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BABUR
INTRODUCTION
Daulat Khan Lodi (A cousin of Sultan Ibrahim) unsatisfied by
 the Sultan’s rule, persuaded Zahiruddin Muhammad to
 invade India and defeat the Sultan. So, at the Great Battle
 Of Panipat Ibrahim Lodi’s large army was defeated by
 Babur and a new dynasty was founded by Babur:
            THE GREAT MUGHAL DYNASTY




                                              The Battle of
  Panipat
EARLY LIFE
Babur was born on 14 February 1483 in the town of
Andijan in the Fergana Valley in Uzbekistan. He belonged to
the Mongol tribe that also embraced Turkish and Persian.
Babur is a Arabic word meaning tiger, the nickname given
to him because of his attitude shown in battle. His actual
name was Zahiruddin Muhammad, yet he was commonly
  known as Babur. Babur is said to have been born, extremely
  strong and physically            fit. He could allegedly carry
  two men, one on each of his shoulders, and then climb
  slopes on the run, just for exercise. Legend
  holds that Babur swam across every major river he
  encountered.       At the age of 11 Babur, succeeded his
  father, Omar Sheikh Mirza.
BABUR , THE TIGER
The Reign of Babur (1526-
             1530)
   Babur established his empire after
    defeating Ibrahim Lodi at the Battle of
    Panipat, the Rajputs under Rana Sanga                            Babur’s
    of Mewar at the battle of Kanwar and the                         expansion
    consolidated Afghans chiefs at the banks                         in India
    of river Ghagra. His kingdom extended
    from Kabul and Kandhahar in the north-
    west to Bihar in the east and from the
    Himalayas in the north to Gwalior in the
    south. However he was not able enjoy
    the fruits of his hard-earned
    victories. Still,his rule was a brilliant one
    and had a great influence on Arts and
    Architecture in India. However , after only
    4 years of his rule he died And his son,
    Humayun became emperor after him.

                                                    Babur’s successor Humayun
BABUR’S INTERESTS
   Babur the Moghul had many interest’s.
   His memoir’s reflect that he had an interest
    in reading, society, hunting, nature, politic’s and
    economics. He had ideas about architecture,
   administration, and civilization
   Although Babur ruled only four years, his love of
    nature led him to create gardens of great beauty
    which became an intrinsic part of every Mughal
    fort, palace and state buildings during the
    centuries that followed. While alive, Emperor
    Babur laid out the classical Moghul-style gardens
    located on a high point in west Kabul which
    comprised a series of beautiful landscaped hillside
BABUR’S
INTERESTS




  Babur enjoying
  Hunting
BABUR’S ACHIEVEMENT’S
   The achievements of Babur can be stated as follows:
    Babur established the Mughal dynasty in India by defeating Ibrahim Lodi,
    the last Delhi Sultan, bringing an end to the Delhi Sultanate, in the 1st Battle
    of Panipath in 1526 AD.
   In 1527 AD, Babur defeated the Rajput confederacy formed by Rana
    Sangram Singh of Mewar along with a number of Rajput kingdoms like
    Marwar, Gwalior, Ajmeer, Ambar, etc. under the leadership of Mahmud Lodi,
    the brother of Ibrahim Lodi, in the Battle of Khanua.
   In 1529 AD, Babur defeated the Eastern Afghans i.e. of Bengal, Bihar,
    Assam, Orissa, etc., who has formed a powerful alliance with Mahmud Lodi,
    in the Battle of Gogra. It temporarily weakened the anti-Babur strategies and
    saved the fledgling Mughal reign.
   Due to the conquests of Babur, the Mughal empire extended from Kabul in
    the west to Gogra in the east, from the Himalayas in the north to Gwalior in
    the south.
   Babur was a great patron of cultural activities, and welcomed poets, authors
    and littérateurs at his court. He was adept in Arabic, Turkish and Persian,
BABUR’S VICTORIES
◦ Babur as well as being a brilliant conqueror and
  warrior, was also very clever. For example he
  divided his empire into a brilliant military state. He
  also used firearms (cannons, matchlock pistols etc)
  to win numerous numbers of battles




