An annual publication including calendars withweather forecasts, astronomical information, tide tables,and other related tabular information A usually annual reference book composed of variouslists, tables, and often brief articles relating to a particularfield or many general fields.
Almanac is an annual publication that includes information such as weather forecasts, farmers planting date, tide tables, and tabular information in a particular field or fields often arranged according to the calendar etc
Astronomical data and various statistics are alsofound in almanacs, such as the times of the risingand setting of the sun and moon, eclipses, hours offull tide, stated festivals of churches, terms ofcourts, lists of all types, timelines, and more.
Calendariumcracoviense, analmanac for the year1474
Almanac was originally an Arabic word which mean al-manākh meaning the “climate”. In the modern sense too an almanac, or almanakh, is the average weather forecast for a certain period of time that is characterized by relatively stable weather conditions covering a specific area.
• 1267 the earliest documenteduse of the word in any languageisin Latin by Roger Bacon, where it meant a set of tables detailingmovements of heavenly bodies including the moon.
One etymology report says: The ultimate source of the word is obscure. Its first syllable, al-, and its general relevance to medieval science and technology, strongly suggest an Arabic origin, but no convincing candidate has been found. Another report similarly says of Almanac: "First seen in Roger Bacon. Apparently from Spanish Arabic, al-manakh, but this is not an Arabic word. The word remains a puzzle."
Babylonian astronomy ---- back to ancient babylonian astronomy the origin of almanac can be traced, when tables of planetary periods were produced in order to predict lunar and planetary phenomena.
The precursor to the almanac wasthe Greek astronomical and meteorological calendar,the parapegma, an inscribed stone on which the days ofthe month were indicated by movable pegs inserted intobored holes.
Diogenes Laërtius According to him Parapegma was the title of a book by Democritus.
Ptolemy the Alexandrian astronomer (2nd century) wrote atreatise, Phaseis—"phases of fixed stars and collection ofweather-changes" is the translation of its full title—the core ofwhich is a parapegma, a list of dates of seasonally regularweather changes, first appearances and last appearancesof stars or constellations at sunrise or sunset, and solar eventssuch as solstices, all organized according to the solar year. Withthe astronomical computations were expected weatherphenomena, composed as a digest of observations made byvarious authorities of the past. Parapegmata had beencomposed for centuries. Similar treatises called Zij were latercomposed in medieval Islamic astronomy.
Ptolemy believed that astronomical phenomena caused the changes inseasonal weather; his explanation of why there was not an exactcorrelation of these events was that the physical influences ofother heavenly bodies also came into play. Hence for him, weatherprediction was a special division of astrology.
The modern almanac differs from Babylonian, Ptolemaic and Zijtables in the sense that "the entries found in the almanacs givedirectly the positions of the celestial bodies and need no furthercomputation", in contrast to the more common "auxiliaryastronomical tables" based on Ptolemys Almagest
Almanac of Azarqueil The earliest known modern almanac written in 1088 by Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī(Latinized as Arzachel) in Toledo, al-Andalus. The work provided the true daily positions of the sun, moon and planets for four years from 1088 to 1092, as well as many other related tables.
Early almanacs therefore containedgeneral horoscopes, as well as the more concreteinformation.
1150 Solomon Jarchus created such an almanac considered to be among the first modern almanacs.
British Museum and in theUniversities of Oxford andCambridge ---Copies of 12th century almanacs are found 1327 Walter de Elvendene created an almanac.
John Somers of Oxford, in 1380In 1386 Nicholas de Lynne, Oxford produced analmanac.1457 he first printed almanac was published atMainz, by Gutenberg (eight years before the famousBible).
Regio-Montanus produced an almanac in 1472(Nuremberg, 1472), which was continued in print forseveral centuries in many editions.
Sheapheard’s Kalendar, translated from French (Richard Pynson) became the first English printed almanac in 1497.
16th century yearly almanacs were being produced in English by men such as Anthony Askham, Thomas Buckminster, John Dade and Gabriel Frende. 17th century English almanacs were bestsellers, second only to the Bible; by the middle of the century, 400,000 almanacs were being produced annually
William Pierce published the first American almanac entitled, An Almanac for New England for the year 1639 Cambridge, Massachusetts.
A Poor Robins Almanack one of the first comic almanacs that parodied these horoscopes in its 1664 issue, saying "This month we may expect to hear of the Death of some Man, Woman, or Child, either in Kent or Christendom.
1726-1775 The most important early American almanacs was made by Nathaniel Ames of Dedham, Massachusetts. James Franklin began publishing the Rhode-Island Almanack beginning in 1728.
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The Farmers AlmanacLeavitts Farmers AlmanackHarris Farmers AlmanacThe Writing Code AlmanacCountry Accents Farmers AlmanacA Sand County AlmanacThe Almanac for FarmersGarden andFarm AlmanacBlums Farmers and and City FolkJ. Grubers Planters Almanac
PRESENTED BY:MARY JESETTE E. PEÑAOJAS BLIS-III PRESENTED TO: MS. MYRNA MACAPIA INSTRUCTOR