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1901-1935
(The American Period)
“The Philippines are ours not to exploit, but to
develop, civilize, educate, and to train in the
science of self-governmen...
The American Colonial Government
A. The Taft Commission
B. Civil Government
C. Philippine Bill of 1902
D. Philippine Assem...
A. The Taft Commission
Created on March 16, 1900.
Also known as The Second Philippine Commission.
A. The Taft Commission
Headed by Judge William Howard
Taft.
Members:
Luke E. Wright
Henry C. Ide
Dean C. Worcester
B...
A. The Taft Commission
Luke E. Wright Henry C. Ide Dean C.
Worcester
Bernard C.
Moses
A. The Taft Commission
A. The Taft Commission
Establish a civil government in the Philippines.
To train the Filipinos in self-government.
 Gui...
A. The Taft Commission
Those instructions were drafted
by Secretary of War, Elihu Root.
A. The Taft Commission
“bear in mind that the government which they
(the Commission) are establishing is designed
not for ...
A. The Taft Commission
 Arrived in Manila on June 3, 1900.
 $1,000,000 for building, and repairing roads and bridges.
 ...
A. The Taft Commission
Trinidad H. Pardo
de Tavera
Benito Legarda Jose Luzurriaga
B. Civil Government
 Inaugurated on July 4, 1901.
 William Howard Taft as the first Civil Governor.
 In 1905: Governor-...
C. Philippine Bill of 1902
 also known as the Cooper Act.
 Sponsored by U.S. Representative Henry A.
Cooper of Wisconsin...
C. Philippine Bill of 1902
Among the key provisions of the Philippine Bill of 1902 were:
1. A bill of right for the Filipi...
C. Philippine Bill of 1902
Among the key provisions of the Philippine Bill of 1902 were:
4. Executive power would be exerc...
D. Philippine Assembly
 On July 30, 1907, the first free national elections were held in
the Philippines for members of a...
D. Philippine Assembly
Inaugurated on October 16, 1907 at the Manila Grand Opera House.
D. Philippine Assembly
Sergio Osmeña: Speaker
D. Philippine Assembly
Manuel L. Quezon: Majority Floor Leader
D. Philippine Assembly
E. Resident Commissioners
 The Philippine Bill of 1902 gave the Filipinos the right to be
represented by two Filipino res...
E. Resident Commissioners
Benito Legarda Pablo Ocampo
E. Resident Commissioners
 Manuel L. Quezon served from 1909 to
1916.
 Considered one of the greatest Filipino
resident ...
F. The Filipinization of the Government
 America made it a policy to appoint qualified Filipinos to
government positions....
F. The Filipinization of the Government
Cayetano Arellano was named Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme
Court.
F. The Filipinization of the Government
Florentino Torres became Attorney General.
F. The Filipinization of the Government
By 1908, Gregorio Araneta was named Secretary of Finance and Justice.
G. The Jones Law of 1916
 Signed by President
Woodrow Wilson on August
29, 1916.
 Also known as the Philippine
Autonomy ...
G. The Jones Law of 1916
 It contained American’s promise to give independence to the
Philippines.
 Gave the Filipinos g...
G. The Jones Law of 1916
 Executive Power: Governor-General (an American)
 Appointed by the President of the United Stat...
G. The Jones Law of 1916
 On October 3, 1916, elections were held for the new Philippine
Legislature.
 It was formally i...
G. The Jones Law of 1916
H. The Wood-Forbes Mission
Warren G. Harding
H. The Wood-Forbes Mission
 Gen. Leonard Wood and Gov. Gen. W. Cameron Forbes stayed in the
Philippines for four months.
...
H. The Wood-Forbes Mission
Gen. Leonard Wood Gov. Gen. W.
Cameron Forbes
I. The OSROX Mission
 In November 1931, the Philippine Legislature sent a mission to the
United States to work for the pa...
I. The OSROX Mission
Harry B. Hawes
I. The OSROX Mission
 The U.S. Congress repassed the bill on January 17, 1933 known as the
Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act.
 The ...
I. The OSROX Mission
 The law’s provisions on trade relations were
disadvantageous to the Philippines.
 He objected the ...
I. The OSROX Mission
 OSROX claimed that the
Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act
was the best independence
law that the Filipinos coul...