◦ FIREARMS USED BY BABUR IN BATTLES
The Battle Of Panipat
In the year 1526, the first Battle of Panipat took place at
Panipat, few miles away from Delhi. Babur had only
twelve thousands army while the opponent Sultan Ibrahim
Lodi; the Sultan of Delhi had a much larger force. Babur
was equipped with more advanced weapons, both
matchlock men and field cannon, which proved to be very
useful against the Afghan cavalry. Like the other Indian
rulers Lodi was not also introduced with firearms. Ibrahim
Lodi was killed in the battle along with dozens of other
Indian chiefs. Babur emerged victorious and occupied
Delhi. Then he sent his son Humayun to Agra, the capital
of Lodi to capture the Royal palace and the treasure.
Shortly after that Babur joined Humayun at Agra,
distributed the seized treasures among his followers.
Then he ascended the throne of Agra and turned it to his
capital.
The Battle Of Khanua

    The very next war there was a battle between Babur and
    Rajput confederacy at Khanua. The Rajputs were led by
    Rana Sanga, ruler of the State of Mewar in Rajastan. The
    Rajput cavalry was huge with eighty thousand soldiers and
    five hundred armored war elephants while the Mughal force
    was much smaller in size. But Babur had guns and the
    cavalry was well practiced with Central Asian tactics, which
    proved to be very effective against the Rajput. This battle
    also brought victory to Babur. Rana Sanga and many other
    renowned Rajput leaders died at battle of Khanua that
    ended the possibility of resurgence of Rajput power in the
    north India. In the year 1528 Babur marched to the great
    bastion of Chanderi, which was the fort of a feudal leader
    under the Rana of Mewar. The Mughal army attacked the
    fort and slaughtered many lives there.
BATTLE OF GHAGRA
   Although the Rajput menace was removed, there were still the Afghans who
    had to be subdued. Mahmud Lodi, a brother of Ibrahim Lodi, had fled and
    taken refuge in Bihar and established his position there. He had a large
    army estimated at about one lakh strong. Supported by this army, he went to
    Banaras and from there to Chunar. When he laid siege to Chunar, Babur
    sent his own son Askari against Mahmud Lodi and later on himself marched
    against him.
   When the Afghans came to know of the movements of Babur, they raised
    the siege of the Chunar and withdrew. On his way to Buxar through
    Allahabad, Chunar and Banaras, a number of Afghan Chiefs offered their
    submission to Babur. Mahmud Lodi had taken refuge in Bengal. Althout h its
    Ruler Nusrat Shah had assured Babur of his friendship, Babur decided to
    put an end to ti, Afghan menace, even at the risk of a war and marched
    towards Bengal. The Battle of Ghagra was fought on 6 May, 1529 and the
    Afghans were completely defeated. Babur's artillery rendered him great
    service in his action against the Afghans. The defeat of Ghagra was final so
    far as the Lodis were concerned. Babur entered into a Treaty with Nusrat
    Shah by which both the parties agreed to respect each other's sovereignty
    and Nusrat Shah agreed not to give shelter to the enemies of Babur in
    future.
   It was in this way that "in three battles Babur had reduced Northern India to
    submission." The rest of his life was spent in organizing the administration of
‘THE TIGER’ IN BATTLES





