nose by the palm of the hand.“Cobblestoning is used to describe streaks of lymphoid of the palpebral conjunctivae, with excess tear production.”
All these symptoms are caused when histamine dilates the small blood vessels of the nose making fluids leak out into other tissues.Mouth breathing is caused because of the congestion of the nose.
1.Symptoms. History of the patient’s symptoms, nature duration of symptoms, possible triggers for symptoms, response to medications, environmental exposure, and family history of allergic diseases.2.Signs on the patient.
Prick test is by scratching the skin and making the allergen enter through the scratch.It is also called scratch test.The positive results will show as a hive, or wheal, and will be red.Negative the hand won’t react.It is not very sensitive and accurate.Among the quickest allergy tests.Is inexpensive.
Intradermal is the use of needles to inject the allergens into the dermal layer of the skin.This will produce skin wheal of approximately 4 mm diameter, which enlarges to a 5 mm diameter through physical spreading.The wheal will enlarge to at least 7 mm after 10- 20 minutes if the patient is allergic to the substance.
A negative wheal is one which grows less than 2 mm larger than the 4-5 mm wheal initially created.
A positive wheal is one which grows at least 2 mm larger than 5 mm wheal initially created.
Patch test the allergen solution is placed on a pad that is taped to the skin for 24 to 72 hours.To see if these substances cause inflammation of the skin.
Both pediatric and geriatric patients are less sensitive. Both very old people and very young people are less sensitive.
Place tests at least 2cm apart.Dermatopathology or any kind of skin diseases can lead to false positive result.
Positive control test is used in order to assure that the wheal and the flare capability of the patient’s skin is intact.It should yield a 7 mm or larger wheal at 10 minutes or the test will be suspended for that day.Degranulation is the release of histamines and other inflammatory agents from the mast cells.
“The negative control is usually a salt water, or saline, substance.”It is used to rule out dematographism or other skin hypersensitivity.If a negative control test yields significant wheal growth, in vitro testing maybe appropriate for further testing.
“Bloodtest is used to measure the level of IgE antibodies produced in the blood when the blood is exposed to certain allergen and if it is high that means the person is allergic to that allergen. Blood test look for antibodies.”IgE levels will be higher in people with allergies.
Environmental control of the surrounding by cleaning, using dehumidifier this controls the humidity, and other things.What antihistamines does is that they block the chemicals that the mast cells releases from causing symptoms.Nasal sprays are just medicines that reduce the symptoms.
Avoidance of allergens by just staying away from it.If you allergic to pets keep the pet outside and it would be better to not have pets.“Allergicthreshold is the point where the person start reacting to the allergen that he is allergic to and it vary from person to person some people are highly sensitive that they react with little exposure to allergen and some have low sensitivity require high exposure to trigger symptoms.”
Cover pillows, and you comforter, because mites thrive in any stuffed bedding.Cleaning on regular bases and the person who is allergic should not be in the place that is being cleaned or wear a mask.Wash blankets and bedding weekly with hot water to kill mites.
Remove carpet and upholstered furniture. Hardwood or tile floor and furniture such as leather are preferred.Filtration product and air filters help filter the air from airborne allergens like pollen.Keep humidity below 50% because molds and dust mites thrive in humid environments. Use air conditioners or dehumidifiers.
“Allergy immunotherapy is the injection or swallowing of allergens doses to prevent the symptoms that result on exposure to allergens.” This will help the patient’s body get used to the allergens, which can result in less or fewer severe symptoms of allergic rhinitis.It is along process and noticeable improvement will not be observed for 6-12 months. If there is improvement therapy will continue for 3-5 years.
On first exposure to allergens the person won’t have any reaction to the allergen. But his blood IgE will increase and on continues exposure the person will start having the symptoms.These IgE antibodies attach to the mast cell.The allergen cross link the IgE and the mast cell produce chemicals that will cause allergic reactions.