I. The OSROX Mission
On October 17, 1933, the legislature rejected the Hare-Hawes-Cutting
Act.
The U.S. Congress enacted...
SOCIAL PROGRESS
A. Education
B. Religious Developments
C. Rise of the Aglipayan Church
A. Education
Spain
1. Christianizing the pagan natives was more
important than giving them an education.
2. It was only in...
A. Education
A. Education
 In January 1901, the Taft Commission enacted Act No. 74 which
established the Philippine public school system.
 It prov...
 Elementary schools: 7-year course
 High school: 4-year course
 Those who finished high school could take up higher edu...
A. Education
Philippine Normal School (1901)
A. Education
Philippine Normal School (1901)
A. Education
Philippine Normal School (1901)
A. Education
Silliman University (1901)
A. Education
Silliman University (1901)
A. Education
Centro Escolar University (1907)
Founded by Librada Avelino and Carmen de Luna
A. Education
Philippine Women’s University (1919)
Established by Francisca T. Benitez
“no people ever accepted the blessings of education with
more enthusiasm than the Filipinos”
Governor-General Frank Murphy...
 Introduction of Protestantism
 The Protestants sought to win the Filipinos through friendly persuasion.
 Presbyterians...
 On August 3, 1902, Philippine Independent Church was
established in Manila.
 Founder: Isabelo de los Reyes
 He founded...
Philippine Independent Church
C. Rise of the Aglipayan Church
C. Rise of the Aglipayan Church
 On October 17, 1902, Aglipay agreed to head
the new church.
 On January 18, 1903, he wa...
Economic Progress
A. American Economic Policy
B. New Prosperity
C. Population Explosion
D. New Land Policy
E. Agricultural...
Economic Progress
 The Filipinos enjoyed a better life under America than as the
colony of Spain.
 Spain could not do fo...
A. American Economic Policy
 The Philippine Bill of 1902 declared that all public lands and
natural resources of the Phil...
A. American Economic Policy
 We had to serve the national interests of the United States.
 We could not make our own pol...
B. New Prosperity
 The new prosperity of the Philippines as a colony of America was
shown in the following ways:
1. Popul...
C. Population Explosion
These statistics show the population explosion then:
6,000,000
7,635,426
10,314,310
16,000,303
0
...
D. New Land Policy
Three ways on how Americans improved land policy in the Philippines:
 Friar lands were resold to Filip...
E. Agricultural Increase
 The Filipinos and the Americans cooperated to revive agriculture.
 The Bureau of Agriculture (...
E. Agricultural Increase
 The statistics are summed up as follows:
Type Growth
Total area of farms 3x
Farm animals 3x
Aba...
F. Free Trade with America
 Most important economic change
 A country has to trade with other countries abroad in order ...
G. Business Boom
 Retail trade inside the Philippines also doubled from, 1907-1935. Filipinos had
more money to buy diffe...
H. New Industries
 The Philippines entered the Industrial Age.
 The Americans invented mass production in big factories.
H. New Industries
H. New Industries
H. New Industries
H. New Industries
H. New Industries
H. New Industries
H. New Industries
H. New Industries
H. New Industries
H. New Industries
 Manila: coconut oil, cigars and cigarettes, sugar, rope, and textiles.
 Marikina: shoes
 Ilocos: bla...
I. Improvement in Transportation and Communication
 The Filipinos enjoyed the automobile, electric street car (tranvia),
...
I. Improvement in Transportation and Communication
I. Improvement in Transportation and Communication
 Americans developed our railroads in Luzon, Cebu, and Panay.
 Pier 7...
I. Improvement in Transportation and Communication
J. Better Budget
 The Philippine budget was balanced even during the Great World
Depression in the 1930s.
 In the 1930s,...
K. New Banks
 In 1906, the Postal Savings Bank was introduced.
 Philippine National Bank was established in 1906.
 Rura...
K. New Banks
L. International Exhibitions and Meetings
 The Philippines was projected into the world’s limelight because of its
partic...
M. Economic Problems
 We sold our raw materials cheap and bought expensive manufactured
goods from America.
Colonial men...
Thank you for listening!
