Medicine in mesopotamia

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Medicine in mesopotamia

  1. 1. Between the Tigris and Euphrates place was called Mesopotamia by Greekgeographer and historian Herodot, who visited this region in the V century.At the turn of the millennium III and IV BC there formed the first Sumeriancity-states, and in the II and I BC century flourished Babylonian and Assyriankingdom.Mesopotamia created three tribes: the Sumerians, Babylonians and Assyrians. Themain source of information about medicine Mesopotamia - many cuneiformtablets with texts on the art of healing.In one of the oldest libraries of the world - a collection of cuneiform tablets ofthe Assyrian king Ashurbanipal (VII c. BC) was found 33 tablets with texts aboutthe healing effect of the plant: mustard, fir, pine, pear, plum, willow, edible lichenlekonary (manna) and many others. The composition of medicines also includedoil, resin, milk, salt, wool and body parts of animals, tortoise shell, bodies ofwater snakes.HISTORY
  2. 2. Dissection of the sacrificial animals gave an idea of ​​the major internal organs:heart, liver, kidney, intestine, stomach. The center of life Babylonian priestsconsidered liver. They divided it into 50 squares and predicted over them, andthe fate of the event.HISTORY
  3. 3. About punishing the doctor in case of treatment failure according toparagraph 218 of the laws of Hammurabi dawn, the creator of the Babylonianempire (XVIII c. BC): "If a physician has made a free person strong cut withbronze knife and killed the man, or made ​​an incision in the field of eyebrowor temple and killed the man eyes of this man, this doctor should be cuttedoff his hand. "PHYSICIANS
  4. 4. The Babylonians adopted the gods of the Sumerians. At the head of theworld was the supreme trinity of gods, symbolizing the three parts of theuniverse: the sky god Any; lord of the earth and air Enlil, the god of the waterelement Ea. Anu was the incarnation of the heavenly power and knowledge;Enlil embodied the power of the king on the ground. Ea was in charge of thedeep water, according to the Sumerians initially lived wisdom. Ea so reveredas the god of wisdom and patron of medicine, he gave his secret healers"ASU" (from the Sumerian - "knowing the water"), who is depicted inclothing resembling fish scales.GODS
  5. 5. GODS
  6. 6. When did not help any medical facilities, nospell, the patient turned to the gods. Thisrequired the mediation of thepriest, especially if the patient was the kinghimself.Cuneiform texts preserved manyconfessions, spells designed to "wipe out" thesins of the king, to "calm the heart of God."After the sacrifices and commit sacred ritualspriest turns to the gods, saying that the king"covered illness ... visited by a seriousillness, "for his" day - sighs night - tearsmonth - wailing, year - recognition "and" thepriest refused to allow his bond. "FACILITIES
  7. 7. The efforts of the doctor were often aimedat relieving specific symptoms of thedisease, "stop the fever ," "to withdrawedema", "calm vessels that projecting fromarms and legs," etc. The doctors were greatconnoisseurs of herbs, know how to cooktherapeutic compounds of the minerals andanimal products (honey, wax, meltedbutter, mongoose blood, fish oil, lambleather, shell mussels, etc.). The compositionof medicines is sometimes included at least20 components.MEDICATIONSANDCURE
  8. 8. In Mesopotamia, there was a mail. Theletters were written on clay tablets andsealed in clay envelopes . Many of themare preserved to this day. From thiscorrespondence became aware of ahospital at the temples. Treated therenobles, ministers of the church, and evenslaves. Found letters healerMukallima, who lived in the XIV century.BC at the church near the city Nshura. Heoften asks the mayor to give him a valuablemedicinal plants and notes here that theabsence of even one of them denies drugeffective force.MEDICATIONSANDCURE
  9. 9. According to Herodotus, it was the custom in Mesopotamia make patients onthe streets and squares of cities. Every passerby was obliged to stop, ask thepatient about his suffering and advise some means of getting rid of thedisease, if it was known to him.MEDICATIONSANDCURE
  10. 10. Hygiene regulations were very strict in Mesopotamia and were primarilypriests and the person of the king. Preserving the traditions of theSumerians, Babylonian priests carefully monitor the purity of the body, andthey wore clothes made of fine white linen. If the priests believed that thekings health at risk, according to their orders immediately and thoroughlywash the entire palace and the adjacent part of the city, and then were broughtnumerous re-sacrifice (animals, wine, beer, honey, butter). For the reasonsthese precautions: natural and artificial ponds were so infected that it was thecustom - not to drink tap water from canals and rivers.HYGIENE
  11. 11. In conclusion the culture of ancientMesopotamia is connected with oneof the oldest symbols of medicine -a ritual Cup Gudea ", found byarchaeologists in 1877 in territory ofmodern Iraq. This cup of greenstone height 23 cm was made forGudea (XX century. BC) - the rulerof the ancient Sumerian states ofLagash. The inscription on the cupshows that he was dedicated to thegodhealer. In the center of cupplaced rod entwined by two serpents.Is guarded on both sides of thewinged monster at the handsgripping a sword. This symbolism isassociated with healing, protectionof life and health.CUP GUDEA

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