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  1. 1. Andrew Goodwin0 Music Videos demonstrate genre characteristics.0 There is a relationship between the lyrics and visuals.0 There is a relationship between the music and visuals.0 The demands of the record label will include the need for lots of close ups of the artist and the artist may develop motifs which recur across their work (a visual style).0 There is frequently reference to notion of looking (screen within screens, telescopes, etc.) and particularly voyeuristic treatment of the female body.0 There is often intertextual reference.
  2. 2. The Birmingham School(Centre for Contemporary Cultrual Studies) –CCCS for short! 0 Believe that all sub cultures are based on a reaction against the mainstream. In that they have disagreed with the ideology of the mainstream and have separated themselves and created an alternative culture. The CCCS also don’t take into account that teenagers can chance from one subculture to another, they believe people stay within the same culture.
  3. 3. Grant McCracken0 The world’s culture is now dynamic and diverse in creativity and with so many different values and ideologies that people have, we cannot believe that there is one main idea “There is no mainstream. There are many streams.”.
  4. 4. Hebdige0 He believes that subcultures should be called ‘little cultures’ because they are deep enough in cultural value to stand on their own and not to be a ‘sub’ of another culture.0 Hebdige also argues that when people listen to music (consume popular culture) they are aware of what they are doing (active) and how they experience it depends on their background and the society they live in, so that different people may think differently about the same piece of music. For example Gangsta rap may be disliked by someone who lives in a rural area, plats classical music and enjoys the opera because they mat not relate to the lyrics. In the contrast someone who has experienced an inner city life style and brought up within a gang culture may appreciate the lyrics and be able to relate to it.0 Hebdige thinks that people choose what they consume and reject what they don’t like, they are not governed by the culture industries.
  5. 5. Richard Dyer0 Dyer’s theory is based on film stars but can be adapted to music.0 Dyer believes a star’s image is constructed and therefore not a real person.0 They are also ‘objects’ to sell and rely on a variety of mediums to sell their image e.g. magazines, TV, film, advertising, music etc.0 He believes the star image is based on 2 paradoxes (2 things that go against each other)1. The star must be simultaneously ordinary and extraordinary for the consumer.2. The star must be simultaneously present and absent for the consumer.0 Dyer believes that depending on which star a person likes, it can position them in the mainstream or in a subculture. For example Person A likes One Direction they are positioned in the mainstream because the band is in the mainstream. Whereas person B likes Blood Red Shoes they are positioned in a subculture because Blood Red Shoes are seen as a sub-cultural group.0 “In these terms it can be argues that stars are representations of persons which reinforce, legitimate or occasionally alter the prevalent preconceptions of what it is to be a human in this society”0 In the above quote Dyer is saying that the star represents a person in society and depending upon their ‘image’ they either reinforce what our society belies is the way to behave or they alter it. Think about how people perceived Britney when she was an example of ‘good wholesome virginal girl’, then her image reflected what society believed is the ideal way to behave. Compare that to Liam Gallagher from Oasis, society perceives him as an undesirable way to behave and therefore his image alters the ideology.
  6. 6. The Frankfurt School0 A collection of Marxist philosophers, based in Germany in the mid 20th century. They were concerned that the creation of popular culture meant that the ‘masses’ (lower classes) would rise up and take over the power that the bourgeois (upper class) had their work was the first attempt to write about popular music.
  7. 7. Theodor Adorno (1903-69)0 Adorno suggest that popular culture industries churn out mass products that are unsophisticated and sentimental which have replaced the more ‘difficult’ and critical art forms which might lead people to actually question social life. He was also against capitalist as he believed it created a culture whereby people felt that they needed material things which replace people’s ‘true’ needs – freedom, full expression of human potential and creativity, genuine creative happiness.