Nasal Allergy<br />By Mustafa Mohammed <br />Teacher Mrs. Oren<br />
Overview<br />Thesis<br />Allergies.<br />Allergens.<br />Nasal allergy.<br />Signs.<br />Symptoms.<br />Allergy tests.<br />Treatments of allergy.<br />Mechanism of allergy. <br />
Thesis <br />Allergies could come from any of the things around us and they affect our immune system and sometimes put us in danger. Allergies are increasing in the world but there are new ways of diagnosing and treating allergies.<br />
What are Allergies? <br />“An allergy is an inappropriate and excessive response of the body’s immune system- called a hypersensitivity response- to substances that aren’t normally harmful”.<br />(Price4)<br />(http://www.dnatube.com/video/2222/Allergy-3D-Medical-Animation)<br />(http://images.google.com)<br />
Anaphylaxis<br />Severe allergic reaction that can lead to death.<br />A bee sting is an example of this reaction.<br />(http://www.emedicinehealth.com)<br />
Symptoms of Anaphylactic shock<br />Dizziness <br />Loss of consciousness.<br />Labored breathing.<br />Swelling of the tongue and breathing tubes.<br />Blueness of the skin.<br />Low blood pressure.<br />Heart failure<br />(http://www.emedicinehealth.com)<br />(http://images.google.com)<br />
EpiPen<br />Used for emergency treatment of allergic reaction (Anaphylaxis).<br />Auto-Injector for Intramuscular Injection of Epinephrine.<br />It is used for only one time.<br />(http://www.drugs.com)<br />(http://images.google.com)<br />
Is it a Cold or an Allergy<br />Allergy is caused by allergens which are harmless substances.<br />Symptoms : <br />Itchy, water eyes.<br />Clear, runny nose.<br />Itchy throat<br />Cold is caused by a virus .<br />Common symptoms:<br />Runny nose.<br />Nasal congestion.<br />Fever.<br />(http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com)<br />(http://images.google.com)<br />
What are Allergens <br />“Allergen: substance that is foreign to the body and can cause an allergic reaction in certain people.”<br />There are different types of immunoglobulins like IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, and IgD.<br />IgE plays a major role in allergic <br /> reactions.<br />(http://images.google.com)<br />(Ibrahim)<br />(http://www.medterms.com)<br />http://www.webmd.com<br />
How do allergens enter the body<br />Inhalant. <br />Oral.<br />Contact.<br />Injected.<br />(http://www.webmd.com)<br />(Price5,8)<br />
Injected<br />As medications, and stings like bee sting.<br />(http://images.google.com)<br />(http://www.webmd.com)<br />(Price8)<br />
The Most Common Allergy Provoking Substances are: <br />Dust mites<br />Mold<br />Pollen<br />Dogs <br />Medicines <br />Cats <br />Animal dander<br />(http://images.google.com)<br />(http://www.healthscout.com)<br />
Pollen<br />Microscopic in size. <br />It is the most common cause of allergy rhinitis<br /> (hay fever).<br />Weed pollen<br />Most common: ragweed, pigweed, sage, mugwort, and others.<br />Tree pollen<br />Most common: tree allergens birch, oak, maple, cedar, olive, elm, and others.<br />Grass pollen<br />Most common: orchard, vernal, retop, Kentucky blue grass, Meadow, Timothy, and others. <br />(http://images.google.com)<br />(http://www.lpch.org)<br />
Dust Mites<br />Microscopic organisms.<br />Present year around.<br />House mite allergy is overreaction to proteins in excretion of the dust mites.<br />Indoor allergens.<br />Live in warm and humid houses with lots of food.<br />Live on dead skin and eat dead cells.<br />(http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/focus/asthma/index.shtml)<br />
Nasal Allergy<br />It can be seasonal or perennial.<br />It is very common.<br />Perennial allergic rhinitis: occurs all year round and is caused by things such as dust mites and pets. <br />Seasonal nasal allergy, as spring, fall and this usually is triggered by pollens or weeds subsequently. <br />(Ibrahim)<br />(http://www.webmd.com)<br />(http://www.netdoctor.co.uk)<br />
Seasonal Nasal Allergy<br />Common name is hay fever. <br />“It is an allergic reaction to airborne substances such as pollen that get into the upper respiratory passages - the nose, sinus, throat - and also the eyes”. <br />Symptoms mostly in childhood<br />and then lessen by the age<br /> of 30 or 40. <br />(http://www.netdoctor.co.uk)<br />(http://images.google.com)<br />(Price22)<br />
