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  • Ask questions about driving. How many of you drive? How many of you have been lost? How many of you have driven on unpaved roads or after a snow storm? How many of your travel above 60 mph? how many of you have done all these at the same time? This is rally racing, drivers driving on un paved roads they have never seen before at speeds reaching above 60mph, while trying to set a best time.
  • Many successful racing teams are run by previous drivers who competed and made them selves famous in driving while the term “Rallying” was very broadHow it has Effected every body Weather they know about it or notAudi first introduced the concept of AWD (Quattro) gave better traction & control on their cars Between stages in the service park if the up coming stage is rockier or more smooth the mechanics can adjust the rebound and other things of the shock absorbers to better accommodate the road. Today some cars have shocks that electronically adjust them hundreds of times a minute to smooth out the ride for the driver and passengers. Today's cars have fire protection around the cabin area that is has to pass rigorous tests and the same materials are used in racing suites since teams often remove most of the insulation and other padding to save weight.
  • Race are not run in one day as cars go through the race they have chances to go to the servicepark, pits, where the time limit varies depending on the previous stage and the up coming stage.About cars and coursesRoad rally no closed courses more about being on time not first Stage Rallying WRC type of Racing
  • Very big in Scandinavia, during the winter race tracks would freeze over and drivers would learn how to “control the slide”. Companies like Saab and Volvo were the large companies in the 50’s and 60’s, due to being local companies. There is became “ruthless special stages on closed roads puncatedby civilized road sections” , Helmut Deimel, How it gotstarted
  • Group B cars did not have to sell the same amount of cars as other groups so companies made specialty cars that would not be considered safe. But since they sold the volume of cars required and they raced them. Used special fuels to keep up with engine demands. Cars were stripped down powered up versions of the already extreme road cars. It is said that the cars could race in a F1 race and make it to the podium.Formation of the wrcPictures of Extreme Audi Quattro and LanciaJoaquim Santos Swerved to avoid hitting spectators in the road and ended up cashing off the course killing 3 and injuring 30.
  • It was introduced to make major manufactures to build cars that could be made for RACING OR RALLYING, no mention of being street legal, or safe. Engine limits were limited to 3 liters for naturally aspirated engines, Merto 6R4 only manufacture to not Blow their engine, 2 lites for “Blown”, turbo or suppercharging some times both, veichals. EVO cars could use high performance engines, suspensions and aero dynamic parts provided the original concept was aherared to, rules did not even specify that the original body shell must be used. Central body must remain the same but other than that anything goes
  • Rally Racing vsNascarNASCAR is a race of large Production saloons that bare almost no resemblance to the production models producing about 750 HPRally cars are based upon the production bodies with awd and turbocharged 4cylindder engines, making either 200 or 300hp, which are driven on tracks that are constantly changing.Rally racing cars must use the same engine block that is in the factory car, while NASCAR teams can use any “factory made” engine. Which means that Toyota, Ford, Chevy, dodge, or any other company which makes their own engine can devolve an engine strictly for their NASCAR racers. Picture of NASCAR course and a rally course
  • Rally racingvs Formula 1“Formula 1 Drivers see 1 corner 1000 times, Rally Drivers see 1000 corners once.” (Top Gear I think)F1 cars have requirements but bare no resemblance to road cars, there are laps in F1 supposed to Rally racing (bring up Top Gear Quote), F1 cars can get in race service( Tire change, fuel fill, and possible replace a broken part) Rally cars must finish the stage before any major repair is doneNotes: Bring up the quote of 1 corner 1000 times and 1000 corners once
  • Fans are usually around turns where the driver will slide the car and bring up a lot of smoke and debris. Sound dangerous but rally organizers' mark areas where driver may go off of the course and prevent people from standing there. In the eighties there was a game played by Spectators to see who could touch the car as they drove by. Photographers often lean out onto the course to get the best picture. It is not uncommon for photographers and spectators to run over to a stuck car and start pushing to help them get back on the course.To most type of racingFans/ crowd controlSurfaces they race uponThe Driver who got first the last race launches first then the clock starts for them, then later to make sure the cars have less of a chance to crash the driver who placed second launches.Fans often bring their own chairs and sit along the course and often on the course. In certain places it had become a spectator game to see if they could reach out and touch the cars driving by.Three main types of surfaces Gravel, Snow, and Tarmac
  • At the beginning of a race the leader of the drivers championship goes first. Then as the day and race progresses the leader is the person who is fastest on the Stages of the race.
