LEARNING STYLESDecember 14th, 2011 Prepared by Luis Machado /Ecuador Learning and Teaching Styles In Foreign and Second Language Education Richard M Felder, North Carolina State University Eunice R. Henriques, Universidade Estadual de Sao Paulo Foreign Language Annals, 28, No. 1,1995, pp. 21–31
LEARNING STYLE, A DEFINITIONThe ways in which an individualcharacteristicallyacquires, retains, and retrievesinformation are collectively termedthe individual’s learning style.
HOW DO STUDENTS LEARN? By seeing and hearing; Reflecting and acting; Reasoning logically and intuitively; Memorizing and visualizing.
TEACHING METHODSSome instructors Lecture, Demonstrate or discuss; Focus on rules and others on examples; Emphasize memory and others understanding.
CONDITIONS FOR STUDENT’S LEARNING Student’s native ability; His/her prior preparation; The compatibility of his or her characteristic approach to learning; and The instructor’s characteristic approach to teaching.
POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES Students’ Instructors’ Learning mismatch Teaching Styles StylesTend to be bored in class (What is worse)Inattentive in class May become overly critical ofDo poorly on tests their studentsGet discouraged about the Begin to question their owncourse competence as teachers.Give up the course
DIMENSIONS OF LEARNING STYLE Sensing and Intuitive Learners Visual and Verbal Learners Active and Reflective Learners Sequential and Global Learners Inductive and Deductive Learners
SENSING AND INTUITIVE LEARNERSTwo ways in which people tend to perceive the world: sensation andintuition. Jung (1971). Sensors Intuitors Concrete and methodical. Abstract and imaginative. Use facts, data, and experimentation. Use principles, concepts, and theories. Patient with detail but do not like Bored by detail and welcome complications. complications. Rely on memorization. Like variety, dislike repetition. Careful but may be slow. Quick but may be careless. Comfortable when learning and Tend to be better equipped to following rules and standard accommodate new concepts and procedures. exceptions to rules. Involve observing, gathering data Involve indirect perception by way of through the senses. the subconscious— accessing memory, speculating, imagining.
EHRMAN AND OXFORD (1990) STUDY ON LEARNING STRATEGIES AND TEACHINGAPPROACHES PREFERRED BY SENSORS AND INTUITORS IN AN INTENSIVE LANGUAGETRAINING PROGRAM Sensors Intuitors Used a variety of memorization Preferred teaching approaches strategies (internal drills and that involved greater flash cards) complexity and variety Liked practical class material Tended to be bored with drills. Liked highly structured and Better able to learn well organized classes with independently of the clear goals and milestones for instructor’s teaching style. achievement.
VISUAL AND VERBAL LEARNERS Visual Learners Verbal Learners Learn through Pictures Diagrams Flow Charts Spoken Explanations Mind maps Written Explanations Films DemonstrationsMost people extract and retain more information from visual presentationsthan from written or spoken prose (Dale 1969), while most languageinstruction is verbal, involving predominantly lectures, writing in texts andon chalkboards, and audiotapes in language laboratories.
VISUAL AND VERBAL LEARNERS (CONTINUED) SEEING HEARING HUMAN SENSES TOUCHING TESTING SMELLING VISUAL SENSORY MODALITIES AUDITORY KINESTETIC KINESTETIC does not properly belong on a list of sensory input modalities. KOLB (1984) LAWRENCE (1993) ACTIVE / REFLECTIVE EXTRAVERT / INTROVERT
VISUAL AND VERBAL LEARNERS (CONTINUED) The challenge to language instructorsTo devise ways of augmenting their verbal classroompresentation with nonverbal visual material:Showing photographs, Usingdrawings, sketches, and films, videotapes, andcartoons to reinforce dramatizations to illustratepresentation of vocabulary lessons in dialogue andwords pronunciation.
ACTIVE AND REFLECTIVE LEARNERS The complex mental processes by which perceived information is converted into knowledge. (Kolb 1984). (1) Active experimentation (2) Reflective observation involves doing something involves examining and in the external world with manipulating the the information— information introspectively. discussing it or explaining it or testing it in some way.
