• 14 May 1796 - Jenner inoculated
James Phipps, an 8 yr old boy with
cowpox lymph taken from Sara
Nelms, a milkmaid.
• Boy recovered after a brief illness
• Jenner inoculated pus taken
from a small pox patient.
• Boy showed no reaction.
• Jenner recommended
vaccination for prevention of
• Smallpox vaccination being a safe,
simple, effective and inexpensive
procedure, gained universal
• Main instrument for eradication for
smallpox at global level.
• Small pox has since been eradicated
but Jenner lives for ever.
• Small pox eradicated in 1977.
• IMMUNIZATION MOST
POWERFUL & COST EFFECTIVE
• The first vaccine having been sent by jenner
himself and used in bombay in 1802.
• The pilot projects began during 1960.
• WHO certified India to be free of smallpox in
• The global eradication of smallpox is arguably
the greatest achievement of twentieth
FULLY IMMUNIZED CHILD
• A child who received One dose of
BCG, Three doses of DPT and OPV
One dose of measles before one
year of age.
• This gives a child the best chance for
MILESTONES IN THE
IMMUNIZATION PROGRAM IN
• 1978: Expanded Program of Immunization
(EPI) introduced after smallpox eradication:
BCG, DPT, OPV, Typhoid.
• Limited to mainly urban areas
• 1985 : Universal Immunization Program
(UIP) introduced; Expanded to entire
country; Measles added.
• 1990 : Vitamin-A supplementation.
• 1992: Child Survival and Safe
• 1995: Polio National Immunization
• 1997: Reproductive and Child Health
Program (RCH I).
• 2005 : RCH-II and the National Rural
Health Mission (NRHM).
ON IMMUNIZATION 1974
• Adding more disease controlling
antigens to vaccination schedules.
• Extending coverage to all corners of a
• Spreading services to reach the less
privileged sectors of the society
1978 – PRIMARY HEALTH CONCEPT
• ALMA – ATA declaration included
immunization as one of the strategies
for achieving HFA by 2000 AD.
• WHO named this immunization
programme as EXPANDED
PROGRAMME ON IMMUNIZATION.
• 1985 – UNICEF re named it as
• There is no difference between both
• The goal was to achieve universal
immunization by 1990.
• EPI is regarded as an instrument of
EPI IN INDIA 1978
• The Govt of India launched it’s EPI in
• The objective was to reducing
mortality, morbidity resulting from
• To achieve a self sufficiency in vaccine
EPI IN INDIA 1978
• BCG, OPV, DPT & Measles- under 5
• TT- pregnant women.
• Typhoid added.
• OPV- 1979.
• 1985 in
• The UIP was taken up in 1986 as
National Technology Mission & became
operational in all districts in the country
• UIP become a part of the Child Survival
and Safe Motherhood (CSSM)
Programme in 1992 and Reproductive
and Child Health (RCH) Programme in
COMPONENTS OF UIP
1. Immunization of pregnant women
2.Immunization of children in their
first year of life against 6 VPDs.
• 3. The aim was to achieve 100 %
coverage of pregnant women with 2
doses of TT.
• & at least 85% coverage of children
under one year (with 3 doses of
DPT, OPV & one dose of BCG, One
dose of MMR) by 1990
• UIP was first taken up in 30 selected
districts & catchment areas of
• A technology Mission on
Vaccination & Immunization of
Vulnerable Population was set up to
focus on all aspects of immunization
• To increase immunization
• To improve quality of service.
• To achieve self sufficiency in
• To train health personnel.
• To supply cold chain equipment
and establish a good surveillance
• To ensure district wise monitoring
CHANNEL OF SERVICE
• Immunization services are provided
through the existing HCDS. (MCH
centers, PHC, HSc, Hospitals,
Though the target was 100%
coverage no country in the world
has reached the coverage figure.
Therefore it can be interpreted as
“NO CHILD SHOULD BE DENIED OF
• PIP was set to strengthen
• 1.Support for alternative vaccines
delivery from PHC to HSc & out reach
• 2.Deploying retired manpower to
implement vaccination services in urban
slums & underserved areas
3. Mobility support to Dist Immunization
4. Reviewing meeting at state level with
the districts at 6 monthly intervals.
5. Training of ANM, cold chain handlers,
mid level managers, refrigerator