  • Are section of the day course that are timed for placement of drivers for the event. Between
  • This type of coarse is more for the fans it is on a much smaller course where there are seats like a stadium and there is not a 3 minute gap between cars; racing is much faster there is not regulation on what type of surface it is. It can be all Tarmac but most often it is a mix of tarmac and gravel. Sometimes the two cars race on different overlapping tracks and when one driver finishes his course they must go around the other course in order to officially finish.If the driver does not race they are given an average time to their total timed sections, usually drivers do go faster then this, but in the case of a crash or any other thing that would slow them down.
  • Race Preparations'Tire temperatures. Races are different and parts such as brake pads and tires. IN gravel there are dry hot tracks like Mexico, and the tire compound is much harder
  • Race Preparations'(tire selections) warmer temperatures(0 C or 32 F) will melt the snow and the studs in the tire will grip in to the underlying gravel and then be pulled out leaving the driver with almost no control when driving on the snow. All about grip and spikes in the tires provide the ultimate
  • Race PreparationTires have greater contact patches then gravel or ice races, tires are often of a compound that can stand more heat since more heat is created with larger contact patches.Tires SuspensionRimsMuch hotter
  • During the 60”s the mini cooper was the car to have. With barley 100bhp and small size. It was stripped down even more and this brought about drivers driving as hard as they could so they would not get stuck. Then towards the end of the 60’s the ford escort ruled the races
  • Since There is a world rally championship and an American rally championship the two have to do their own advertising. The World Rally Championship is much larger because they have races that go through towns and national land marks not just Through forests and on back roads such as rally America does. Europe(if you want to win employ a Finn)Run every weekend in FinlandHave to sell car if offeredStops seriousness of racesDesigned for entry level rally racingCars must cost less then $1000, to prevent it form getting to seriousIf someone wants to buy your car at the end of the race you MUST sell itDifferent classes depend on age and experience and carBecause cars cannot cost more then $1000 then it aviods people from getting large companies to sponser them or even any type of company to sponser them. It is strictly on driver talent. All crap cars means that the racing is close and more exciting. Circuit type racing everyone starts at the same time. Cars barley go over 65 MPH or 80KPH (James May Top Gear)
  • Rally America Race in New YorkThere are regional events that drivers race in for regional titles, west, north east, middle east, southern; then there are national events, only 6, and drivers from all skill levels drive here.
  • SEbatian Loeb the current Champion and has been for the last 6 years.
  • HenriTiovonen started in the 1974 1000 lakes rally, DNF. In 77 he placed fifth in the 1000 lakes rally. By the 85 season he had started to get his stride
  • TimoMakinen was made famous for driving his mini cooper to the brink and often sending it in the air. The term “Flyin Finn” Came as to be because Fininsh drivers would push their cars to the brink and would often send them through the air. Walter Rohrl was the first person to drive in Audi’s new turbo charged AWD car, the Quattro, and he doninated the competition and they soon realized that they could not win without AWD and now every car has it.
  • Sebastian Loeb is the current world rally champion and has been for the last 6 years. Last year he won the drivers championship by 1 point in the GB rally, just nudging out MikkoHirvonen. Colin Mcrae is a Scottish driver, Also know as “Colin McCrash”
  • Ken block is the cofounder of DC Shoes, a company that sponsors many athletes in a wide variety of sports. HE has been successful in rally America but he has now joined the WRC and is using this year as a transition to his new car and environment. He has recently switched teams, from Subaru to Ford, because Subaru pulled their WRC team
  • IN the early days of rally co-drivers had to do anything required of them, which most of the time required reading the pace notes, but it also required fixing flat tires, being traction devices', flipping the car back over. They also would go a day before and find the best places to eat so that the driver would be ready to the upcoming race RECCE: before driving the stage the driver and co-driver drive it and take notes, Pace notes, on the first run the driver tells the co drover what to write down and then it is run again while the co driver reads it back and they clear up any misunderstandings. They do not drive fast during recce. Time penality if they excede speed limit during recce period Pace Notes: description of the road ahead, called out by the co-driver to inform the driver of what is coming up. Pace notes for every rally are made during the pre-event reconnaissance. As they recce each stage (twice, and at limited speed), drivers describe the road to their co-drivers, who write down the information in a form of shorthand. During the rally the co-driver reads the notes back to the driver.Invented by Sterling MossOriginally was basic Hand motionsDrivers would be doing 170 MPH and then would enter a town and did not know about the upcoming turns because of the buildings.