Language classes in which allstudents are relegated to passiveroles, listening to and observingthe instructor and taking notes, dolittle to promote learning for eitheractive or reflective learners.
TEACHING STRATEGIESLanguage classes should include a variety of active learning experiences, such as conversations, enactment of dialogues and minidramas, and team competitions, and reflective experiences, such as brief writing exercises and question formulation exercises.
TEACHING STRATEGIES (CONTINUED) Small-group exercises can be extremely effective for both active and reflective learners. Five minutes of group work in a 50-minute period can be enough to maintain the students‟ attention for the entire class. Pose a question or problem (“Translate this sentence.” “What‟s wrong with what I just wrote?” “How many synonyms for „happy‟ can you think of in 30 seconds?” “What question do you have about what we covered today?”) and have students come up with answers working in groups of three, with one group member acting as recorder.
SEQUENTIAL AND GLOBAL LEARNERS Sequential learners absorb information and acquire understanding of material in small connected chunks. Sequential learners can function with incomplete understanding of course material, but they may lack a grasp of the broad context of a body of knowledge and its interrelationships with other subjects and disciplines.
SEQUENTIAL AND GLOBAL LEARNERS (CONTINUED) Global learners take in information in seemingly unconnected fragments and achieve understanding in large holistic leaps. Strongly global learners may appear slow and do poorly on homework and tests until they grasp the total picture, but once they have it they can often see connections that escape sequential learners.
SEQUENTIAL AND GLOBAL LEARNERS (CONTINUED)Various terms have been used to describe categoriesthat appear to have points in common with thesequential and global categories: Analytic and global (Kirby 1988; Schmeck 1988); Field-independent and field-dependent (Witkin & Goodenough 1981); Serialistic and holistic (Pask 1988); Left-brained and right-brained (Kane 1984); Atomistic and holistic (Marton 1988); Sequential and random (Gregorc 1982).
INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE LEARNERS In inductive presentation Students infer governing or one makes observations, correlating principles. measurements, data. In deductive presentation Students deduce one starts with consequences, and axioms, principles, or rules formulate applications. Students may prefer deductive presentation because of its relatively high level of structure. A large percentage of classroom teaching in every subject is primarily or exclusively deductive, probably because deduction is an efficient and elegant way to organize and present material that is already understood.
DISTINCTION BETWEEN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND LEARNING. Language Acquisition Acquisition is an inductive process. To acquire a language means: To pick it up gradually, To gain the ability to communicate without necessarily being able to articulate the rules. To absorb what they can from the abundant and continuous input. To gain in their ability to transfer strategies, make assumptions about the new language system, formulate and test rules. Language Learning. Language learning is a largely conscious process that involves formal exposure to rules of syntax and semantics followed by specific applications of the rules, with corrective feedback reinforcing correct usage and discouraging incorrect usage. The flow of the learning process from general to specific suggests its characterization as a deductive process.
A MULTISTYLE APPROACH TO FOREIGN LANGUAGE EDUCATION Students learn more when information is presented in a variety of modes than when only a single mode is used. “Active Learning Strategies, Classroom Innovations, and One-Minute Motivators” Retrieved from http://community.tncc.edu/faculty/dollieslager/rcte/ESCCAcademy.html
INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUESTeach new material (vocabulary, rules of grammar) in thecontext (intuitive, global, inductive).Use photographs, drawings, sketches, and cartoons toillustrate and reinforce the meanings of vocabularywords. Show films, videotapes, and live dramatizations toillustrate lessons in texts (visual, global.)Assign some repetitive drill exercises to provide practicein basic vocabulary and grammar (sensing) but don’toverdo it (intuitive).Provide intervals—however brief—for students to thinkabout what they have been told; assign brief writingexercises (reflective).Raise questions and problems to be worked on bystudents in small groups; enact dialogues and mini-dramas; hold team competitions (active).Give students the option of cooperating on at least somehomework assignments (active).Active learners generallylearn best when they interact with others.Balance inductive and deductive presentation of coursematerial.
REFERENCELearning and Teaching Styles In Foreign and Second LanguageEducationRichard M Felder, North Carolina State UniversityEunice R. Henriques, Universidade Estadual de Sao PauloForeign Language Annals, 28, No. 1,1995, pp. 21–31