History of language literature & poetry


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English literature is the literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; for example, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Joseph Conrad was Polish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, J. R. R. Tolkien was born in the Orange Free State, V.S. Naipaul was born in Trinidad, and Vladimir Nabokov was Russian, but all are considered important writers in the history of English literature. In other words, English literature is as diverse as the varieties and dialects of English spoken around the world. In academia, the term often labels departments and programmes practising English studies in secondary and tertiary educational systems. Despite the variety of authors of English literature, the works of William Shakespeare remain paramount throughout the English-speaking world.

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History of language literature & poetry

  2. 2. LITERATURE AS HISTORYPeople in the past, just as people today, needed to define themselves and theirtimes, and they did so through their writings.• Gilgamesh• Homer’s Iliad ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers.
  3. 3. POETRYPeople in the past, just as people today, needed to share thoughts and ideas ina more elevated style than prose offered, and they did so through POETRY.TWO OF SEVERAL TYPES OF POETRY:•sonnet•haiku ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers.
  4. 4. THE SHORT STORYPeople in the past, just as people today, needed a literary form that could beread in one sitting, and the SHORT STORY was developed.• Edgar Allan Poe defined and wrote classic shortstories.• Shirley Jackson also wrote a classic short storycalled “The Lottery.” ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers.
  5. 5. THE NOVELPeople in the past, just as people today, needed a more complex literary formthat was not based in the “real” events of the past or of the present; thus, thefictional NOVEL was developed.• A PICARESQUE NOVEL— Cervantes’s Don Quixote• AN AMERICAN CLASSIC— Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby ©2003 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers.
  6. 6. HISTORY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE Compiled by: Thomas Youman
  7. 7. What is Literature? Literature refers to the practice and profession of writing. It comes from human interest in telling a story, in arranging words in artistic forms, in describing in words some aspects of human experiences.Why we read Literature? Pleasure Relaxation KnowledgeOld English Period469 AD - 1066 AD Three conquests. The Song of Beowulf:Middle English LiteratureBible translations,Geoffrey Chaucer: The Canterbury Tales
  8. 8. Renaissance Literature Vernacular Literature. William Caxton. Book of Common Prayer.Early Modern Period Elizabethan Era Jacobean Literature Caroline and Cromwellian Literature Restoration Literature Augustan Literature.Elizabethan Era William Shakespeare  Hamlet,  Romeo and Juliet,  The Merchant of Venice  Macbeth
  9. 9. 18th Century Age of Enlightment. Age of Sensibility. Horace Walpole: The Castle of Otranto.Romanticism Industrialism. William Blake: Romantic Age Oscar Wilde Mary Shelley:Victorian Literature Charles Dickens. Arthur Conan Doyle: Sherlok HolmesEnglish Literature since 1900 Modernism: Rudyard Kipling, James Joyce, Virginia Woolf Post-Modern Literature: Truman Capote Post World War II: J.R.R. Tolkien
  10. 10. The Origins of Drama Origins of Drama
  11. 11. Humanities 120 Drama
  12. 12. Drama is a type ofliterature.Its basic medium isspoken language.(Medium: thematerial or techniquean artist works with.)
  13. 13. Drama uses the resources of the theater to showhuman actions in such a way that we gain a deeper understanding of the human experience.
  14. 14. Drama is such an ancient artform that its origins are beyondhuman record.
  15. 15. It may have developed out of important rituals having to do with: •Sewing and reaping crops •Fertility rituals •Burial rituals
  16. 16. Formal elements of drama.•Diction •Meter •Action•Syntax •Metaphor •Character•Rhyme •Simile •Setting•Rhythm •Symbol •Dialogue
  17. 17. Action:The dramatic narrative; the plot or on-going business of the charactersAction generally takes place in anarrative arc:•Introduction•Development•Climax•Conclusion Character: The way in which each individual in the drama is portrayed. This includes the history, motivations, personality, and decisions of the individuals. Setting: The place(s) where the action occurs; created through the manipulation of sets, lights, scenery, and references. Dialogue: The spoken words of actors playing characters in the drama. Most dialogue is spoken by one actor to another/others, but there is a form of dialogue called soliloquy and one called monologue.