American Colonization Period in the Philippines (1901-1935)
American Colonization Period in the Philippines (1901-1935)
American Colonization Period in the Philippines (1901-1935)
American Colonization Period in the Philippines (1901-1935)
American Colonization Period in the Philippines (1901-1935)
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American Colonization Period in the Philippines (1901-1935)

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I made this powerpoint presentation all by myself for our Readings in the Philippine History course. Well, I'm just so proud of this ppt which I used for our report in the said course, so I thought of sharing this here, and I hope this'll help a lotta people, especially students, in the future. Don't forget to say thank you if this help/helped you. :)

- Shanish

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American Colonization Period in the Philippines (1901-1935)

  1. 1. 1901-1935 (The American Period)
  2. 2. “The Philippines are ours not to exploit, but to develop, civilize, educate, and to train in the science of self-government” WILLIAM MCKINLEY
  3. 3. The American Colonial Government A. The Taft Commission B. Civil Government C. Philippine Bill of 1902 D. Philippine Assembly E. Resident Commissioners F. The Filipinization of the Government G. The Jones Law of 1916 H. The Wood-Forbes Mission I. The OSROX Mission
  4. 4. A. The Taft Commission Created on March 16, 1900. Also known as The Second Philippine Commission.
  5. 5. A. The Taft Commission Headed by Judge William Howard Taft. Members: Luke E. Wright Henry C. Ide Dean C. Worcester Bernard Moses
  6. 6. A. The Taft Commission Luke E. Wright Henry C. Ide Dean C. Worcester Bernard C. Moses
  7. 7. A. The Taft Commission
  8. 8. A. The Taft Commission Establish a civil government in the Philippines. To train the Filipinos in self-government.  Guided by a set of instructions issued to it on April 7, 1900 by McKinley.
  9. 9. A. The Taft Commission Those instructions were drafted by Secretary of War, Elihu Root.
  10. 10. A. The Taft Commission “bear in mind that the government which they (the Commission) are establishing is designed not for our selfish satisfaction...but for the happiness, peace and prosperity of the people of the Philippine Islands, and the measures adopted should be made to conform to their customs, habits...”
  11. 11. A. The Taft Commission  Arrived in Manila on June 3, 1900.  $1,000,000 for building, and repairing roads and bridges.  From September 1900 to August 1902, it enacted more than 400 laws. In September 1901, it was expanded to include three pro- American Filipino as members. They were:
  12. 12. A. The Taft Commission Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera Benito Legarda Jose Luzurriaga
  13. 13. B. Civil Government  Inaugurated on July 4, 1901.  William Howard Taft as the first Civil Governor.  In 1905: Governor-General.  Gov. Taft exercised both executive and legislative functions.  His policy “the Philippines for the Filipinos” made him popular among the Filipinos.  Taft served until December 1903.
  14. 14. C. Philippine Bill of 1902  also known as the Cooper Act.  Sponsored by U.S. Representative Henry A. Cooper of Wisconsin.  On July 1, 1902, the Philippine Bill of 1902 was passed by Congress. It created the Philippine Assembly.
  15. 15. C. Philippine Bill of 1902 Among the key provisions of the Philippine Bill of 1902 were: 1. A bill of right for the Filipinos; 2. The appointment of two Filipino resident commissioners to represent the Philippines in the U.S. Congress, but without voting rights; 3. The establishment of a Philippine Assembly to be elected by the Filipinos two years after the publication of a census and only after peace has been completely restored in the country. The Philippine Assembly would be the lower house of the legislature while the Philippine Commission would be the upper house.
  16. 16. C. Philippine Bill of 1902 Among the key provisions of the Philippine Bill of 1902 were: 4. Executive power would be exercised by the Civil Governor who would have several executive departments under him such as Interior, Public Information, Finance and Justice, and Commerce and Police. 5. Conservation of the country’s natural resources for the Filipinos.
  17. 17. D. Philippine Assembly  On July 30, 1907, the first free national elections were held in the Philippines for members of all the Filipino lawmaking body.  Hundreds of candidates campaigned under many new political parties.  80 delegates won, most of them came from the Nacionalista Party.
  18. 18. D. Philippine Assembly Inaugurated on October 16, 1907 at the Manila Grand Opera House.