Art’s and Architecture
   Mughal Architecture influenced greatly in Babur’s rule. Mughal
    architecture under Babur was a beginning of an imperial
    movement, impressed by local influences. Babur’s elegant
    and stylish buildings evolved gradually because of the gifted
    artists in those provinces.
   Babur constructed many mosques around India, mostly taken
    from desecrated Hindu temples. Three of the famous
    mosques are the Babri Mosque, The Partnipat Mosque and
    The Jama Masjid.
  Babri Mosque: The Babri mosque was built in Ayodhya,
a city in Faizabad. It was constructed in 1527. The
Mosque was also called Masjid-i-Janmasthan which means
 City Of The Birthplace. The Babri Mosque was one of the
largest mosques in Uttar Padesh. he Babri Masjid was a large
   imposing structure with three domes, one central and two
   secondary. It is                      surrounded by two high
   walls, running parallel to each other and enclosing a large
   central courtyard with a deep well, which was known for its
   cold and sweet water. On the high entrance of the domed
   structure are fixed two stone tablets which bear two
   inscriptions in Persian declaring that this structure was built
   by one Mir Baqi on the orders of Babur. The walls of the Babri
   Mosque are made of
coarse-grained whitish sandstone blocks, rectangular
in shape, while the domes are made of thin and small
burnt bricks. Both these structural ingredients are
plastered with thick chunam paste mixed with coarse
   Bagh-e-Babur:         The Gardens of Babur locally called Bagh-
    e-Babur is a historic park in Kabul, Afghanistan, and also the
    last resting-place of the first Mughal emperor Babur. The
    gardens are thought to have been developed around 1528 AD.
    The site of Bagh e Babur is thought to be that of the "paradise.”
    It is one of several gardens that Babur had laid out for
    recreation and pleasure during his life, while choosing this site
    as his last restingplace. Initially buried in Agra, Babur's body
    was laid to rest in the 1540s in the garden.




       Babur’s tomb inside the garden
Panipat Mosque:
The mosque that Babur himself provided is located in
   Panipat, presently laced in Karnal District of
   Haryana State. Inscriptions indicate that the
   mosque was not set of well into motion. The
   structure of the mosque is now gone, and the
   location was not found, until later. The mosque has
   a rectangular prayer chamber which is dominated
   by a large central dome. The northwest and the
   southwest corners of the mosque were marked by
   octagonal towers crowned by domed pavilions,
although only one survives. It was completed
in 1528 by Babur.
BABUR
  THE
WARRIOR
THE BABURNAMA
   The main source for Babur's biography is a written account of his
    life, written by Babur himself. His memoirs are known as
    the Baburnama and are considered the first true autobiography in
    Islamic literature. He wrote the Bāburnāma in Chaghatai Turkic, his
    mother-tongue, though his prose was highly Persianized in its
    sentence structure, morphology, and vocabulary.[4] The work gives
    a valuable impression of Babur's surrounding environment.[9]

   I have not written all this to complain: I have simply written the truth.
    I do not intend by what I have written to compliment myself: I have
    simply set down exactly what happened. Since I have made it a
    point in this history to write the truth of every matter and to set
    down no more than the reality of every event, as a consequence I
    have reported every good and evil I have seen of father and brother
    and set down the actuality of every fault and virtue of relative and
    stranger. May the reader excuse me; may the listener take me not
    to task.
THINGS BABUR WROTE IN THE BABURNAMA
 He is said to have created several pillars and pyramids of
  skulls
 Babur is frank and open, but tends to describe actions
 rather than motivations. The Baburnama does, however,
 extend far beyond the military and political history
 summarised above. Babur includes descriptions of many of
  the places he visits and is interested in flora and fauna and
  techniques of hunting, fishing, and agriculture; there are also
  set-piece geographical overviews of Fergana, Transoxiana,
  and the area around Kabul, as well
 as a twenty page description of Hindustan. And on a few
 occasions he describes events at a distance, outside his
 own direct experience
 Babur writes extensively about people, including personal
Babur enjoying feast at Herat
                                Babur visiting Hindustan
                                                             Babur in Andijan