  • Race cars are also road cars because they are driven on the roads as well as the gravel and snow. The FIA’scommitment to the environment makes sure that the cars are strictly help up to the same pollution laws as regular cars.The drives must undergo many tests from the teams to make sure they are fit to drive. And to make sure that if any physical harm is don’t to them they are not liable for it. Although they would most likely want their driver back as soon as possible.
  • Handbrake turn is used to maneuver around tight/slow corners Scandinavian Flick it a move in which the driver turns slightly the opposite direction of the turn and then quickly turns into the turn while on the throttle and will slide through the turn.
  • Used to slide cars around “hairpin” Turns
  • Another way to slide around cornersMost efficient on FWD carsNot used much today as it used to beTurn slightly in opposite direction of turn, 2. Quickly turn into turn so car starts to slide3. Ease off gas while starting to slide4. Use own judgment on when to get back on throttle. IN today's cars it is not used as often because of the AWD and the differentials controls allow racers to drive faster around corners and it will transfer the power to the wheel that needs it most
  • For use in turbo Charged cars. Can be practiced in every day driving, and can be very helpful during racing.Keeps turbo spooled so the power it there when neededQuicker through out turns, also used in other types of racing.In racing while a driver brakes applies power shifts there is a movement of
  • Comes from from “hill jumping” In some foreign countries people cannot pronounce “Jumping” they say “Yumping”When drivers are tackling a series of hills and other vertical changes in the course they must know what is on the other side of it, pace notes and recce, and that will help determine how they use the throttle through the changes. If the driver keeps his foot on the gas, which is what they usually do, they will shoot off the jump and depending on their speed will land a number of feet away from where they would of if they were to sow down and take it like an ordinary driver.
  • Turbo charges are considered forced induction devices. As the exhaust gas exits it spins one side of a turbine while on the other side the income air is spun around another turbine which forces the air into the engine. A 32mm for group N (the major group) and 34mm for group A. Small engine produce more power at high RPMs. As the engine revs the turbo spins faster and helps produce more power to go FASTER! The restrictor is most noticeable around 5000 RPM. It limits the amount of power the engine produces to make driving safer.Ito provide aquacade safety no part of the car is allowed to touch the ground while all the tires on one side are deflated with full weight of car, fluids' and competitors on boardIn 2008 Pirelli became the official tire supplier for the WRC and the rules changed leaving teams with out run-flat technology. Which meant new tires, new compound and tread deigns and a new season. Run-flat tires have an additional subastance on the inside of the tire were New For 2010New FIA spec helmetNight stages are allowedNo limit on stage lengthIncreased lateness allowedProvided that the satge meets the saftey regulations of the scruitnees it is allowed to be run.Stage lengths are now between 300 kilometers and 500 kilometers, used to be 340-400 kilometers, increasing the physical strain put on the car and driverThe FIA has tried to make it more open to people, the time allowed to get to the starting podium so there are less penalties, thus more competitors and more competition. It used to be 15 minutes between two control now it is 30 minutes
  • Rally cars have no air bags, and are not very large. Drivers have such things as batter disconnections, fuel cut offs, roll cages (FIA Regulation), Racing suites and helmet, safety crews,All oil, fuel, brake lines must be protected externally from any risk of deterationstones, mud, mechanical failure. Internal fuel lines must fun on non conducting metal. FIA Saftey Rule 3.1
  • All crashes the driver and co driver walk away from.
