language skills editing updated


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language skills editing updated

  1. 1. Welcome to Language Skills Training Program EmPower Research Knowledge Services (P) Ltd.
  2. 2. Editing “ You say what you have to say. But you have to say it in such a way that the reader can see what you mean.” - Kurt Vonnegut (American Novelist)
  3. 3. Editing is the process of taking a piece of text and making it shine. If language is like a window, through which a reader can see what you mean, ‘Editing’ is like polishing the window, by taking away the words that are not needed, to make it look clearer.
  4. 4. While Editing Remember W A S P ordiness greement pelling unctuation How to catch those little mistakes that make a big difference?
  5. 5. Wordiness <ul><li>Check for . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated Words </li></ul><ul><li>Redundant Expressions </li></ul>
  6. 6. Repeated Words <ul><li>Over-using words or phrases can make writing difficult to understand </li></ul><ul><li>and boring to read </li></ul><ul><li>Replace the repeated words in the sentences with other words of </li></ul><ul><li>similar meaning to make it sound interesting </li></ul>He appeared thankful to all the staff, thankful to all of the parents, and especially thankful to his students. E.g.: He appeared so thankful to all the staff, grateful to all of the parents, and especially appreciative of his students.
  7. 7. Redundant Expressions <ul><li>Each and every </li></ul><ul><li>In a wise manner </li></ul><ul><li>Come to an agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Red in color </li></ul><ul><li>Am of the opinion that </li></ul><ul><li>Long in duration </li></ul><ul><li>Considering the fact that </li></ul><ul><li>During the time that </li></ul>A redundant expression is a sentence with two words that mean the same thing. E.g.: The reason that we stopped for the night was because we were tired. We stopped for the night because we were tired. Avoid Redundant Expressions
  8. 8. Agreement Let’s all get along… <ul><li>Check for agreement between </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects & Verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Nouns & Pronouns </li></ul>
  9. 9. Subject & Verb Agreement A singular subject demands a singular verb; a plural subject demands a plural verb. This is the simple principle behind subject-verb agreement The trick is in knowing whether the subject is singular or plural. The next trick is in recognizing a singular or plural verb. He eats breakfast every day at nine. They eat breakfast every day at nine. Singular Subject Singular Verb Plural Subject Plural Verb
  10. 10. Noun & Pronoun Agreement A singular noun demands a singular pronoun; a plural noun demands a plural pronoun. This is the principle behind Noun-Pronoun agreement The trick is in knowing whether the noun is singular or plural. The next trick is in recognizing a singular or plural pronoun. They have their own rules. Plural Plural Each of the professors knows his or her most adept fliers. Singular Singular Everyone is bringing his or her mobile phone to the class. Singular Singular Example Pronoun Noun
  11. 11. Parallelism Parallelism is a balance of two or more similar words, phrases, or clauses in a sentence. Label each item in the list: (N) Noun, (G) Gerund, (V) Verb, (A) Adjective, (P) Pronoun, etc. Adjust the items in the series that aren’t consistent. Mary likes hik ing , swimm ing , and to ride a bicycle. Not Parallel Parallel Mary likes hik ing , swimm ing , and rid ing a bicycle. Click here to learn more about Parallelism
  12. 12. Position of Modifiers Check for . . . <ul><li>Misplaced Modifiers </li></ul><ul><li>Dangling Modifiers </li></ul>… and correct them Click here to learn more about Misplaced Modifiers Click here to learn more about Dangling Modifiers
  13. 13. Spelling <ul><li>Check for . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently Misspelled Words </li></ul><ul><li>Words that spell-check won’t find </li></ul><ul><li>Words that are informal </li></ul>
  14. 14. Frequently Misspelled Words Look out for commonly misspelled words Incorrect Correct Arguement Argument Dissappoint Disappoint Necesary Necessary Posess, Posses Possess Priviledge, Privalege Privilege Click here to know the most common misspelled words
  15. 15. Words that Spell Check Won’t Find Always reed thru you’re pauper two check four spelling errs. If the words are spelled write butt knot the words ewe wanted too use, spell check won’t altar it. <ul><li>Catching Spell Check Errors </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight words that you tend to misspell for future </li></ul><ul><li>reference </li></ul><ul><li>Look for homonyms (two, too, to; there, their, they’re; it, </li></ul><ul><li>it’s; your, you’re) </li></ul>All these words are spelt out correctly, but are not meaningful in this context. Your brain can understand this not your computer!
  16. 16. Informal Words <ul><li>Check for slang words or those we usually only hear in informal speech like, </li></ul><ul><li>Irregardless </li></ul><ul><li>Anyways </li></ul><ul><li>Scientifical </li></ul><ul><li>Should of etc. </li></ul><ul><li>If in doubt, search for the word in the dictionary </li></ul>
  17. 17. “ Minding the Mind” Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. And tihs porerpty of our brian makes us cmmoit mroe mitsakes, in iidnetfiyng the spllenig erorrs we cmmoit.
  18. 18. <ul><li>Check for . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Commas </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-colons </li></ul><ul><li>Colons </li></ul><ul><li>Apostrophes </li></ul>Punctuations
  19. 19. Comma <ul><li>Place commas inside the quotes </li></ul><ul><li>Commas separate two complete sentences joined </li></ul><ul><li>by a coordinating conjunction: </li></ul>F or, A nd, N or, B ut, O r, Y et, S o Tom Cruise can take my breath away , but I had the time of my life with Patrick Swayze. “ When I think of the early days at Microsoft, were all the programming was done on DOS , it simply amazes me how far we’ve come , ” Bill Gates said. <ul><li>Commas separate introductory clauses </li></ul>Before he went to New York , he had spent a year in Australia . <ul><li>Commas on both sides of interrupting words or phrases </li></ul>I do , however , realize that some prefer Windows XP.
  20. 20. Semicolons & Colons Semicolons Set apart a sentence from an example or list He checked out three books: Jurassic Park, Timeline , and Airframe . Separate two complete sentences (second sentence NOT capitalized) Used in lists where there are two commas within the items of the list Colons ; :
  21. 21. It marks the omission of one or more letters (doesn't for does not), and it assists in marking the possessives of nouns (Delilah’s book). Apostrophes _’_ <ul><li>Do not use Apostrophes with: </li></ul><ul><li>Time eras - the 1970s) </li></ul><ul><li>Plural last names - the Smiths </li></ul><ul><li>Possessive pronouns - its, his, hers, etc. </li></ul>
  22. 22. “ The difficulty of literature is not to write, but to write what you mean; not to affect your reader, but to affect him precisely as you wish.” - Robert Louis Stevenson (Scottish Essayist, Poet and Author of fiction and travel books, 1850-1894)