  18. 18. Soliloquy:When a character delivers a brief speech to the audience; Generally expresses a character’s innerthoughts; We can generally assume we’re hearing character’s “true thoughts"; Consists of relativelybrief break in the action.Monologue:A character speaks at length; Sometimes takes up entire act or play; May be understood ascharacter speaking to self, or directly to audience.The Structure of DramaPlots are structural principles that govern the shape of the narrativePlots are often worked around archetypes: basic psychological patterns that people react to on asubconscious level.
  19. 19. The Importance of Studying History of English Literature:A Post-Study Reflection by Tienny Makrus.Literature is part of human life that is passed from generation to generation anddescribes the culture of a country. If we want to study a language, of course, we mustalso know the culture of the country. For English education students, studying Englishliterature is very important. We may understand the philosophical movements whenstudying English literature, different point of views gives us a new way of thinking aboutthe world, capable of bringing about differing emotions and general sense through thevarious types of literature works, understand today’s culture, and increase vocabulary,grammar and writing ability in English. The following will explain some points why it isimportant to learn English literature. Firstly, we can find the occurrence of philosophicalmovements when studying English literature. In great writing from the past we find theEngland ancestors, and we not only see the country and the people as they were, butwe also soak up the climate of the times through the language itself, its vocabulary,grammar, and tone.
  20. 20. We would only have to consider the writing of Chaucer, Shakespeare, Boswell,Milton, Dickens, and Samuel Beckett side by side to see how the way writersuse language embodies the cultural atmosphere of their time. English literatureallows us to understand the philosophical movements and ideas thatpermeated a particular culture at a particular time. For example, Mary Shelleys"Frankenstein" shows us the ambivalence the British felt toward empiricism.Besides understanding the philosophical movements, English literature givesus a new way of thinking about the world. For example, Jane Austen presents adifferent writing in her era, because she is interested in the moral, social andpsychological behaviour of her characters.
  21. 21. Mary Wollstonecraft, for instance, presents the idea that women should not besubservient to men, giving birth to modern feminist theory. Literature works ofSir Walter Scott in circulation since the eight-tenth century, presents his workwith the theme of revolution, historical changes and social and character of allcircles in society. Perhaps we see that a certain mans behaviour resemblesthat of Antony in Antony and Cleopatra through the drama of Shakespeare, or acertain woman is rather like The Wife of Bath in Chaucers Canterbury Tales.Seeing such similarities can help us to understand and accept other people.Therefore, we can find literary scholars write their literary works with a varietyof viewpoints.
  22. 22. Therefore, we can find literary scholars write their literary works with a varietyof viewpoints.In addition to presenting the different viewpoints of the literaryscholar, we can find English literature is a form of English art. It is capable ofbringing about differing emotions and a general sense of "spiritual" well-being.Poets William Wordsworth and Percy Shelley write about this power of poetryin "Preface to the Lyrical Ballads" and "A Defence of Poetry," respectively.Shakespeare presents a lot of his work in drama. Then, John Milton presentsthe genre of religious and politics poetry after Elizabethan period.
  23. 23. In the romantic period, people incline to like novels. Thus we know that English art isvarious depending on the political and social situation in each period. When we dip intothe rich variety of novels, poems, and plays which constitute English literature, it ispossible to understand how contemporary western culture has developed into what it istoday. We are reading works which have lasted for generations, or centuries, and theyhave lasted because they are good. Well, we dont need to visit a country if we want tolearn their culture. London, for example, is all the more interesting a city when behindwhat we see today we see the London known to Dickens, Boswell and Johnson, orShakespeare. It will save time, money and effort by reading literary works than to visitthe country.
  24. 24. Finally, studying English literature can increase our knowledge of new words,new phrases, and English lexicon. Literature is also crucial to learning stylisticand artistic conventions for English communication and writing. It does notmean student need to read every literary work. There may be times whenreading a critic can be more interesting than reading the actual work. Readingthe work of a good critic can be edifying in itself. Making the effort to shape ourown thoughts into an essay is also an edifying experience, and just as goodliterature lasts, so do the personal benefits that we gain from studying andwriting about it. In conclusion, studying English literature allows student todevelop new ideas and ethical standpoints, can be an enriching, eye-openingexperience, and help them to describe English society. Considering theimportance of literature, student can also develop their interest to other literaryworks. It will be very interesting if student can learn American literature also,because American country is the most advanced country currently, whichperhaps student need to understand American culture and learn positive thingsas well, because by studying literature we become “cultured”.