  • The best way to learn more is to go to races and volunteer that way you can meat the officials and crews and ask them questions, and it is basically a free pass to any rally race. ON june 4 & 5 there is a race in welsburo PA the Susquenhoc rally. Closest rally to here also one of the biggest in the country.There are driving schools such as Team O’neil rally school where for a certain price a person can go and learn the same tricks that the pros use.Rally racing is not as big as it could be and is mostly online. Up coming RacesPlaces to go to learn more, Rally Schools
  • Top Gear clip with James May racing in FinlandNeed to make videos of ralling.Do mock up races with playschool carsGet a camera for Demolition Derby (frasher)Point systems Driver and TeamsBring Car to school for students to look at and inspect
  • Red bull, Monster energy, Ford, Citrion, BP Gas, Castrol Oil, Abu Dubahi, all sponsor the largest rally racers in the WRC, Ford and CitrionOlder people complain that it has become too much of a busniess. Large companies People are racing for money, as supposed to glory/bragging rights, and for the fun of it.Spectators
  • Final Sgp slides

    1. 1. Rally Racing<br />By Matt Matcovich<br /><br />
    2. 2. Presentation Overview<br />Thesis<br />Relevance<br />Introduction & History <br />Cars & Surfaces <br />Culture<br />Drivers & Driving<br />Rules & Regulations<br />Conclusion<br />Class Activity<br />
    3. 3. Thesis<br />Thesis: Rally racing is a growing international Motorsport with its own culture and fan base and my goal is to explore its culture and help make Americans aware of its growing popularity.<br />
    4. 4. Personal Relevance<br />Every day in the morning I go to the the technical school to work on cars, and the greatest part of working on cars is racing them. To me rally racing is the most exciting type and it always keeps me excited.<br />Furthermore, I plan to enter a rally racing event when I am certified to be a driver, and have a FIA regulation approved car.<br />
    5. 5. Relevance<br />In every day driving the advances of rally racing can be seen in the improvements to automobiles. <br />All Wheel Drive<br />Racing suites<br />Self adjusting shock absorbers<br />
    6. 6. Introduction to Rally Racing<br />“Two to four day events that pit car and driver through the toughest and most varied conditions on the world”<br />Point-to-Point racing<br />Two Types: Road Rallying and Stage Rallying<br /><br />
    7. 7. History of Rally Racing<br />“Rally” very broad term<br />Previously were long distance races<br />Horseless-carriage races<br />After WWII races grew but no official organization<br />World Rally Championship formed in 1973<br />Complete book of the WRC<br />
    8. 8. History: Big Changes<br />Car manufacturers sponsor (works) teams<br />In 1987 Group B rallying dismantled<br />“The WRC has undergone a wide range of evolutions, not always painless” (Hope-Frost 12)<br />The complete book of the WRC<br />
    9. 9. History: Group B<br />Introduced in 1982 season<br />3 liter NA engines or 2 liter FI<br />Only 200 cars had to be built to be homologated<br />Evo cars<br />“If you look at the value we gave to the public 20 years compared to what they are getting now, Group B will always be sadly missed.” David Sutton Audi UK rally team manager<br />Still too Fast to Race<br />
    10. 10. Group B<br /><br /><br />
    11. 11. Comparison<br />NASCAR<br />Loosely based on 4 door production sedans<br />Naturally aspirated 5.8L V8’s<br />RWD<br />Circular paved tracks<br />Rally Racing<br />Much stricter rules on modifications<br />Turbocharged 2.0L 4 Cylinders<br />AWD<br />Unpaved left and right tracks<br /><br />
    12. 12. Comparison<br />Formula 1<br />Cars are not based upon any production cars<br />Circuit Race<br />Pit Stops<br />2.4 L V8 naturally aspirated<br />Rally Racing<br />Teams must use factory car models <br />Point-to-point time trial<br />Service park<br />2.0 liter 4 Cylinder Turbocharged<br /><br />
    13. 13. Comparison<br />Drivers all do not start at once<br />Crowd much closer to action<br />Cars driven on mostly unpaved roads<br /><br />
    14. 14. How Races are Run<br />Pre-Race<br />Recce<br />Shakedown<br />Stages<br />Surface Type<br />Ceremony <br /><br /><br />
    15. 15. Special Stages<br />Required for every race<br />Timed Section of the race<br />Vary in length and difficulty<br />Average length 6 miles<br />Run through all types geological structures<br /><br /><br />
    16. 16. Super Special Stages<br />Has been around for 50 years<br />Often set up in local arenas<br />A circuit which allows two drivers to compete at the same time<br />Optional for racers<br /><br />
    17. 17. Surface Type: Gravel<br />Rally Mexico, Jordan, Turkey, New Zealand, Portugal, Finland, Japan, Great Britain<br />Soft and Hard surfaces<br />More obstacles<br />Rocks, ditches, jumps<br /><br />
