8. Comparative History: Article Readings

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8. Comparative History: Article Readings

  1. 1. Comparative <br />History <br />- Article-<br />By- Angie Martinez <br />
  2. 2. World War II<br /><ul><li>War began in Europe in 1939
  3. 3. Got to America by 1941
  4. 4. War would change many things for </li></ul>the US & the world <br /><ul><li>Great Depression ended while world</li></ul> war was going on <br /><ul><li>Many people died which caused the west victory
  5. 5. After the fall of Western empires- cold war begun </li></ul>between communist and noncommunist nations<br /><ul><li>The arrival of Japan at the world’s economic and political center
  6. 6. 1930 Adolf Hitler rejected the Treaty of Versailles
  7. 7. Nazi leaders took Germany out of the League of Nations. They formed an alliance with Italy’s director Benito Mussolini. That resulted in territorial seizures that ended the invasion of Poland </li></ul>in 1939, which then cost Europe to go to war <br /><ul><li>US stood out of it, Roosevelt declared neutrality on WW II
  8. 8. 1940 France attacked German, Roosevelt decided to help England </li></li></ul><li>Continue…<br /><ul><li>Roosevelt convinced Congress to allow </li></ul>the sale of arms to England <br /><ul><li>Roosevelt got congress to transfer needs Great Britain in exchange for long-term leases on several British bases in the Americas.
  9. 9. 1941 Congress passed Roosevelt's Lend-Lease bill, US gave billions of dollars to the Britain and the Soviet Union for their military need
  10. 10. Hitler invades in June 1941.
  11. 11. Japanese attacks Pearl Harbor in December
  12. 12. Roosevelt wanted isolation and intervention
  13. 13. Prime Minister Winston Churchill tried to talk Roosevelt into a military alliance against Hitler
  14. 14. If Britain and America had stood up to the dictators in the 1930s the Second World War would never have happened
  15. 15. 1930s the world economy had collapsed into depression,
  16. 16. 1931 Japan takes over Manchuria which is Asian mainland from China</li></li></ul><li>Continue…<br /><ul><li>After Hitler came to power in January 1933, </li></ul>he took over Germany and planned a vast Aryan<br /> empire in Europe and beyond<br /><ul><li>1923 Italian dictator Mussolini, admired Hitler’s success and invaded Ethiopia virtually unchallenged
  17. 17. Britain and America did not intervene since they were both just recovering from the depression
  18. 18. President Franklin D. Roosevelt lost faith in the League of Nations but still believed that the United States should use its influence in the cause of world peace
  19. 19. The Neutrality Act of 1935 was made to prevent America into going into the Great War
  20. 20. Roosevelt hated war
  21. 21. The English Channel and its routs were very important and they wanted Hitler as far as they could from it
  22. 22. British leaders adopted a policy of appeasement… they would negotiate their way out of danger by satisfying their enemies in return for peace
  23. 23. 1930Appeasement was the policy of the Tory dominated National Government that was adopted by Neville Chamberlain who then became prime minister in May1937</li></li></ul><li>Continue…<br /><ul><li>Chamberlain trying to reach personal agreements with Hitler & Mussolini.
  24. 24. Chamberlain under estimated Hitler's long-term ambitions
  25. 25. Trade was a major issue.
  26. 26. 1937 only 16% then dropped to 11% of America products were </li></ul>being exported to Britain… American became irritated because of the discrimination towards our goods<br /><ul><li>Cordell Hull was the Secretary of State
  27. 27. Britain policy of Imperial Preference- low tariffs on imports form empires of other nations were lower than Americans… they wanted America to lower their as well before they began to trade again
  28. 28. 1937 Japan, once again violates the treaty of 1922 by attacked China
  29. 29. 1938 Roosevelt asked for a peace conference he hoped to open</li></ul> up world trade<br /><ul><li> During 1938 Hitler invaded Austria and then threatened Czechoslovakia.
  30. 30. London prepared for attack
  31. 31. Chamberlin went to Munich and made agreements with Hitler. </li></ul>He would give him part of Czechoslovakia if he would do no more territorial demands & if Britain and Germany would stop the war <br /><ul><li>He had doubts the Hitler would keep his word and recommended to have an army prepared for anything, America would back them up </li></li></ul><li>Continue…<br /><ul><li>World War II was a catastrophe, deadliest war in human history- more than 19 million soldiers were killed… 3 hundred thousand were Americans
  32. 32. Europe, Asia, and the Soviet Union suffered during years because their cities were being destroyed, many civilians were being killed, homeless people and everyone was terrorized
  33. 33. After Pearl Harbor was attacked Americans were racist and would stereotype them in the media
  34. 34. anti-German propaganda made Adolf Hitler look like an evil person
  35. 35. Americans dislike Japanese people more while world war II but now they hate Adolf Hitler more
  36. 36. We saw Japanese as poor navigators, yet they had pilot skills … prejudice makes people under estimate intelligence… Westerners said that Japanese people had no imagination, they couldn’t shoot, sail, or fly very well
  37. 37. Men in combat usually get Dehumanization… eliminates scruples so they don’t hesitate to kill the enemy
  38. 38. Japanese were called Yellow Rats!/ Little Men/ Monkeys … Americans had a nasty hate towards Japanese
  39. 39. Caricatures were made to make fun of our enemies… so it was said that Americans were childish/ immature (men where more in control)
  40. 40. Admiral Yamamoto Isoroku was who planed Pearl Harbor attack</li></li></ul><li>The Great Depression <br /><ul><li>October 29, 1929 - Black Tuesday; New York stock market crash