  25. 25. Poetry (ancient Greek) is an art form in which human language is usedfor its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional andsemantic content. It consists largely of oral or literary works in whichlanguage is used in a manner that is felt by its user and audience to differfrom ordinary prose. Poetry is important, It reaches inside people andheals their wounds like nothing else can. It is an escape from reality anda method of coping with reality. Its a certain feeling inside. Accordingto geocities.com, poetry is a form of expression written seeking approvalfrom no one but read and interpreted by anyone and everyone. It revealsyour most inner thoughts that may never be spoken forming a deepcommunication to others and for you, a cherished token that you willalways remember.
  26. 26. ELEMENTS OF POETRYPrepared by Miss Jenny Lou C. SasoyFaculty, UE-Caloocan EHSDPOETRY It is the art of expressing oneself in verse. It uses few words to convey its message. It is meant to be read aloud. It uses imagery or figures of speech to express feelings or create a mental picture or idea. "Chartless“Lines Emily DickinsonA single line in a poem.Often organized into stanzas. 1 I never saw a moor, 2 I never saw the sea, 3 Yet I know how the heather looks 4 and what a wave must be. 5 I never spoke with God, 6 nor visited in Heaven, 7 Yet I am certain of the spot 8 as if the chart were given. This poem has 8 lines organized into 2 stanzas
  27. 27. STANZA “First and Last”It is the group of lines. by David McCordCouplet – 2 linesTriplet – 3 lines A tadpole hasn’t a pole at all,Quatrain – 4 lines And he doesn’t live in a hole in theQuinrain – 5 lines wall.Sestet – 6 lines You’ve got it wrong: a polecat’s notOctet – 8 lines A cat on a pole. And I’ll tell youIt develops and what:emphasizes one idea. A bullfrog’s never a bull; and howRHYME AND RHYME SCHEME Could a cowbird possibly be a cow? A kingbird, though, is a kind of king, And he chases a crow like anything.
  28. 28. RHYME AND RHYME SCHEME Words rhyme if they sound alike. Poems often use rhymes at the end of lines. Rhyme scheme is the pattern of rhymes in a poem. Poets use rhymes to add a musical sound to their poems.
  29. 29. TYPES OF RHYME  ALLITERATION – repetition of the initial consonant sound.  She sells sea shells by the sea shore.  CONSONANCE – repetition of the intermediate or final consonant sound.  Tick tock, flip flop, singing longing  ASSONANCE – repetition of vowel sound.  Hear the mellow wedding bells, Golden bells! What a world of happiness their harmony foretells! RHYTHM Pattern of beats or a series of stressed and unstressed syllables in poem. Poets create rhythm by using words in which parts are emphasized or not emphasized. “Windy Nights” By Robert Louis Stevenson Whenever the moon and stars are set, Whenever set, Whenever the wind is high, Whenever high, All night long in the dark and wet, wet, A man goes riding by. riding by. Late in the night when the fires are out, fires Why does he gallop and gallop about? gallop gallop about?
  30. 30. METERIt is the measure of a line in a poetry.FOOTIt is the grouping of two or more syllables making up a basic unit ofmeter.TYPES OF METRICAL FOOTIAMBIC foot consists of unaccented syllable followed by an accented. It can beheard in such words as "because, hello, Elaine". TROCHAIC foot consists of an accented syllable followed by an unaccented.These are trochaic words: answer, Tuesday, Albert.DACTYLIC foot consists of an accented syllable followed by two unaccentedsyllables. You can hear the dactylic beat in these words: beautiful, silently,Saturday.ANAPESTIC foot consists of two unaccented syllables followed by an accentedsyllable. These words are anapestic: cavalier, tambourine, Marianne.SPONDAIC foot consists of two accented syllables.PYRRHIC foot consists of two unaccented syllables.
  31. 31. MOOD “Poor” Short words andThe feeling that a poem creates in a by Myra Livingston lines create areader. serious mood.It can be positive or negative. I heard of poor.Mood can be made with the length of It means hungry, no food.the sentences, chosen words, and No shoes, no place to live,word sounds. Nothing good. It means winter nightsThese words And being cold, create the feeling It is lonely, alone. of sadness. Feeling old. Poor is a tired face. Poor is thin. Poor is standing outside Looking in.
