To date there is no one definition of sustainability and sustainable development with various authors using different definitions and terms. These are some of the most widely recognised definitions, not least of which is the latter as put forth by the brudtland report. I consider it worth mentioning that in the eyes of many eco warriors these views could be considered somewhat anthropocentric (i.e. We are looking out for the environment for the sake of humans and not the environments own sake. Biocentrism takes the view that all forms of life are equally valuable and that human existence is not at the centre of existence
Some of the main sustainability issues associated with the three peaks challenge are as follows: Firstly is the idea that residents sleep is disturbed by hundreds of walkers arriving at remote mountainous locations at un sociable hours. Given the geographical nature of the challenge, it makes sense to start at Ben Nevis at 6pm, get up and down before last light and then travel between there and Scafel over night, arriving a day break which is approx 4am. Mountain Rescue teams are being stretched to the limit by inexperienced hikers who phone for help over petty problems. One couple called the emergency number and demanded a helicopter because they were late for a dinner party, while another walker said they were just &quot;tired and fed up&quot;. (Daily Telegraph) The charity, which is run entirely by volunteers, says there is a growing problems of people taking to the hills without proper equipment. Others cannot read maps or do not bother to check the weather before they leave, while one walker even set off uphill in their slippers. Andy Simpson, a spokesman for the charity, said more people were hiking in general, and in some areas the organisation is struggling to cope.
However, one of the main problems associated with the challenge is concerned with its 24 hour nature, meaning that visitors do not stick around to spend in the local shops bars café’s. At best might be the local petrol station – which brings about its own sustainability issues. If anything, the start and end locations will experience some visitor spending due to hikers taking up overnight accommodation/staying at camp sites before and after. However, the Lakes receives very little of this spending, with challengers bringing an overal nagative to the area.
Findings have shown that Rats and scavengers are now finding home much further up the mountain as humans leave them scrpas of food… Other impacts include habituation, i.e some animals bcome used to being fed by tourist, the city in the countryside, i.e car parks, toilets, shops etc… Finish with the carrying capacity
Honey pot – a deliberate concentration of tourist activities and attractions with a tight geographical area which means less pressure on other more fragile areas nearby. Maintain footpaths – talk of the example on the Pennie way and how footpath retoration encouraged walkers to stick to paths rather than veering off. Also comment on how this meant that the bird species were able to safely nest within 50m of the path as opposed to 100m when the path was poor restored Remarketing the event – i.e certify the even and make it more official so to impose stricter rules and guidelines. Charity guidelines – perhaps encourage some of the charity raised to be placed back into the national parks.
Sustainable hiking 2
Sustainable Hiking? Ling Hui Rubena Mahjabeen Oliver Jackson James Morvan
Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of hiking </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological Impacts </li></ul><ul><li>3 Peaks Challenge – A case study </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder Conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Verdict </li></ul>
Introduction <ul><li>Hiking was developed during the Stone Age. </li></ul><ul><li>Nowadays, when we talk about Hiking and Trekking, we mean it in the pastime sense of the word </li></ul><ul><li>When it comes to historical milestones in Hiking, we would probably have to look at the historical highlights in Mountaineering </li></ul>
Historical Milestones: <ul><li>Here are some of those Mountaineering milestones: </li></ul><ul><li>1874 - Grove, Gardiner, Walker, Sottajev and Knubel reached the summit of the highest mountain in Europe: Elbrus –Europe, 5642m / 18,150ft, Kabardino-Balkaria, Caucasus </li></ul><ul><li>1913 - Karstens, Harper, Tatum and Stuck reached the summit of the highest mountain in North America: Mount McKinley- North America, 6194m / 20,320ft, Alaska, USA, Alaska Range </li></ul><ul><li>1953 - Norgay and Hillary reached the summit of the highest mountain in the world: Mount Everest –Asia, 8848m / 29,028ft, Tibet/Nepal, Himalaya </li></ul><ul><li>1985 - Dick Bass reached Mount Everest and became the first person to reach the summits of the highest peaks of each of the seven continents. </li></ul>
Benefits of hiking: <ul><li>The hiking is relatively much simpler and more beneficial than any other exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>It improves our physical as well as mental health. </li></ul><ul><li>Such as losing excess pounds, preventing heart disease, decreasing hypertension or high blood pressure, improving and maintaining mental health, slowing the aging process, and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>But what is the human impact? </li></ul>
Ecological impacts: <ul><li>Building fires: It may well be that we are stripping an area of valuable nutrients for wildlife and other vegetation as well as removing what might be a living creature’s home. </li></ul><ul><li>Human wastes: Human waste incorrectly dumped is one of the biggest causes of environmental damage. Both human faeces and urine can contaminate natural water. </li></ul><ul><li>Viewing wild-life: One of the attractions for hikers and walkers is to spot certain species of wildlife as they go about their business. </li></ul>
Ecological impacts: [contd.] <ul><li>Erosion of soil and Damaging vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>“ Take only photographs, leave only footprints ”. </li></ul>
3 Peaks 24 hr Challenge Snowdon (1085m, Wales) Scafell Pike (978m, England) Ben Nevis (1334m, Scotland)
What is 3 Peaks Challenge? <ul><li>What is the Three Peaks Challenge? This challenge is to consecutively climb Ben Nevis (1334m), Scafell Pike (978m) and Snowdon (1085m) within a 24 hour period. </li></ul><ul><li>How long is the Challenge? The challenge involves some 450 miles of driving, and around 26 miles of walking/climbing . It also includes around 10,000' of ascent and descent (3300m ). </li></ul><ul><li>Who takes part in your Challenges? Participants from large corporate organisations, charities, works sports and social clubs, walking and fitness clubs, rotary clubs and general groups of friends or workmates. </li></ul><ul><li>Why people attempt? There is no formal governing body of the National Three Peaks Challenge. Each year a large number of organised attempts are made at the challenge with the aim of fundraising for charity , in which sponsorship is sought by participants, but many people are purely interested in the physical challenge and make attempts in small groups. </li></ul>
In training for the three peaks <ul><li>You Decide! </li></ul>
Who Own The 3 Peaks? Snowdonia is essentially owned by its inhabitants . Up to 75% is in private ownership, while the remaining land is divided between the Forestry Commission, Dŵr Cymru, the National Trust, Crown Common Land and others, with the Snowdonia National Park Authority (central planning authority) owning less than 1%. Bought by John Muir Trust for conservation Donated to National Trust in 1920 for conservation
Voices from management The Park Authority currently has a policy which states that it will not support events with more than 30 participants. This has no effect on the number of events or of participants and merely causes some organisers not to contact the Authority at all. The Authority has no powers to limit the number or size of events. We urge people to consider other ways of raising funds and to think twice about taking part. We strongly recommend that anyone climbing Ben Nevis carries suitable food, drink and clothing and is competent with a map and compass. Please read and follow local safety advice. Do not rely on others to get you down! We urge charities and fundraising organisations involved with the Three Peaks Challenge event during 2008 to carefully observe the relevant codes of practice for this event. Snowdonia National Park Authority John Muir Trust The Fundraising Standards Board (FRSB) and the Lake District National Park Authority (LDNPA)
News about 3 Peaks Challenge Charity climbers accused of scarring hills and Disturbing local communities Fundraising for good courses. Physical and mental well-being Sustainable Hiking?