  19. 19. D. Philippine Assembly Sergio Osmeña: Speaker
  20. 20. D. Philippine Assembly Manuel L. Quezon: Majority Floor Leader
  21. 21. D. Philippine Assembly
  22. 22. E. Resident Commissioners  The Philippine Bill of 1902 gave the Filipinos the right to be represented by two Filipino resident commissioners in the United States Congress.  They could speak out for or against any bill in Congress affecting the Philippines.
  23. 23. E. Resident Commissioners Benito Legarda Pablo Ocampo
  24. 24. E. Resident Commissioners  Manuel L. Quezon served from 1909 to 1916.  Considered one of the greatest Filipino resident commissioners.  Spoke out strongly against those they considered harmful to Filipino interests.
  25. 25. F. The Filipinization of the Government  America made it a policy to appoint qualified Filipinos to government positions.  A number of prominent Filipinos were named to high positions.  In 1903, there were more Americans (2,777) in the government than Filipinos (2,697).  In 1904, the number rose to 3,377 compared to 3,228 Americans.
  26. 26. F. The Filipinization of the Government Cayetano Arellano was named Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court.
  27. 27. F. The Filipinization of the Government Florentino Torres became Attorney General.
  28. 28. F. The Filipinization of the Government By 1908, Gregorio Araneta was named Secretary of Finance and Justice.
  29. 29. G. The Jones Law of 1916  Signed by President Woodrow Wilson on August 29, 1916.  Also known as the Philippine Autonomy Act.  Sponsored by U.S. Representative William Atkinson Jones of Virginia.Woodrow Wilson William Atkinson Jones
  30. 30. G. The Jones Law of 1916  It contained American’s promise to give independence to the Philippines.  Gave the Filipinos greater participation in the government.  It defined the structure of the government, the powers and duties of the officials, and provided for a bill of rights for the Filipinos.
  31. 31. G. The Jones Law of 1916  Executive Power: Governor-General (an American)  Appointed by the President of the United States.  Legislative Power: exclusive to the Filipinos  Created two houses: the House of Representatives (lower house) and the Philippine Senate (upper house).  Judicial Power: Chief Justice (Filipino) and associate justices (Filipino and American)  Appointed by the President of the United States.
  32. 32. G. The Jones Law of 1916  On October 3, 1916, elections were held for the new Philippine Legislature.  It was formally inaugurated on October 16, 1916.  Sergio Osmeña was elected Speaker of the House of Representatives.  Manuel L. Quezon became President of the Senate.
  33. 33. G. The Jones Law of 1916
  34. 34. H. The Wood-Forbes Mission Warren G. Harding
  35. 35. H. The Wood-Forbes Mission  Gen. Leonard Wood and Gov. Gen. W. Cameron Forbes stayed in the Philippines for four months.  In October 1921, the mission submitted its report to the president that the Filipinos were not yet prepared for independence and U.S. should not yet grant independence to the Philippines.
  36. 36. H. The Wood-Forbes Mission Gen. Leonard Wood Gov. Gen. W. Cameron Forbes
  37. 37. I. The OSROX Mission  In November 1931, the Philippine Legislature sent a mission to the United States to work for the passage of an independence law.  U.S. Senator Harry B. Hawes filed an independence bill in the U.S. Congress, with U.S. Congressman Hare and U.S. Senator Cutting as co-sponsors.  The bill was approved in December 1932, but President Herbert Hoover, vetoed the bill.
  38. 38. I. The OSROX Mission Harry B. Hawes
  39. 39. I. The OSROX Mission  The U.S. Congress repassed the bill on January 17, 1933 known as the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act.  The Antis were those who sided with Quezon in opposing the law.  The Pros were those who supported the law and backed Osmeña and Roxas.
  40. 40. I. The OSROX Mission  The law’s provisions on trade relations were disadvantageous to the Philippines.  He objected the provision limiting the immigration of Filipinos to the U.S.  He also objected to the retention by the U.S. of military bases in the Philippines.
  41. 41. I. The OSROX Mission  OSROX claimed that the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act was the best independence law that the Filipinos could obtain from the U.S.
  42. 42. I. The OSROX Mission On October 17, 1933, the legislature rejected the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act. The U.S. Congress enacted a new independence bill sponsored by Senator Milliard Tydings and Representative John McDuffie.  Signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on March 24, 1934.