  41. 41. Great Depression- 1929 and 1933, more than eleven thousand American banks failed, 13 million lost their jobs
  42. 42. Some European countries got it worse because they had not yet recovered from WWI
  43. 43. Unemployment was between 15% - 30% early 1930s.
  44. 44. Agricultural countries did better because they depended on their crops and they could survive off that and local businesses developed new strategies
  45. 45. Before 1914 an estimated 15 million migrated to America years later only 5 ½ million came to the USA and after that less than 3 ¾ million
  46. 46. Germany in 1923—the currency value dropped to almost nothing
  47. 47. The roaring 1920s U.S.A.’s average unemployment was about 4%
  48. 48. and if that wasn’t bad enough- 29 October 1929the New York Stock Exchange crash of
  49. 49. U.S. industrial production fell by about a 3rd from 1929 to 1931,</li></li></ul><li>Continue…<br /><ul><li>The League of Nations in 1931 were Argentina, Australia, the Balkan countries, Bolivia, Brazil, Malaya, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Egypt. Ecuador, Finland, Hungary, India, Mexico, the Netherlands Indies, New Zealand, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela
  50. 50. Even after the recovery after 1933 unemployment was still 16%- 20%
  51. 51. 1933-1938 Nazi Germany was able to lower the unemployment
  52. 52. States would protect their markets and their currencies
  53. 53. Great Britain in 1931 abandoned Free Trade
  54. 54. Governments stopped protected agriculture. They raised the tariffs against competition
  55. 55. By 1913 the U.S.A. was the largest economy in the world it produced 42% of the worlds output
  56. 56. 1921 Germany owed America 132 billion Gold Marks (about 33 billion in 1921)
  57. 57. 1933 almost half of US home mortgages were in default & a thousand properties a day were being foreclosed.
  58. 58. 1932 there were increasingly clear signs that the worst was over
  59. 59. Other nations recovered rather quickly versus the USA. They just couldn’t pick up their economy </li></li></ul><li>Continue…<br /><ul><li>Frenchman- Jean-Baptiste made the economy worse
  60. 60. 3 options for intellectual-political hegemony- 1. Marxist communism was one. His predictions seemed to be right. US.S.R. appeared to be immune to the catastrophe. </li></ul>capitalism free markets and reformed by an unofficial marriage or permanent liaison with the moderate social-democracy of non-communist labor movements was effective not a conscious program or policy alternative once the depression was over 2. classical free-market liberalism was an alternative theory. J. M. Keynes' General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money- the macro-economic steering and management based on national income 1930s looked at national economy as a whole and estimating the total product or income. 3. fascism, German version- National Socialism- benefited the German intellectual tradition… the neoclassical theories of economic liberalism and government determined to get rid of unemployment at all<br /><ul><li>Both Franklin Roosevelt and Adolf Hitler had no consistent economic program to end the crisis, they were ignorant about economics as well as their political programs were pressures by many people. They both symbolized "energy and commitment," and they were willing to experiment with government to bring recovery to the economy </li></li></ul><li>Continue…<br /><ul><li>Mid- 1930s new programs promising economic and social security for the nation's workers
  61. 61. Both Roosevelt nor Hitler did not solved the Great Depression
  62. 62. Hitler had more successful restoring employment
  63. 63. 1933-1938- Nazis boycotted Jewish businesses, established anti-Jewish quotas in professions and schools, forbade intermarriage between Jews and Gentiles, and built the 1st concentration camps,
  64. 64. Hitler's order to exterminate the Jews until 1941
  65. 65. Early 1933- Great Depression was at its low point
  66. 66. Worst-hit countries were Germany and the United States, unemployment was around 25%
  67. 67. Both countries experienced poverty and bad leadership
  68. 68. Herbert Hoover lacked both political skill and popular appeal
  69. 69. 1932- German chancellors; Heinrich Briining was too rigid to be a good politician and too reserved to win the affection of the public
  70. 70. Then Franz von Papen was up but was replaced by General Kurt von Schleicher- He soon resigned
  71. 71. January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler became chancellor
  72. 72. March 4, 1933 Franklin D. Roosevelt took the oath as president of the United States</li></li></ul><li>Continue…<br /><ul><li>Both took charge at a bad point which was already</li></ul>heading towards the depression- they both just <br />helped it get worse <br /><ul><li>Roosevelt was born into wealth and social prominence. He attended elite private schools like Groton, Harvard, Columbia Law. His political career consisted of 2 terms as governor of New York. He was successful but wasn’t brilliant a
  73. 73. 1932 political commentator Walter Lippmann, described Roosevelt as "a pleasant man who, without any important qualifications for the office, would very much like to be President”… He didn’t really know anything about economy
  74. 74. Hitler was the son of an Austrian customs official. He was a poor student and lazy. He dropped out of school at 14. He lounged around
  75. 75. Vienna for 5years, pretending to be studying art.
  76. 76. He spoke an uncultivated form of German, with an
  77. 77. Austrian accent. He served in the army in the Great
  78. 78. War
  79. 79. 1929 he had a National Socialist Party</li>

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