AND BEHAVIOURS – that is what sets them apart for the other kids
Attention/memoryNumber conservation – one to one correspondence
Task analysis – lower cognition, smaller stepsDifference is normal and ordinary – I am expecting that – work as a team to share the load
*** STANDARD BEHAVIOURAL STUFF ***
THE KEY does not meet the IEP (summary) as part of an inclusive classroom it is essential that the teacher differentiates in terms as numeracy, literacy – discuss learning needs – working memory, friends, academic, difficulties (slides), communication difficulties – the why and then the how – discuss modification the curriculum and differentiation/modifications to the level/modifications to the time/modify assessment/modify goals/modify quantity/more practice, smaller steps its in the slides these are the areas he’s going to find difficult, there for I’m going to have to do this – contextualise it within the classroom topic – must look the same as everyone elses task – don’t give him baby work that looks like baby work – Introd – discussion – knowledge with classroom application – intellectual impairment - in an inclusive classroom in order to be fair and equiptable in order for them to have the best outcomes possible – social/communication/academic – a couple a para – what are things he will find tricky Using the words – discuss the modfications = In order to provide Alex with the most appropriate learning environment the teacher will need to differentiate in the following ways: 1250 words – don’t do a big intro and conclusion can’t do too specialised but some examples – I’m going to go to the year 4 curriculum – it will be fitting in with the context in the year 5 classroom – what are they looking at and what are we looking at and pop them together. 2 reference lists – hmmm the entire item a and b – 10 -20 references
Inclus wk 5
DIFFERENTIATINGINSTRUCTION:SUPPORTING STUDENTSWITH AN INTELLECTUALIMPAIRMENT4030 EDNWeek 5 2012
Intellectual Impairment Impact of an Intellectual Impairment on learning and development – significant impact on the child’s health and well-being is reduced through the provision of effective education, health and welfare support. Aim to develop meaningful skills and behaviours in the lives of children and young people with an Intellectual Impairment. Functional and academic programs across all learning areas.
Nature of II WISC IV (2003) – Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Measure of intellectual potential across 4 domains – Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), Working Memory Index (WMI). Scores are given in each domain and then a Full Scale IQ is given (FSIQ). See L@GU in Course Content for a summary of the subtests and the classroom impact of difficulties in each area.
Nature of II Average intelligence (IQ) score around 100. A student with an II would score considerably below average intellectual functioning – IQ score 70-75 or below. II may be associated with other developmental disabilities – Autism, Down Syndrome, Cerebral Palsy. Experience difficulties learning, with social skills and communication, not all students with an II have difficulties in all of these areas.
Adaptive Functioning Ability to cope with the demands of every day life. For a diagnosis of II, in addition to the IQ score, requires deficits in at least 2 of the adaptive functioning areas: Communication Self-care Home living Social/interpersonal skills Use of community resources Self-direction Functional academic skill Work and leisure Health and safety
Measures of II Debate on how levels of II should be defined – Mild 55-70 Moderate 40-55 Severe 35- 40 Profound below 35 Recent perspectives – consider the level of support needed by a person to participate in everyday life – focus on student’s functioning in a specific environment and the changes needed to that environment to allow as much independence as possible.
Team approach Teacher’s responsibility to design, implement and monitor an educational program for a child with a diagnosis of II. However, supports available to assist teachers – Learning support team, parents/care givers, psychologist, health professionals – work collaboratively to develop an IEP (Individual Education Plan) for the student with an II and to provide classroom support/planning and resourcing support. It is essential to plan for support (teacher aide).
Causes of II 1/3 of people with an II is associated with genetic factors – Down Syndrome (chromosomal condition), Rett Syndrome (neuro-developmental disorder -females) or Fragile X Syndrome (most common cause of inherited II and autism – global developmental delay and speech and communication problems – X chromosome). 1/3 external trauma or toxins – foetal alcohol syndrome, brain injury or an infection. 1/3 the biological cause is unknown – may be associated with child abuse/neglect, lack of appropriate stimulation during early childhood. Around 3% of the population.
