Employee involvement (3)


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Employee involvement (3)

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Employee involvement (3)

  1. 1. 4-EMPLOYEEINVOLVEMENTREFERENCESTotal Quality Management by Besterfield et alQuality Planning and Analysis by Juran and GrynaThe Management and Control of Quality by Evans andLindsay
  2. 2. Course Overview Introduction to TQM Historical Review of Quality Benefits of Quality Management Quality Guru’s and their Contribution TQM Infrastructure Leadership & Strategic Planning Strategic Quality Planning TQM program Implementation
  3. 3. TQM Infrastructure Customer relationship management Leadership and strategic planning Human resources management Process management Data and information management
  4. 4. Revisiting History The Taylor System (late 19th & early 20th Cen) Supervisors & Workers lacked education required for essential decisions Separate Planning from execution Engineers & Specialists to plan Supervisors & workers to execute Results: Spectacular increases in productivity. Wide spread acceptance
  5. 5. Some Draw backs of Taylor System (Later known as Scientific Management) Workers do not understand their contribution to organizations’ mission The work itself is monotonous & meaningless. Lacks self accomplishment Feedback about info they need to regulate the process often inadequate Little opportunity for workers to participate in Quality Improvement Projects Inspectors rather than workers
  6. 6. Human Resources Only resource competitors cannot copy No organization can survive without good people, who are improving (Deming) Human Resources Management: “Activities designed to provide for
  7. 7. TQ-Based HR Practices Communicate the importance of each employee’s contribution to TQ Stress Quality related synergies through team work (a whole is greater than sum of its parts) Empower employees to “Make a difference” Reinforce individuals & teams with rewards & reinforcements.
  8. 8. Realizing Goals through….. Promote team work and skill sharing across work units Examples Fedex: 4000 Quality Action Teams Boeing airlift and tanker operations: Over 100 integrated product teams consisting engineers, work- team, customer & supplier Organize & manage work to promote cooperation, empowerment and
  9. 9. Realizing Goals through….. Empower individuals and teams to make decisions that affect quality & Cust-Satisf Effective Performance Management, compensation, reward & recognition systems Effective systems for hiring and career progress Extensive investments in training & education
  10. 10. Empowerment Different from delegation or job enrichment Delegation refers to distributing and entrusting work to others Empowerment requires that employee is held responsible for the whole task People generally want to be more in charge of their jobs and careers
  11. 11. Teams Source of Employee Involvement A group of people working together to achieve common goalsThe objective Solve a problem Improve a process Design a product Audit a process etc
  12. 12. Types of Teams Process Improvement Teams Cross Functional Team Natural Work Teams Self Directed Teams Quality Circles
  13. 13. Process Improvement Teams Includes representative(s) from each operation of the process (Mandatory Participation) Improve or develop specific business process External or internal supplier/customer could be added depending upon location Usually disbanded after the objective is
  14. 14. Cross-Functional Team Represented by each functional area representative (6-10 members) May include customer or supplier Usually temporary with the exception of product review team
  15. 15. Self Directed Teams Example of empowered organization Discretion to organize their work subject to organizational work flow requirements Team coordinator to liaison with senior management (can be rotational) Meets daily to plan activities. Decision making usually by consensus 68% of Fortune 1000 companies use SDT Only 10% workers are involved in
  16. 16. Quality Circles Group of work force level employees usually from one functional area Voluntary participation in weekly meeting (on company time) Select and address quality problems that occur within their department Provided training on problem solving techniques.
  17. 17. Quality Circles Cont….. Pursue two types of goals Personal well being of the employee: Removing frustrating issues related to work environment Well being of the company Later on solve company problems with focus on products and process Benefit: Improved quality for both internal & external customers
  18. 18. Quality Circles: Benefits Improve individual self respect Increase respect b/w supervisors & workers Changes workers’ negative attitude Reduce conflict stemming from work environment Workers understand why many problems cannot be solved quickly Instills in workers better understanding of product quality
  19. 19. Recruitment Goal: Success of recruits on the job Remove defects in the hiring process Focus on enthusiasm, creativity & flexibility rather than only on cognitive ability To apply quality principals at work all workers must have basic mathematics & logical thinking abilities Managerial roles shift from directing & controlling to coaching & facilitating Growth in horizontal direction more useful
  20. 20. Training Companies committed to TQ invest heavily in training One of largest initial costs of TQ initiative Usually includes quality awareness, leadership, project management, communications, teamw ork, data analysis, meeting customer requirements, process analysis, waste reduction, cycle time reduction and
  21. 21. Compensation Monetary benefits possible source of dissatisfaction Objective: Reducing un explainable variation in pay TQ focused organizations base compensation on the market rate for an individual with proven capabilities & then make adjustments according to experience and capabilities
  22. 22. Recognition & Rewards Can be monetary or non monetary Might include trips, promotional gifts, clothing, time off, or special company sponsored awards and events Works better for hourly workers than for managers and technical employees For these groups stock options are more successful Should involve every one
  23. 23. Recognition & Rewardscont…. Tie rewards to quality based measurable objectives (reward for each suggestion implemented) Publicize extensively (newsletters, wall of fame, certificates, special lunch etc)
  24. 24. Performance Appraisals How one is evaluated determines how one performs Process for evaluating and generating info about employee’s effectiveness & efficiency at work Objectives: Feedback to employees, assessing training needs, identify people for promotions etc
  25. 25. Performance Appraisals:Flaws Foster mediocrity & discourage risk taking Focus on short-term measurable results Focus on individuals & destroy team work Process is detection oriented rather than prevention oriented Usually fail to distinguish b/w factors that are in employees’ control and
  26. 26. Performance Appraisalscont… Many companies are now using 360 degree evaluation Some are replacing evaluation with personal planning & development systems Manager meet employees to set future expectations Identify training needs, provide coaching and reward continuous improvement No stigma is attached to failure.
  27. 27. Measuring EmployeeSatisfaction and Effectiveness Satisfaction ◦ Quality of worklife, teamwork, communications, training, leadership, compensation, benefits, internal suppliers and customers Effectiveness ◦ Team and individual behaviors; cost, quality, and productivity improvements; employee turnover; suggestions; training effectiveness