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1 c. functions, roles and skills of a manager2

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ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
SHS SPECIALIZED SUBJECT IN ABM STRAND

Published in: Business
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1 c. functions, roles and skills of a manager2

  1. 1. Functions of Manager There are basically five management concepts that allow any organization’s manager to handle the tactical, planned and set decisions. The five basic functions of the manager are just to have a controlled plan over the preventive measure. Figure: Functions of Manager These Functions can be summarized below: Planning: Planning is the first tool of the four functions in the managerial task. The difference between a successful and unsuccessful manager lies within the planning procedure. Planning is the logical thinking through goals and making the decision as to what needs to be accomplished in order to reach the organizations’ objectives. Managers use this process to plan for the future, like a blueprint to foresee problems, decide on the actions to evade difficult issues and to beat the competition.
  2. 2. Organizing: The second function of the manager (management) is getting prepared, getting organized. Manager must organize all its resources well before in hand to put into practice the course of action to decide that has been planned in the base function. Through this process, manager will now determine the inside directorial configuration; establish and maintain relationships, and also assign required resources. Staffing: The third function of manager is stuffing. After the organizational functions are done, he may decide to beef up his staffing by recruiting, selecting, training, and developing employees. A manager in a large organization often works with the company's human resources department to accomplish this goal. Directing: It involves the implementation of plans by mobilizing individuals and group efforts through motivation, communication, leadership and supervision. Directing may be defined as the process of activating the efforts of employees towards the achievement of organizational objectives. Controlling: It is the process of regulating the ongoing activities of the organization to ensure that they are in conformity with the established plans and produce the desired results. Through the controlling function, management can keep the organization towards its chosen track. It involves:  Establishing standards of performance
  3. 3.  Measuring current performance  Comparing actual results with the established standards  Detecting deviations from the standards  Taking corrective actions for significant deviations. Roles of Manager A manager wears many hats. Not only is a manager a team leader, but he or she is also a planner, organizer, cheerleader, coach, problem solver, and decision maker — all rolled into one. And these are just a few of a manager's roles. Figure: The Managerial Role Interpersonal role: The roles in this category involve providing information and ideas.
  4. 4. 1. Figurehead - A manager has social, ceremonial and legal responsibilities. He is expected to be a source of inspiration. People look up to him as a person with authority, and as a figurehead. 2. Leader - This is where manager provide leadership for his team, his department or perhaps his entire organization; and it's where he (manager) manage the performance and responsibilities of everyone in the group. 3. Liaison - Managers must communicate with internal and external contacts. He needs to be able to network effectively on behalf of his organization. Informational Role: The roles in this category involve processing information. 4. Monitor - In this role, manager regularly seek out information related to his organization and industry, looking for relevant changes in the environment. He also monitors his team, in terms of both their productivity, and their well-being. 5. Disseminator - This is where manager communicate potentially useful information to his colleagues and his team. 6. Spokesperson - Manager represents and speaks for his organization. In this role he is responsible for transmitting information about his organization and its goals to the people outside it. Decisional Role: The roles in this category involve using information. 7. Entrepreneur - A manager creates and control change within the organization. This means solving problems, generating new ideas, and implementing them.
  5. 5. 8. Disturbance Handler - When an organization or team hits an unexpected roadblock, it's the manager who must take charge. He also needs to help mediate disputes within it. 9. Resource Allocator – A manager also needs to determine where organizational resources are best applied. This involves allocating funding, as well as assigning staff and other organizational resources. 10. Negotiator – A manager may be needed to take part in, and direct, important negotiations his team, department, or organization. Skills of Manager In addition to fulfilling numerous roles the manager also need a number of specific skills if he wants to be succeed. The most fundamental management skills are technical. Interpersonal, conceptual, communication decision making and time management skills. Figure: Managerial Skill (For All Level Managers) Technical Skills:
  6. 6. Technical skills are the skills necessary to accomplish or understand the specific kind of work being done in an organization. Technical skills are especially important for first line managers. These managers spend most of their time training subordinates and answering question about work related problems. They must know how to perform tasks assigned to those they supervise if they are to be effective managers. Interpersonal Skills: Managers spend considerable time interacting with people both inside and outside the organization. For obvious reasons then the manager also needs interpersonal skills- the ability to communicate with, understand and motivate both individuals and groups. As a manager climbs the organizational ladder, he or she must be able to get along with subordinates, peers and those at higher level of the organization. Because of the multitude of roles manager must fulfill, a manager must able to work with suppliers, customers, investors, and others outside of the organization. Although some managers have succeeded with poor interpersonal skills, a manager who has good interpersonal skills is likely to be more successful. Conceptual Skills: Conceptual skills depend on the manager’s ability to think in the abstract. Managers need the mental capacity to understand the overall working of the organization and its environment, to grasp how all the part of the organization fit together, and view the organization in a holistic manner. This allows them to think strategically, to see the ‘big
  7. 7. picture’, and to make broad based decisions that serve the overall organization. Diagnostic Skills: Successful managers also possess diagnostic skills, or skills that enable a manager to visualize the most appropriate response to a situation. A physician diagnoses a patient illness by analyzing symptoms and determining their probable cause. Similarly, a manager can diagnose and analyze a problem in the organization by studying its symptoms and then developing a solution. Communication Skills: Communication skills refer to the manager’s ability both to effectively convey ideas and information to others and to effectively receive ideas and information from others. This skills enable a manager to transmit ideas to subordinates so that they know what is expected, to coordinate work with peers and colleagues so that they work well together properly, and to keep higher level managers informed about what is going on. In addition, communication skills help the manager listen to what others say and to understand real meaning behind letters, reports, and other written communication. Decision-Making Skills:
  8. 8. Effective managers also have good decision making skills. Decision making skills refers to the manager’s ability to correctly recognize and define problems and opportunities and to then select an appropriate course of action to solve the problems and capitalize on opportunities. No manager makes the right decision all the time. However, effective managers make good decision most of the time. And when they do make a bad decision, they usually recognize their mistake quickly and then make good decision to recover with as little cost or damage to their organization as possible. Time-Management Skills: Finally, effective managers usually good time management skills. Time management skills refer to the manager’s ability to prioritize work, to work effectively, and to delegate appropriately. As already noted, managers face many different pressures and challenges. It is too easy for a manager to get bogged down doing work that can easily be postponed or delegated to others. When this happens, unfortunately, more pressing and higher priority work may get neglected. Although above described skills are essential for managers, their relative importance tends to vary by level of managerial responsibility. Business and management educators are increasingly interested in helping people acquire technical, human, and conceptual skills, and develop specific competencies, or specialized skills, which contribute to
  9. 9. high performance in a management job. Following are some of the skills and personal characteristics:  Leadership — ability to influence others to perform tasks  Self-objectivity — ability to evaluate yourself realistically  Analytic thinking — ability to interpret and explain patterns in information  Behavioral flexibility — ability to modify personal behavior to react objectively rather than subjectively to accomplish organizational goals  Oral communication — ability to express ideas clearly in words  Written communication — ability to express ideas clearly in writing  Personal impact — ability to create a good impression and instill confidence  Resistance to stress — ability to perform under stressful conditions  Tolerance for uncertainty — ability to perform in ambiguous situations

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