The components of a pc


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The components of a pc

  1. 1. The Components of a PC (By Lewis Barrett)
  2. 2. Choose a CPU component Fan BI OS PCI - E GPUAGP PCI Audi o SCSI HDD Sat a ROM Nor t hbr i dge Ex pansi on I DE M her boar d ot ’s Case NI C Opt i cal Dr i ve PSURAM Sout hbr i dge
  3. 3. CPUThe central processing unit (CPU) Is oneof the key parts of hardware as it actsas the brain of the computer processingall the computers functions, Anythingneeding to be computed always getssent to the CPU first
  4. 4. FanJust like a standard desk fan you would buy in a shop, the fan in the computer acts the same, as the CPU in a computer can become very hot after running for a while, the motor driven fan cools this down through spinning and circulating air around the computer case, depending on how big the computer is some people may use more then one fan to cool down their computer
  5. 5. CaseThis is thing which stores all of thecomputer hardware such as powersupply, motherboard, disk drives, othernames included cabinet, box, towerenclosure or housing.
  6. 6. Expansion Slot’sThis is a type of port or plug located on themotherboard which allows extra devices orexpansion cards to be attached to thecomputer and new functions to the PC. Thereare three different types of Expansion SlotsPCI, AGP and PCI-E
  7. 7. BIOSLocated in the ROM of the computer, The basic input/outputsystems (BIOS) is a program which is pre-installed on to everywindows PC and is used when starting up. Once the computerbegins to turn on the CPU will access the BIOS even before theoperating system is loaded, the BIOS will check all hardwareconnections are working ok and locate any devices. Ifeverything is working fine the BIOS will load the operatingsystem into the computers memory thus finishing the boot-upprocess. However it still is used after start up as it actsimmediacy between the CPU and the I/O (input/output) devicesas the BIOS is the reason the programs and operating systemdont have to know exact details, the BIOS just needs to beupdated when anything changes
  8. 8. PCIPeripheral Component Interconnect(PCI) is used to connect all kinds ofdevices including network cards,modems, sound cards and older videocards
  9. 9. PCI-EThis expansion slot is usually used moreoften nowadays as is will typicallyconnect more advanced video cards
  10. 10. AGPUsed to connect AGP video cards but isa much older type of graphics card andis usually replaced in todays PCs with aPCI-E
  11. 11. Optical DriveSees and reads data on any optical discsinserted into the PC, The disks have millionsof small bumps and dips and when insertedinto optical drives is read through using lasersand marking each bump as a 1 or a 0 whichthe computer can then understand
  12. 12. HDDHard Disk Drive (HDD) is the component thatstores all your computers data, this is whereall your files and folders are located. The datais stored on a stack of mounted disks whichspin extremely fast at about 5400 or 7200RPM so that any data can be accessedimmediately from anywhere on the PCsdrive. Data on the disks is stored on the harddrive magnetically this is because even whenthe computer is off the data will still remain onthe hard drive
  13. 13. IDEIntegrated Device Electronics (IDE) refers to technology that integrates the electronics controller into the drive itself and whilst older IDEs can only support hard drives up to 40 MB of data, the new standard, EIDE (Enhanced-IDE) can support hard drives with over 250 GB of data. The new enhanced- IDEs also allow for data transfer rates that are over twice as fast as the original IDE
  14. 14. SataCan be found in newer computers, itimproves speed and powerconsumption over both SCSI and IDE
  15. 15. SCSISmall Computer System interface(SCSI) is usually used for high speedhard drives as it can support faster datatransfer rates than IDE storageinterface, but will usually cost more permegabyte
  16. 16. MotherboardThis is what makes all the things inyour computer work together, it is themain circuit board and has many keycomponents located on it such as theCPU, ROM, RAM expansionslots, PCI slots and USB ports. It alsoincludes controllers for devices likethe hard drive, DVD drive, keyboardand mouse
  17. 17. NorthbridgeThe Northbridge is the main processor anddirects data to and from the CPU, it is a chipin the computer which connects the CPU toother primary components in the system suchas RAM , FSB, PCI Express cards, andthe AGP card. The Northbridge also connectsto the Southbridge and sometimes called theMemory Controller Hub (MCH) on Intelsystems
  18. 18. SouthbridgeThe Southbridge is a chip which sendsand receives data from the CPUthrough the Northbridge which isconnected directly to the computersprocessor. Even though it does nothave to run as fast as the Northbridge itdoes process data from morecomponents
  19. 19. RAMMade of small memory chips that form a memory modulewhich are installed in the RAM slots of the computersmotherboard. Any program opened on your computer isloaded from the hard rive into the RAM. Runningprograms from the RAM allows them to function withoutany lag time. This means the more RAM your computerhas, the more data can be loaded from the hard drive intothe RAM which can effectively speed up your computer
  20. 20. ROMThis is memory containing hardwiredinstructions that the computer useswhen it boots up and before the systemsoftware loads
  21. 21. PSUThis is what supplies power for a computer soit can turn on and all the functions can runefficiently, It receives power from an electricaloutlet and converts the current from AC to DCgiving the computer the power it requires. ThePSU also regulates a voltage amount so thecomputer can run smoothly withoutoverheating as some actions and commandswill require the computer to supply morepower to it
  22. 22. AudioAudio is produced from a computer through the soundcard usually located the motherboard, which provides audio input and output capabilities. Most sound cards have at least one analog line input and one stereo line output connection They will usually also support digital audio input and output. Audi can be heard through a number of devices such as speakers and headphones through plugging them into the 3.5mm minijacks
  23. 23. NICNetwork interface card (NIC) is the cardwhich physically makes the connectionbetween a network and a computer andcomes in ISA and PCI versions, The NICtypically use an Ethernet connection andare available in 10, 100, and 1000 Base-T configurations with a 100 Base-T cardbeing able to transfer data at 100 Mbps
  24. 24. GPUThe Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) is asingle-chip processor and acts like theCPU but this is used primarily forcomputing 3D functions such as lightingeffects, object transformations, and 3Dmotion. This is because thesecalculations can be to complex for theCPU and with the GPU the computer canrun more efficiently