                          Babur and his companions warming
Babur’s expedition to Uzabekistan
                                          Babur nama was an action-packed and colourful
BABUR’S WEAKNESSES
   Babur the emperor did not have many
    weaknesses except that he was a strong
    addict of alchohol and opium like his
    ancestors. Later, when Babur became very ill
    and was on his deathbed many historians
    think that he became ill because of taking too
    much opium. Babur did not have any political
    nor religious weaknesses either.
Babur’s Defeat’s
   The Battle Of Kul-i-Malik:
   The battle of Kul-i-Malik (May 1512) was a defeat for Babur
    that forced him to abandon Samarkand. The details of the
    battle are sadly obscure. It took place during one of a
    number of gaps in Babur's own memoirs, so his account is
    missing. . Babur was forced to abandon Tamerlane's city for
    the third and final time, and flee to Hisar. His supports
    attempted to hold out in Tashkent and Sairam, although both
    places eventually fell to the Uzbeks. Babur was able to hold
    on to Hisar for long enough for a Persian army to reach him,
    but after this army was defeated at Ghaj-davan on 12
    November 1512 Babur was forced to return to his Afghan
    kingdom.
BABUR’S DEATH
 After Babur fell seriously ill, Humayun was told of a plot by the
 senior nobles of Babur's court to bypass the leader's sons and
 appoint Mahdi Khwaja, Babur's sister's husband, as his succe-                BABURS
    TOMB
   ssor. He rushed to Agra and arrived there to see his father was well enough again,
    although Mahdi Khwaja had lost all hope of becoming ruler after arrogantly
    exceeding his authority during Babur's illness. Upon his arrival in Agra it was
    Humayun himself who fell ill, and was close to dying.
   Babur is said to have circled the sick-bed, crying to God to take his life and not his
    son's. The traditions that follow this tell that Babur soon fell ill with a fever and
    Humayun began to get better again. His last words apparently being to his son,
    Humayun, "Do nothing against your brothers, even though they may deserve it."
   He died at the age of 47 on January 5 [O.S. 26 December 1530] 1531, and was
    succeeded by his eldest son, Humayun. Though he wished to be buried in his
    favourite garden in Kabul, a city he had always loved, he was first buried in
    a Mausoleum in the capital city of Agra. Roughly nine years later his wishes were
    fulfilled by Sher Shah Suri and Babur was buried inBagh-e Babur (Babur Gardens)
    in Kabul, Afghanistan. The inscription on his tomb reads (in Persian):
   If there is a paradise on earth, it is this, it is this, it is this!
   Babur is considered a national hero in Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, and is held in
    high esteem in Afghanistan where he is buried. In October 2005 the Pakistan
    military developed the Babur (cruise missile), named in honour of him.
Babur’s tomb and location




Babur’s tomb inside the Bagh-e-Babur
                                       Babur’s grave




  Babur’s tomb is inside the Gardens of
  Babur                                 Babur died and his son Humayun was enthrone
Downfall Of The Mughal Dynasty
   After Emperor Aurangzeb's death in 1707, the empire fell into
    succession crisis. Barring Muhammad Shah, none of the Mughal
    emperors could hold on to power for a decade. In the 18th century,
    the Empire suffered the depredations of invaders like Nadir Shah of
    Persia andAhmed Shah Abdali of Afghanistan, who repeatedly
    sacked Delhi, the Mughal capital. Most of the empire's territories in
    India passed to the Marathas, Nawabs , and Nizams by c. 1750. The
    Mughal Emperors lost effective power in favor of the British after
    the Battle of Buxar in 1764. In 1804, the ineffective Shah Alam
    II formally accepted the protection of the British East India Company.
    The company had already begun to refer to the weakened emperor
    as "King of Delhi", rather than "Emperor of India". The once glorious
    and mighty Mughal army was disbanded in 1805 by the British; only
    the guards of the Red Fort were spared to serve with the King of
    Delhi, which avoided the uncomfortable implication that British
    sovereignty was outranked by the Indian monarch. Nonetheless, for
    a few decades afterward the British East India Company continued to
    rule the areas under its control as the nominal servants of the
    emperor and in his name. After the Revolt of 1857, even these
    courtesies were disposed. The rebels declared their allegiance to
    Shah Alam's descendant, Bahadur Shah II which led to a
   British Soldiers looting Qaisar Bagh      Decline Of Mughal Era