  43. 43. SOCIAL PROGRESS A. Education B. Religious Developments C. Rise of the Aglipayan Church
  44. 44. A. Education Spain 1. Christianizing the pagan natives was more important than giving them an education. 2. It was only in the closing of decades of Spanish rule that some system of public school education was introduced by Spain in the Philippines. United States 1. “to educate, to train in the science of self- government” 2. Americans made it a policy to teach English to the Filipinos. SOCIAL PROGRESS
  45. 45. A. Education
  46. 46. A. Education
  47. 47.  In January 1901, the Taft Commission enacted Act No. 74 which established the Philippine public school system.  It provided free primary education and the establishment of a school to train Filipino teachers.  On August 23, 1901, the first group of 600 teachers from the United States arrived in Manila on board the transport ship Thomas.  These teachers came to be known as the Thomasites. A. Education
  48. 48.  Elementary schools: 7-year course  High school: 4-year course  Those who finished high school could take up higher education in a public junior college or at the University of the Philippines which was created in 1908 by Act No. 1870 enacted by the Philippine Assembly and the Philippine Commission.  Filipino pensionados – bright young Filipino students A. Education
  49. 49. A. Education Philippine Normal School (1901)
  50. 50. A. Education Philippine Normal School (1901)
  51. 51. A. Education Philippine Normal School (1901)
  52. 52. A. Education Silliman University (1901)
  53. 53. A. Education Silliman University (1901)
  54. 54. A. Education Centro Escolar University (1907) Founded by Librada Avelino and Carmen de Luna
  55. 55. A. Education Philippine Women’s University (1919) Established by Francisca T. Benitez
  56. 56. “no people ever accepted the blessings of education with more enthusiasm than the Filipinos” Governor-General Frank Murphy, 1935  By 1935, there were 1,229,242 students enrolled in 7,330 public schools throughout the country.  The private schools, which numbered about 400, had a total student population of 97,500. A. Education
  57. 57.  Introduction of Protestantism  The Protestants sought to win the Filipinos through friendly persuasion.  Presbyterians (1899)  Baptists (1900)  The Disciples of Christ (1905)  Methodist Episcopalians (1908) B. Religion
  58. 58.  On August 3, 1902, Philippine Independent Church was established in Manila.  Founder: Isabelo de los Reyes  He founded the Democratic Labor Union in July 1901.  Iglesia Filipina Independiente.  De los Reyes proclaimed Father Gregorio Aglipay as the new church’s Supreme Bishop. C. Rise of the Aglipayan Church
  59. 59. Philippine Independent Church C. Rise of the Aglipayan Church
  60. 60. C. Rise of the Aglipayan Church  On October 17, 1902, Aglipay agreed to head the new church.  On January 18, 1903, he was formally consecrated as the Supreme Bishop.  The new church known as Aglipayan Church.  In 1939 census, 9.8% of the population, or 1,573,608 claimed to be Aglipayans.
  61. 61. Economic Progress A. American Economic Policy B. New Prosperity C. Population Explosion D. New Land Policy E. Agricultural Increase F. Free Trade G. Business Boom H. New Industries I. Improvement in Transportation and Communications J. Better Budget K. New Banks L. International Exhibitions and Meetings M. Economic Problems
  62. 62. Economic Progress  The Filipinos enjoyed a better life under America than as the colony of Spain.  Spain could not do for the Philippines in over 300 years, the United States did in less than 50 years. However, some problems with our economic life started during this era.
  63. 63. A. American Economic Policy  The Philippine Bill of 1902 declared that all public lands and natural resources of the Philippines are for “the benefit of the inhabitants.”  The Jones Law of 1916 and Tydings-Duffie Law of 1934.  William H. Taft, the first American Governor-General, said that the Philippines was for the Filipinos.
  64. 64. A. American Economic Policy  We had to serve the national interests of the United States.  We could not make our own policy.