    18. 18. Surface Type: Ice/Snow<br />Rally Sweden<br />Tires have spikes for better traction<br />One of the faster rallies<br />“Basically the car has two setups: one for gravel and one for tarmac. Snow set ups are based on gravel setups.” Stefan Liesker M-Sport Ltd.<br /><br />
    19. 19. Surface Type: Tarmac<br />Rally Bulgaria, Deutschland, France, Spain<br />Probably the smoothest of all surfaces<br />Often run through local towns <br />David Kippel<br /><br />
    20. 20. Cars<br />Car must meet race specifications <br />Must be based upon a production car<br />Selling over (2500) units a year<br />Must weigh the same as production car<br />All-Wheel Drive<br />FIA rule book<br />
    21. 21. Culture: Where it is Popular<br />Not very big for a “World Championship”<br />Biggest in Europe<br />Fans are often dedicated to the sport<br />Folkracing<br /><br /><br />
    22. 22. Culture: Rallying in USA<br />Rally America<br />Governs rallying in US<br />National and regional events<br />Often raced by other extreme sport pro’s<br />“Drivers drive until they are dead”<br /><br />
    23. 23. Rally Racing Famous Drivers<br />StigBlomqvist<br />Henri Toivonen<br />TimoMakinen<br />Walter Rohrl<br />Colin McRae<br />Sebastien Loeb<br />Ken Block<br />
    24. 24. Famous Drivers Cont.<br />StigBlomqvist<br />July 1946, Sweden<br />Saab J-Class at 19<br />82’ signs with Audi<br />84’ World Champion<br />Team mate Per Elkund<br />Henri Toivonen<br />Father was a car salesmen and gave him his first car<br />At 24 he became youngest man to win a WRC event<br />Tragic Death in Group B in a Lancia Delta S4 in 86’<br />Complete WRC book<br /><br /><br />
    25. 25. Famous Drivers Cont.<br />TimoMakinen<br />Started driving on fathers paper route in Finland<br />One of the original “Flying Finns”<br />Walter Rohrl<br />World Champion in 80’ and 82’<br /><br /><br />Complete WRC book<br />
    26. 26. Famous Drivers Cont<br />Colin McRae<br />At 10 he was driving motorcycles <br />Help make “Subaru Blue” Famous<br />Died in Helicopter crash on September 15, 2007<br />Sebastian Loeb<br />Current & 6 Time World Champ<br /><br /><br />Complete WRC book<br />
    27. 27. Ken Block<br />World wide phenomena: Gymkanhana<br />2010 entry in to WRC <br /><br />
    28. 28. Co-Drivers<br />Meant to help Driver any way possible<br />Sits in passenger seat<br />Humanized GPS<br />Pace notes: “Description of the road ahead read by co-driver”<br /><br />
    29. 29. Driving Requirements<br />Race cars must be street legal<br />Driver must have a racing license<br />Must be based upon a production car<br />Selling over (2500) units a year<br /><br />
    30. 30. Driving Skills<br />Handbrake turn<br />Scandinavian Flick<br />Left-foot braking <br />Yumping<br />Speed Secrets<br />
    31. 31. Hand Brake Turn<br />Used to quickly spin around tight corners<br /> Fifth Gear<br />
    32. 32. Scandinavian Flick<br />Used to slide cars around turns<br />Maintains a relative speed<br />More common in FWD cars<br />Not as necessary with today's technology<br />Racing secrets<br /><br />
    33. 33. Left-Foot Braking<br />Allows drivers to keep right foot on throttle<br />Used more commonly on turbo charged cars<br />Helps “match revs”<br />Less weight transfer<br />Racing secrets 1<br /><br />
    34. 34. Yumping<br />Rally Jargon<br />Throttle control while driving over hills, crests and other changes in drive angle<br />Racing secrets<br /><br />
    35. 35. Regulations & Safety: Major Rules<br />Turbocharger restrictor<br />Height restrictions<br />Exhaust muffler and catalytic converter<br />No run-flat tires<br />New for 2010<br /><br />
    36. 36. Regulations & Safety: Safety<br />Roll cages<br />Skid plates<br />Electronic Disconnects<br />Racing suite<br />HANS device<br />In car fire extinguishers<br />Matt Matcovich<br /> FIA Rulebook<br />
    37. 37. Crashes<br />Insert video here<br /><br />
    38. 38. How to get Involved<br />Volunteer at a race<br />Go to school<br /><br />Read, Listen, and Watch<br />On Discovery HD Theatre<br /><br /><br />
    39. 39. Application<br />
    40. 40. Application Cont’<br />
    41. 41. Application Cont’<br />
    42. 42. Application Cont’<br />
    43. 43. Conclusion<br />Rally racing is large in Europe but surprisingly it is larger in America then I had thought.<br />
    44. 44. Class Activity<br />Using the the information I have given you today you and your team mates will answer questions.<br />For every question you answer correctly your team gets 20 seconds.<br />For every question you answer incorrectly your team gets 30 seconds. <br />The team with the lowest time wins.<br />
    45. 45. Works Cited<br />“The Evolution of Rallying” by Helmut Demel<br />
    46. 46. EXTRA<br />
    47. 47. Modern Racing<br />Large companies sponsor teams and drivers<br />Universal tire supplier (Pirelli)<br />Many complaints from former drivers<br />Complete WRC Book<br />