         END OF MUGHAL ERA


   Bahadur Shah Zafar 2 surrending to Britishs
                                                    Bahadur Shah Zafar 2
EXTRA’S

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Mughal Emperor Babur

  • 2. INTRODUCTION Daulat Khan Lodi (A cousin of Sultan Ibrahim) unsatisfied by the Sultan’s rule, persuaded Zahiruddin Muhammad to invade India and defeat the Sultan. So, at the Great Battle Of Panipat Ibrahim Lodi’s large army was defeated by Babur and a new dynasty was founded by Babur: THE GREAT MUGHAL DYNASTY The Battle of Panipat
  • 3.
  • 4. EARLY LIFE Babur was born on 14 February 1483 in the town of Andijan in the Fergana Valley in Uzbekistan. He belonged to the Mongol tribe that also embraced Turkish and Persian. Babur is a Arabic word meaning tiger, the nickname given to him because of his attitude shown in battle. His actual name was Zahiruddin Muhammad, yet he was commonly known as Babur. Babur is said to have been born, extremely strong and physically fit. He could allegedly carry two men, one on each of his shoulders, and then climb slopes on the run, just for exercise. Legend holds that Babur swam across every major river he encountered. At the age of 11 Babur, succeeded his father, Omar Sheikh Mirza.
  • 5. BABUR , THE TIGER
  • 6. The Reign of Babur (1526- 1530)  Babur established his empire after defeating Ibrahim Lodi at the Battle of Panipat, the Rajputs under Rana Sanga Babur’s of Mewar at the battle of Kanwar and the expansion consolidated Afghans chiefs at the banks in India of river Ghagra. His kingdom extended from Kabul and Kandhahar in the north- west to Bihar in the east and from the Himalayas in the north to Gwalior in the south. However he was not able enjoy the fruits of his hard-earned victories. Still,his rule was a brilliant one and had a great influence on Arts and Architecture in India. However , after only 4 years of his rule he died And his son, Humayun became emperor after him. Babur’s successor Humayun
  • 7. BABUR’S INTERESTS  Babur the Moghul had many interest’s.  His memoir’s reflect that he had an interest  in reading, society, hunting, nature, politic’s and  economics. He had ideas about architecture,  administration, and civilization  Although Babur ruled only four years, his love of nature led him to create gardens of great beauty which became an intrinsic part of every Mughal fort, palace and state buildings during the centuries that followed. While alive, Emperor Babur laid out the classical Moghul-style gardens located on a high point in west Kabul which comprised a series of beautiful landscaped hillside
  • 8. BABUR’S INTERESTS Babur enjoying Hunting
  • 9. BABUR’S ACHIEVEMENT’S  The achievements of Babur can be stated as follows: Babur established the Mughal dynasty in India by defeating Ibrahim Lodi, the last Delhi Sultan, bringing an end to the Delhi Sultanate, in the 1st Battle of Panipath in 1526 AD.  In 1527 AD, Babur defeated the Rajput confederacy formed by Rana Sangram Singh of Mewar along with a number of Rajput kingdoms like Marwar, Gwalior, Ajmeer, Ambar, etc. under the leadership of Mahmud Lodi, the brother of Ibrahim Lodi, in the Battle of Khanua.  In 1529 AD, Babur defeated the Eastern Afghans i.e. of Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Orissa, etc., who has formed a powerful alliance with Mahmud Lodi, in the Battle of Gogra. It temporarily weakened the anti-Babur strategies and saved the fledgling Mughal reign.  Due to the conquests of Babur, the Mughal empire extended from Kabul in the west to Gogra in the east, from the Himalayas in the north to Gwalior in the south.  Babur was a great patron of cultural activities, and welcomed poets, authors and littérateurs at his court. He was adept in Arabic, Turkish and Persian,
  • 10. BABUR’S VICTORIES ◦ Babur as well as being a brilliant conqueror and warrior, was also very clever. For example he divided his empire into a brilliant military state. He also used firearms (cannons, matchlock pistols etc) to win numerous numbers of battles ◦ FIREARMS USED BY BABUR IN BATTLES
