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Origin of biosignals fajar purnama 152D-8713

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Presentation for Bioinformation Course.

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Origin of biosignals fajar purnama 152D-8713

  1. 1. Bioinformation Engineering Origin of Biosignals Fajar Purnama 152-D8713 Computer Science and Electrical Engineering Kumamoto University
  2. 2. What is Biosignal? ● It is any signal that can be found in any living being. ● Though today modern technologies represent biosignals in sinusoid forms.
  3. 3. Where does it come from? ● It came from within our body > travels to the skin > captured by an instrument > perceived by us
  4. 4. Where does it origins? ● It origins from major organs within our body like brain, heart, kidneys, liver, and lungs. ● Today we can see what’s wrong with the body by observing the biosignal. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki pedia/commons/8/8e/2701_Wat er_Content_in_the_Body-01.jpg
  5. 5. How deep the origin ● As deep as the substance that structured the major organs = cells, the smallest unit in life.
  6. 6. How does cells produce biosignals? ● When the cells of living things are stimulated, sodium (Na+ ) and potassium (K+ ) ions move rapidly through the cell membrane’s ion channel, creating difference in electric potential. ● Sodium is usually found outside in form of salt NaCl while Potassium is usually found inside the cell. ● Electricity itself is defined as the flow of electric charge. https://media.giphy.com/media/ 11rQETQPpbTiJW/source.gif
  7. 7. Contents of Cell Membrane ● Before discussing about bioelectricity, let’s look at the cell membrane. The cell membrane consists if lipid bilayer and proteins. There are many kind of channels for the bellow illustration. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/91/Scheme_facilitated_diffusion_in_cell_ membrane-en.svg/2000px-Scheme_facilitated_diffusion_in_cell_membrane-en.svg.png
  8. 8. Passive Channel ● It is a passive way where ions flows from higher concentration to lower concentration. https://media.giphy.com/med ia/2gscv6A65oHqU/giphy.gif
  9. 9. Active Channel ● The active channel also called the transport channel activates when the concentration reaches equilibrium. ● It functions to create difference in concentration again in order for the flow in the previous slide to flow again. potassium (K+ ) is returned to the cell and sodium (Na+ ) is released. https://media.giphy.com/medi a/suHCaPseJhib6/giphy.gif
  10. 10. Enzymes ● Not to forget that attraction between positive and negative charge contributes to the flow i.e. potassium (K+ ) attracted to chloride (Cl- ). Enzymes helps or accelerates the bonding.
  11. 11. Resting and Action Potential ● The resting potential is a state where the flow of ion in and out of the cell is stable (looping from slide 8 - 10). ● While action potential is a state where the cell is excited, enabling more ions flow, thus generating more bioelectricity or biosignal.
  12. 12. Cell Stimulation ● The cell can be stimulated artificially or naturally from the brain > neuron > cells. This will turn into action potential.
  13. 13. Bioelectricity or Biosignal https://upload .wikimedia.or g/wikipedia/co mmons/2/2f/A ction_potentia l_propagation _animation.gif
  14. 14. Gated Channel ● The channels responsible for action potential is voltage gated channel and transmitter gated channel. Think of them as transistors. ● Voltage gated channel activates when an applied voltage around certain level and transmitter gated channel activates when substances locks onto a channel.
  15. 15. Circuit Equivalent Model ● With enough understanding the phenomena can be modeled

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