SkinPrick Test<br />On the skin of the forearm or the back<br />Allergens are applied to the skin by <br />scratching the skin.<br />After twenty minutes the doctor checks the <br />the results.<br />Multiple applicator <br />Single applicator <br />Positive result<br />(http://www.allergyuk.org)<br />(http://www.webmd.com)<br />(http://images.google.com)<br />(http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/allergy-tests/MM00385)<br />
Skin Intradermal Test<br />Injection of allergens.<br />Injection of 0.01 mL of non-reactive liquid.<br />Is more sensitive than prick test.<br />(http://www.healthcentral.com)<br />(http://www.webmd.com)<br />
Negative Wheal<br />A wheal of 6 mm diameter or less.<br />If the patient is not allergic to that substance negative wheal will be produced.<br />(http://www.capecodent.com)<br />(http://www.aafp.org)<br />
Positive Wheal<br />A wheal of 7 mm diameter or greater.<br />If the patient is allergic to a certain substance a positive wheal will be produced.<br />(http://www.aafp.org)<br />(http://www.capecodent.com)<br />
Skin Patch Test<br />To test substance that come in contact with the skin.<br />“The test involves the application of various test substances to the skin under adhesive tape that are then left in place for 48 hours.” <br />(http://www.netdoctor.co.uk)<br />
FactorsThat Inhibit The Wheal<br />Medications like:<br />Antihistamines.<br />Tricyclic.<br />Antidepressants.<br />Systemic beta agonists.<br />Age of Patient.<br />Too soon after systemic anaphylactic reaction.<br />(http://www.allergyclinic.co.nz/guides/11.html)<br />
FactorsThat Enhance The Wheal<br />Positive skin test that are too close together.<br />Dermatopathology.<br />Induction of bleeding.<br />(http://www.allergyclinic.co.nz/guides/11.html)<br />
Positive Control Test<br />Testing must include application of a positive control.<br />Histamine is the most popular positive control<br />Codeine, which causes mast cell degranulation, can be used.<br />(http://www.drugs.com)<br />(Ibrahim)<br />(http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-degranulation.htm)<br />
NegativeControl Test<br />Place a wheal using diluent or some other inert substance.<br />The 4 mm negative control should not enlarge beyond 5 mm.<br />Positive wheal growth predicts false positive test results.<br />(http://allergies.about.com/od/allergies101/a/allergytest.htm)<br />(Ibrahim)<br />
Blood Test<br />Used for people who are not able to have skin test.<br />Not as sensitive as skin test.<br />(http://images.google.com)<br />(http://www.webmd.com)<br />
Treatments of Nasal Allergy<br />Treatment of allergy itself: <br />Avoidance.<br />Environmental control. <br />Allergy immunotherapy. <br />Treatment of allergy symptoms:<br />Antihistamines<br />Nasal sprays.<br />(http://www.dnatube.com)<br />(Ibrahim)<br />(http://images.google.com)<br />(http://www.healthscout.com)<br />
Avoidance<br />Try to stay away from allergens.<br />Keep allergen exposure below your allergic threshold.<br />(Price82)<br />(Ibrahim)<br />
Environmental Control <br />Encase.<br />Clean.<br />Wash.<br />(http://images.google.com)<br />(http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/body/environ_control.html)<br />
AllergyImmunotherapy <br />Injection of small doses of allergens that the patient allergic to.<br />80-90% success rate for certain allergens.<br />Sometimes there will be risk in immunotherapy treatment.<br />(http://www.webmd.com)<br />(http://emedicine.medscape.com)<br />
Mechanismof Allergy<br />First exposure to allergens <br />Large amount of IgE produced<br />IgE attach to the mast cells<br />Second exposure to allergens<br />Release of chemicals like <br />histamines <br />(http://www.howstuffworks.com)<br />
Conclusion <br />It is important for everyone to learn about his/herenvironmenteven if they don’t suffer from any illnesses. Also more importantly people who have allergies should understand what they have to avoid and how to avoid it.<br />
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