  • 11. The Battle Of Panipat In the year 1526, the first Battle of Panipat took place at Panipat, few miles away from Delhi. Babur had only twelve thousands army while the opponent Sultan Ibrahim Lodi; the Sultan of Delhi had a much larger force. Babur was equipped with more advanced weapons, both matchlock men and field cannon, which proved to be very useful against the Afghan cavalry. Like the other Indian rulers Lodi was not also introduced with firearms. Ibrahim Lodi was killed in the battle along with dozens of other Indian chiefs. Babur emerged victorious and occupied Delhi. Then he sent his son Humayun to Agra, the capital of Lodi to capture the Royal palace and the treasure. Shortly after that Babur joined Humayun at Agra, distributed the seized treasures among his followers. Then he ascended the throne of Agra and turned it to his capital.
  • 12. The Battle Of Khanua  The very next war there was a battle between Babur and Rajput confederacy at Khanua. The Rajputs were led by Rana Sanga, ruler of the State of Mewar in Rajastan. The Rajput cavalry was huge with eighty thousand soldiers and five hundred armored war elephants while the Mughal force was much smaller in size. But Babur had guns and the cavalry was well practiced with Central Asian tactics, which proved to be very effective against the Rajput. This battle also brought victory to Babur. Rana Sanga and many other renowned Rajput leaders died at battle of Khanua that ended the possibility of resurgence of Rajput power in the north India. In the year 1528 Babur marched to the great bastion of Chanderi, which was the fort of a feudal leader under the Rana of Mewar. The Mughal army attacked the fort and slaughtered many lives there.
  • 13. BATTLE OF GHAGRA  Although the Rajput menace was removed, there were still the Afghans who had to be subdued. Mahmud Lodi, a brother of Ibrahim Lodi, had fled and taken refuge in Bihar and established his position there. He had a large army estimated at about one lakh strong. Supported by this army, he went to Banaras and from there to Chunar. When he laid siege to Chunar, Babur sent his own son Askari against Mahmud Lodi and later on himself marched against him.  When the Afghans came to know of the movements of Babur, they raised the siege of the Chunar and withdrew. On his way to Buxar through Allahabad, Chunar and Banaras, a number of Afghan Chiefs offered their submission to Babur. Mahmud Lodi had taken refuge in Bengal. Althout h its Ruler Nusrat Shah had assured Babur of his friendship, Babur decided to put an end to ti, Afghan menace, even at the risk of a war and marched towards Bengal. The Battle of Ghagra was fought on 6 May, 1529 and the Afghans were completely defeated. Babur's artillery rendered him great service in his action against the Afghans. The defeat of Ghagra was final so far as the Lodis were concerned. Babur entered into a Treaty with Nusrat Shah by which both the parties agreed to respect each other's sovereignty and Nusrat Shah agreed not to give shelter to the enemies of Babur in future.  It was in this way that "in three battles Babur had reduced Northern India to submission." The rest of his life was spent in organizing the administration of
  • 14. ‘THE TIGER’ IN BATTLES 
  • 15. Art’s and Architecture  Mughal Architecture influenced greatly in Babur’s rule. Mughal architecture under Babur was a beginning of an imperial movement, impressed by local influences. Babur’s elegant and stylish buildings evolved gradually because of the gifted artists in those provinces.  Babur constructed many mosques around India, mostly taken from desecrated Hindu temples. Three of the famous mosques are the Babri Mosque, The Partnipat Mosque and The Jama Masjid.