Considerations for teaching Supporting communication: Difficulties with verbal communication (written or spoken) means that teachers should plan for multiple means of presenting curriculum content to all students (visual, computer, hands on, modelling/demonstrations, AAC). Difficulties with understanding means that teacher need to consider the degree of difficulty of verbal information presented (simplified text, shorter sentences, re-phrasing, simplify layout, more visuals, pre-teaching, computer technology).
Considerations for teaching Supporting motivation to learn: Learned helplessness – result of many failures – means that teachers need an accurate assessment of the students skill levels – do they have the pre-requisite skills to be successful with the activity. Small steps – build success – build motivation. These students need to also be independent - focus on teaching skills – then independent practice.
Considerations for teaching Supporting peer relationships: Students with an II often need additional support for successful social interactions, to learn to be sensitive to the needs of others and how to deal with frustration, anger and change. This means that teachers will need to explicitly teach social skills – turn taking, sharing, communication, empathy and social awareness. Small group activities, cooperative learning groups, peer support.
Considerations for teaching Supporting attention to task: Need attention to learn – children with an II often attend to the wrong things and experience difficulty allocating attention appropriately – this means that teachers to present information visually, check understanding, model and explain, systematic explicit instruction. Supporting memory: Failure to attend means failure to remember – strategies include: small steps, many opportunities for repetition/over-learning, scaffolds, teach transfer, explicit teaching.
Considerations for teaching Supporting generalising and maintenance: Students with an II often experience difficulty generalising or transferring a new skills to different context – strategies include: a wide range of practice in different contexts must be programmed for. Self-regulation: Ability to regulate own behaviour – may be difficult for students with an II – strategies include: prompts as reminders, picture sequences, teaching students to self- instruct, self-monitor and self-reinforce.
Considerations for teaching Curriculum: Accommodations and adaptations of the regular curriculum required for students with an II – depends on level of need. IEP – life skills incorporated – identify priorities for the child – evaluated each semester to determine ongoing goals. Task analysis – method of breaking down a task into component skills, small achievable steps which build towards completion of the whole task.
Behavioural interventions Difficulty with standardised tests for students with an II. FBA – Functional Behaviour Assessment – resource for assessing the factors that might initiate, maintain or end a challenging behaviour. 2 types of FBA: 1. Indirect assessment: structured interviews and review of existing information. 2. Direct assessment: standardised assessment or checklists to observe and record factors surrounding the behaviour.
Behavioural interventions 2 6 questions to consider when analysing data: 1. When engage in problem behaviour? 2. What is contributing to the behaviour? 3. What function does the problem behaviour serve? 4. What is the student communicating through the behaviour? 5. When is the student successful and less likely to engage in the behaviour? 6. What other factors may be contributing? Develop the intervention plan.
Instructional strategies Direct, explicit teacher-centred instruction to teach basic academic skills and cognitive and meta- cognitive strategies. Teaching basic skills (standard structure): Review, revise, motivate – what learning and why – how relates to prior learning. Presentation – explaining and modelling. Direct instruction. Guided practice – with teacher support. Correct and feedback. Independent practice. Frequent reviews.
Instructional strategies 2 Teaching cognitive strategies: Explicit teaching of cognitive and meta-cognitive strategies – steps: 1. Assist students to develop and use background knowledge (there is a problem) 2. Discuss the strategy (good choices result in good outcomes – possible solutions) 3. Model the strategy (think aloud) 4. Memorising (remember and understand – picture cues) 5. Support strategy use (reduce scaffolding when gaining independence) 6. Independent performance (monitor and explicit reinforcement)
Summary Impact of an II varies between each individual. Students with an II need additional support: Sustain attention Use short term memory effectively Transfer or generalise new learning to new contexts To use cognitive and meta-cognitive strategies Make friends and sustain friendships Learn skills for self-determination Develop social and communicative skills Main instructional objectives – explicit teaching – teach functional skills and reduce problem behaviours.