Sustainability Issues <ul><li>Defining Sustainability and sustainable development in operational terms has proved problematic </li></ul><ul><li>Economists have preferred to base sustainability on the maintenance of the total stock of capital, allowing future generations the opportunity to enjoy the same level of well being as their predecessors </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable development meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs </li></ul>
Social <ul><li>Local residents sleep has been disturbed by vehicles arriving at night , the slamming of car doors, parking on verges etc </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic congestion </li></ul><ul><li>Reports of drivers falling asleep at the wheel between locations </li></ul><ul><li>The lack of mains water has resulted in the already limited water supply being exhausted </li></ul><ul><li>Amateur hikers cause strain on the mountain rescue </li></ul><ul><li>Land use conflicts </li></ul>
Economic <ul><li>Tourism in the Scottish highlands accounts for 17.4% of all jobs, the highest proportion of any region in Scotland, and 30% of the GDP </li></ul><ul><li>767’000 mountaineers visited the highlands in 1996, and spent approx. £162m </li></ul><ul><li>Of the economically active population in the Lake District, 37.5% work in ‘retailing, transport and catering’ and 29.75% in ‘service industries’ </li></ul><ul><li>Although many people are employed directly through tourism, others jobs are supported indirectly through visitor spending </li></ul>
Environmental <ul><li>Dumping litter kills wildlife whilst also encourages scavengers such as rats and gulls </li></ul><ul><li>Complaints that hillsides have been scarred by parties of up to 1,000 hikers at a time and that verges and streams have been polluted with human excrement and urine </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts vegetation cover </li></ul><ul><li>Disturbance to some fragile wildlife including birds </li></ul><ul><li>Case of the Golden Plover, an upland breeding bird and the Pennine Way http://www.rspb.org.uk/wildlife/birdguide/name/g/goldenplover/videos.asp </li></ul>
Mountain community conflicts <ul><li>Many stakeholder groups with conflicts; </li></ul><ul><li>‘ 3 Peakers’ Vs Other Hikers </li></ul><ul><li>Residents Vs Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Economy Vs Environment </li></ul><ul><li>- Where is the balance? </li></ul>
Stakeholder Conflicts Mitchell, Agle and Wood – Identification and Prioritisation of stakeholders
The Rio Declaration (Principle 15) and the Precautionary Principle <ul><li>In order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall be widely applied by states according to their capabilities. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation. </li></ul><ul><li>A recognition of the modest extent of scientific understanding of ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Ignores harm to the local area and community (eg tourism) </li></ul>
Suggestion <ul><li>Existing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Honey pot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain footpaths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Info centre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long walk in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Our proposals to 3 peaks challenge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remarketing/Demarketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charity guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Route rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public transport </li></ul></ul>
Verdict <ul><li>Ladies and Gentlemen of the jury </li></ul><ul><li>Please decide whether this man….. </li></ul><ul><li>…… can ‘sustainably’ and responsibly complete the three peaks challenge </li></ul>
References <ul><li>Crabtree, B. & Bayfield, N. (1998) Developing sustainability indicators for mountain ecosystems: a study of the Cairngorms, Scotland. Journal of Environmental Management. Vol 54 pp, 1-14 </li></ul><ul><li>Brudtland report </li></ul><ul><li>Finner, S. K., Pearce-Higgins, J.W. & Yalden, D.W. (2004) The effect of recreational disturbance on an upland breeding bird, the golden plover. Biological Conservation. Vol: 121 pp, 53-63 </li></ul><ul><li>Websites: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/3-24-2006-91812.asp </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.abc-of-hiking.com/hiking-history/hiking-history.asp </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.american hiking .org/news/pdfs/health_ben.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.walkingandhiking.co.uk/ecological-impact-of-hiking.html </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.jmt.org </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.eryri-npa.co.uk </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.nationaltrust.org.uk </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.youtube.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.merseyventure.com/openchallenge08/threepeakschallenge.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.guardian.co.uk/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.telegraph.co.uk/ </li></ul>