  • 16.  Babri Mosque: The Babri mosque was built in Ayodhya, a city in Faizabad. It was constructed in 1527. The Mosque was also called Masjid-i-Janmasthan which means City Of The Birthplace. The Babri Mosque was one of the largest mosques in Uttar Padesh. he Babri Masjid was a large imposing structure with three domes, one central and two secondary. It is surrounded by two high walls, running parallel to each other and enclosing a large central courtyard with a deep well, which was known for its cold and sweet water. On the high entrance of the domed structure are fixed two stone tablets which bear two inscriptions in Persian declaring that this structure was built by one Mir Baqi on the orders of Babur. The walls of the Babri Mosque are made of coarse-grained whitish sandstone blocks, rectangular in shape, while the domes are made of thin and small burnt bricks. Both these structural ingredients are plastered with thick chunam paste mixed with coarse
  • 17. Bagh-e-Babur: The Gardens of Babur locally called Bagh- e-Babur is a historic park in Kabul, Afghanistan, and also the last resting-place of the first Mughal emperor Babur. The gardens are thought to have been developed around 1528 AD. The site of Bagh e Babur is thought to be that of the "paradise.” It is one of several gardens that Babur had laid out for recreation and pleasure during his life, while choosing this site as his last restingplace. Initially buried in Agra, Babur's body was laid to rest in the 1540s in the garden.  Babur’s tomb inside the garden
  • 18. Panipat Mosque: The mosque that Babur himself provided is located in Panipat, presently laced in Karnal District of Haryana State. Inscriptions indicate that the mosque was not set of well into motion. The structure of the mosque is now gone, and the location was not found, until later. The mosque has a rectangular prayer chamber which is dominated by a large central dome. The northwest and the southwest corners of the mosque were marked by octagonal towers crowned by domed pavilions, although only one survives. It was completed in 1528 by Babur.
  • 20. THE BABURNAMA  The main source for Babur's biography is a written account of his life, written by Babur himself. His memoirs are known as the Baburnama and are considered the first true autobiography in Islamic literature. He wrote the Bāburnāma in Chaghatai Turkic, his mother-tongue, though his prose was highly Persianized in its sentence structure, morphology, and vocabulary.[4] The work gives a valuable impression of Babur's surrounding environment.[9]  I have not written all this to complain: I have simply written the truth. I do not intend by what I have written to compliment myself: I have simply set down exactly what happened. Since I have made it a point in this history to write the truth of every matter and to set down no more than the reality of every event, as a consequence I have reported every good and evil I have seen of father and brother and set down the actuality of every fault and virtue of relative and stranger. May the reader excuse me; may the listener take me not to task.
  • 21. THINGS BABUR WROTE IN THE BABURNAMA  He is said to have created several pillars and pyramids of skulls  Babur is frank and open, but tends to describe actions  rather than motivations. The Baburnama does, however,  extend far beyond the military and political history  summarised above. Babur includes descriptions of many of the places he visits and is interested in flora and fauna and techniques of hunting, fishing, and agriculture; there are also set-piece geographical overviews of Fergana, Transoxiana, and the area around Kabul, as well  as a twenty page description of Hindustan. And on a few  occasions he describes events at a distance, outside his  own direct experience  Babur writes extensively about people, including personal
  • 22. Babur enjoying feast at Herat Babur visiting Hindustan Babur in Andijan Babur and his companions warming Babur’s expedition to Uzabekistan Babur nama was an action-packed and colourful
  • 23. BABUR’S WEAKNESSES  Babur the emperor did not have many weaknesses except that he was a strong addict of alchohol and opium like his ancestors. Later, when Babur became very ill and was on his deathbed many historians think that he became ill because of taking too much opium. Babur did not have any political nor religious weaknesses either.