  65. 65. B. New Prosperity  The new prosperity of the Philippines as a colony of America was shown in the following ways: 1. Population explosion 6. New Industries 2. New Land Policy 7. Improvement in transportation 3. Agricultural increase and communications 4. Free trade with America 8. Better government budget 5. Business Boom 9. New banks 10. Participation in international exhibitions
  66. 66. C. Population Explosion These statistics show the population explosion then: 6,000,000 7,635,426 10,314,310 16,000,303 0 2,000,000 4,000,000 6,000,000 8,000,000 10,000,000 12,000,000 14,000,000 16,000,000 18,000,000 1898 1903 1918 1939 Population
  67. 67. D. New Land Policy Three ways on how Americans improved land policy in the Philippines:  Friar lands were resold to Filipino farmers.  Homestead Act in 1924 allowed any Filipino to own up 24 hectares of public land.  All lands had to be registered, and their owners got Torrens titles.
  68. 68. E. Agricultural Increase  The Filipinos and the Americans cooperated to revive agriculture.  The Bureau of Agriculture (1902)  In 1903, the American Congress sent a $3 million emergency fund to import rice and carabaos from other Asian countries.  Modern farm tools from the United States were also introduced.
  69. 69. E. Agricultural Increase  The statistics are summed up as follows: Type Growth Total area of farms 3x Farm animals 3x Abaca and tobacco 3x Corn 4x Rice 5x Forest logs 6x Sugar 6x Copra 9x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Total area of farms Farm Animals Abaca and Tobaco Corn Rice Forest Logs Sugar Copra Total area of farms, 3x increase Farm Animals, 3x increase Abaca and Tobaco, 3x increase Corn, 4x increase Rice, 5x increase Forest Logs, 6x increase Sugar, 6x increase Copra, 9x increase
  70. 70. F. Free Trade with America  Most important economic change  A country has to trade with other countries abroad in order to develop.  We were introduced to the big American market and American products were bought by Filipinos.  The Americans were the richest people in the mid-20th century.  American products could enter the Philippines without paying customs tariffs.
  71. 71. G. Business Boom  Retail trade inside the Philippines also doubled from, 1907-1935. Filipinos had more money to buy different things, however, they liked to buy imported goods.
  72. 72. H. New Industries  The Philippines entered the Industrial Age.  The Americans invented mass production in big factories.
  73. 73. H. New Industries
  74. 74. H. New Industries
  75. 75. H. New Industries
  76. 76. H. New Industries
  77. 77. H. New Industries
  78. 78. H. New Industries
  79. 79. H. New Industries
  80. 80. H. New Industries
  81. 81. H. New Industries
  82. 82. H. New Industries  Manila: coconut oil, cigars and cigarettes, sugar, rope, and textiles.  Marikina: shoes  Ilocos: blankets and towels.  Bulacan, Laguna, Tayabas, Bohol, and Pangasinan: hats and mats  Pampanga, Rizal, and Bulacan: rattan and wood furniture.  Albay, Rizal and Laguna: pottery and bricks.
  83. 83. I. Improvement in Transportation and Communication  The Filipinos enjoyed the automobile, electric street car (tranvia), airplane, telephone, wireless telegraph, radio, and movies.
  84. 84. I. Improvement in Transportation and Communication
  85. 85. I. Improvement in Transportation and Communication  Americans developed our railroads in Luzon, Cebu, and Panay.  Pier 7 in Manila became the largest port in Asia.  Manila became the center of air travel in Asia.  The telephone and telegraph system in our country was the best in Asia.  The best newspapers, radio stations, and postal services in Asia.
  86. 86. I. Improvement in Transportation and Communication
  87. 87. J. Better Budget  The Philippine budget was balanced even during the Great World Depression in the 1930s.  In the 1930s, other government had huge deficits and problems.  But the Philippines colonial budget had a surplus.
  88. 88. K. New Banks  In 1906, the Postal Savings Bank was introduced.  Philippine National Bank was established in 1906.  Rural credit groups for farmers helped to reduce usury in the provinces.
  89. 89. K. New Banks
  90. 90. L. International Exhibitions and Meetings  The Philippines was projected into the world’s limelight because of its participation in international exhibitions, conferences, and meetings.  The Philippine Army Band became the world-famous at the Golden Gate Exposition, held at San Francisco, California in 1939.  Filipino athletes were also able to join the Olympic Games.
  91. 91. M. Economic Problems  We sold our raw materials cheap and bought expensive manufactured goods from America. Colonial mentality became worse.  Labor and peasant unrest spread in the 1920s and 1930s.  American capitalists and businessmen controlled the new companies.
  92. 92. Thank you for listening!

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