  32. 32. TONEIt is the attitude a writer takes towards the subject or audience of the poem. “The Crocodile” The subject of the poem are crocodiles. The writers attitude How doth the little crocodile towards crocodiles is that they are Improve his shining tail, dangerous. And pour the water of the Nile On every golden scale! How cheerfully he seems to grin, How neatly spreads his claws, And welcomes little fishes in With gently smiling jaws!IMAGERYLanguage that appeals to the 5 senses.Are “word pictures”.Helps the reader to experience familiar things in a fresh way using the senses.
  33. 33. FIGURES OF SPEECHA mode of expression in which words are used out of their literal meaning orout of their ordinary use in order to add beauty or emotional intensity or totransfer the poets sense impressions by comparing or identifying one thingwith another that has a meaning familiar to the reader.SIMILEA figure of speech in which two fundamentally unlike things are explicitlycompared, usually in a phrase introduced by like or as.METAPHORA figure of speech in which an implied comparison is made between two unlikethings that actually have something in common.PERSONIFICATIONA figure of speech in which an inanimate object or abstraction is given humanqualities or abilities.ONOMATOPOEIAThe use of words that imitate the sounds associated with the objects or actionsthey refer to.HYPERBOLEfigure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or effect; anextravagant statement.
  34. 34. Young Adult Librarian Dewey on poetryJune 11, 2012 Poetry and Drama 35
  35. 35. Dewey and poetry 2June 11, 2012 Poetry and Drama 36
  37. 37. The Function of CRITICISMJudgement :In its strict sense, criticism means judgement. The literary critic, therefore, isprimarily an expert who uses his special faculty and training to examine themerits and defects of a piece of literary art or the work of a given author andpronounce a verdict upon it.The primary function of a literary critic is to arrive at and pronounce ameaningful judgement of value.I. A. Richards says : “To set up as a critic is to set up as a judge of values.”Literary criticism, says Rene Wellek, “is judgement of books, reviewing andfinally the definition of taste, of the tradition, of what is a classic.”Evaluation :When a critic attempts to judge the value of a work of art or literature, he canbe said to have evaluated the work.“Evaluative, judicial, or normative criticism attempts to judge the merits of theliterature in relation to a literary, social, moral, or other, value system.” (Lee T.Lemon : A Glossary for the Study of English, p. 99)
  38. 38. Interpretation :If judgement be the real end of criticism, interpretation may be employed as ameans to that end.“To feel the virtue of the poet or the painter, to disengage it, to set it forth –these are the three stages of the critic’s duty.” (Walter Pater)Poetry is a ‘criticism (interpretation) of life’. Criticism is an interpretation of thatinterpretation. The chief function of criticism is to enlighten and stimulate by theproper interpretation of the works of literature. If a great poet makes uspartakers of his larger sense of the meaning of life, a great critic may make uspartakers of his larger sense of the meaning of literature.
  39. 39. References.Item Type: Web page.Title: History of English LiteratureAuthor: Thomas youmanURL: http://www.slideshare.net/tomyyou/history-of-english-literatureAccessed: 15th March 2012 09:11:19Item type: Web page.Title: the nature and functions of literary criticismAuthor: Ketan PandyaURL:http://www.slideshare.net/KetanPandya2/nature-and-function-of-literary-criticismAccessed: 15TH March 2012 01:09:24
  40. 40. Item type: Web pageTitle: The Elements of poetryAuthor: Jenny SasoyURL: http://www.slideshare.net/search/slideshow?searchfrom=header&q=the+elements+of+poetryAccessed: 15th march 2012 11:00:21Item Type: Web pageTitle: The importance of studying history of English LiteratureAuthor: Tienny makrusURL:http://www.slideshare.net/tiennymakrus/the-importance-of-studying-history-of-english-literatureAccessed: 14 march 2012 11:22:02
  41. 41. Item Type: Web pageTitle: Poetry and Drama (Dragons)Author: B. RodriguezURL:http://www.slideshare.net/joh5700/poetry-and-drama-and-dragons-presentationAccessed: 15th march 2012 10:28:16Item type: Web pageTitle: The Romantic EraAuthor: Dr. Christopher SwannURL:http://www.slideshare.net/wiglaf12/the-romantic-era-17981832-presentationAccessed: 15 March 2012 15:03:06Item type: Web pageTitle: LiteratureAuthor: Julie RodakawskiURL:http://www.slideshare.net/mr1861/literatureAccessed: 15 March 2012 14:29:11