  • 24. Babur’s Defeat’s  The Battle Of Kul-i-Malik:  The battle of Kul-i-Malik (May 1512) was a defeat for Babur that forced him to abandon Samarkand. The details of the battle are sadly obscure. It took place during one of a number of gaps in Babur's own memoirs, so his account is missing. . Babur was forced to abandon Tamerlane's city for the third and final time, and flee to Hisar. His supports attempted to hold out in Tashkent and Sairam, although both places eventually fell to the Uzbeks. Babur was able to hold on to Hisar for long enough for a Persian army to reach him, but after this army was defeated at Ghaj-davan on 12 November 1512 Babur was forced to return to his Afghan kingdom.
  • 25. BABUR’S DEATH  After Babur fell seriously ill, Humayun was told of a plot by the  senior nobles of Babur's court to bypass the leader's sons and  appoint Mahdi Khwaja, Babur's sister's husband, as his succe- BABURS TOMB  ssor. He rushed to Agra and arrived there to see his father was well enough again, although Mahdi Khwaja had lost all hope of becoming ruler after arrogantly exceeding his authority during Babur's illness. Upon his arrival in Agra it was Humayun himself who fell ill, and was close to dying.  Babur is said to have circled the sick-bed, crying to God to take his life and not his son's. The traditions that follow this tell that Babur soon fell ill with a fever and Humayun began to get better again. His last words apparently being to his son, Humayun, "Do nothing against your brothers, even though they may deserve it."  He died at the age of 47 on January 5 [O.S. 26 December 1530] 1531, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Humayun. Though he wished to be buried in his favourite garden in Kabul, a city he had always loved, he was first buried in a Mausoleum in the capital city of Agra. Roughly nine years later his wishes were fulfilled by Sher Shah Suri and Babur was buried inBagh-e Babur (Babur Gardens) in Kabul, Afghanistan. The inscription on his tomb reads (in Persian):  If there is a paradise on earth, it is this, it is this, it is this!  Babur is considered a national hero in Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, and is held in high esteem in Afghanistan where he is buried. In October 2005 the Pakistan military developed the Babur (cruise missile), named in honour of him.
  • 26. Babur’s tomb and location Babur’s tomb inside the Bagh-e-Babur Babur’s grave Babur’s tomb is inside the Gardens of Babur Babur died and his son Humayun was enthrone
  • 27. Downfall Of The Mughal Dynasty  After Emperor Aurangzeb's death in 1707, the empire fell into succession crisis. Barring Muhammad Shah, none of the Mughal emperors could hold on to power for a decade. In the 18th century, the Empire suffered the depredations of invaders like Nadir Shah of Persia andAhmed Shah Abdali of Afghanistan, who repeatedly sacked Delhi, the Mughal capital. Most of the empire's territories in India passed to the Marathas, Nawabs , and Nizams by c. 1750. The Mughal Emperors lost effective power in favor of the British after the Battle of Buxar in 1764. In 1804, the ineffective Shah Alam II formally accepted the protection of the British East India Company. The company had already begun to refer to the weakened emperor as "King of Delhi", rather than "Emperor of India". The once glorious and mighty Mughal army was disbanded in 1805 by the British; only the guards of the Red Fort were spared to serve with the King of Delhi, which avoided the uncomfortable implication that British sovereignty was outranked by the Indian monarch. Nonetheless, for a few decades afterward the British East India Company continued to rule the areas under its control as the nominal servants of the emperor and in his name. After the Revolt of 1857, even these courtesies were disposed. The rebels declared their allegiance to Shah Alam's descendant, Bahadur Shah II which led to a
  • 28. British Soldiers looting Qaisar Bagh Decline Of Mughal Era  END OF MUGHAL ERA  Bahadur Shah Zafar 2 surrending to Britishs  Bahadur Shah Zafar 2

Editor's Notes

  1. Babur
  2. BABUR’
  3. BABUR THE WARRIOR
  4. Baburnama was an action-packed and colourful book
  5. Humayun
  6. Bahadur Shah Zafar 2 surrending to Britishs