MONETARY POLICYDefinition:“Monetary policy is concerned with deciding how much money theeconomy should have or perhaps more correctly deciding whetherto increases or decrease the purchasing power of money.”According to Macconal:“Changing the money supply to assist the economy toachieve a full employment”
OBJECTIVE Objectives are classified in two aspects Under developed countries Developed countries
UNDER DEVELOPED COUNTRIES To achieve full employment To have high Efficiency To have large scale of resources mobilization To increase Exports To have high investment To provide price and exchange stability To have efficient allocation and utilization of resources To raise living standards
DEVELOPED COUNTRIES To have high aggregate demand without inflation Eradicate inflationary and deflationary gap High research/ further development Providing assistance to other countries Gaining monetary control over others
TYPES OF MONETARY POLICY Contractionary / Tight monetary policy “Tight monetary policy, also called contractionary monetary policy, tends to curb inflation by contracting/reducing the money supply” Expansionary /Easy monetary policy“Easy monetary policy, also called expansionary monetary policy, tends to encourage growth by expanding the money supply
TOOLS OF MONETARY POLICYQuantitative Tools Open Market Operations Bank Rate Cash Reserve Requirement Liquidity ratio Special depositQualitative Tools Credit rationing Credit ceiling Moral persuasion Direct action Advertisement
TARGETS FOR MONETARY POLICY: Employment, economic growth, and inﬂation can not control directly, it must choose settings, or targets, for variables that it can control in order to best achieve its goals. In practice, there are two types of targets:1. Money supply targets.2. Interest rate targets.
OVER VIEW OF DIFFERENT ECONOMIST:Classical Keynesians MonetaristsDemand for money is simply for Demand for money for three Demand for money related tospending on forcible transition motives demand for holding wealth in other Transaction forms. money is direct substitute of Precautionary wealth SpeculativeFull employment Always full employment is not possibleMS has a direct proportional Ms has a direct but not proportionrelationship with price relationship with price Increase in Ms result in low (i) with increase in MS will directly change no immediate effect on NI in NI and PT, with the V remain constant If people do not want to hold people will possibly invest it to earn money, they would invest it to earn interest ,they may also use it interest invested to buy equities or physical assetsWages (r) upward and downward Wages (r)upward flexible and downflexible ward rigidAGS is vertical AGS is positiveLaissez fair Government interventionSaving and income are the function Saving depend on income andof interest rate investment on interest rate Changes in MS caused by changes Changes in MS cause changes in in NI the money value of NI
VARIOUS MONETARY POLICY OF SBP IN DIFFERENT YEARSIn 2000-01 With the free fall of the Rupee in mid-September 2000, SBP had to tighten its monetary policy to defend the exchange rateIn 2001-02 The tight monetary discipline visible in FY01 was perceptibly eased in FY02.In2002-03 a substantial increase in the annual external account surplus and the easier monetary stance of the SBP left the money market wash with liquidity during FY03In 2004-05 During FY04 the thrust of monetary management was towards aligning the market expectations with monetary policy stance. Initially during FY04 when interest rates were under downward pressure
VARIOUS MONETARY POLICY OF SBP IN DIFFERENT YEARS In 2005-06 April 2005 in response to the headline when inflation reaching at 11.3%, SBP remains in monetary tightening phase In 2006-07During July-April 14, net credit to private sector grew by Rs266.4 billion (or 12.6 %) against Rs 339.7 billion (or 19.8 %) in the corresponding period of FY05 Despite liquidity in the system In 2007-08 SBP will be closely monitoring the economic developments and outlook for FY07 and will take appropriate actions as and when required in pursuit of maintaining the objective of price stability without prejudice to economic growth.
VARIOUS MONETARY POLICY OF SBP IN DIFFERENT YEARS In 2008-09The tight monetary policy was continued by SBP under the macroeconomic stabilization programme and discount rate was raised by 200 bps on 13 November 2008 resulting in cumulative increase of 300 bps. In 2009-10 The overall level of risk and uncertainty in the economy has increased and the pressure on the fiscal position, has escalated and growth in the real economy is limited. Striking a balance between monetary and financial stability SBP has decided to support the recovering real economic activity Therefore, effective 25th November, 2009, the SBP policy rate will be lowered by 50 bps to 12.5 percent
CONCLUSION SBP has encountered difficulties to targeting the inflation, economic growth, employment and interest rate objectives. but still there are certain difficulties which are a huge hindrance in the way of Economic Policy. so SBP can control all hurdles with some suitable policies………..(a) improve its capacity to forecast liquidity conditions and actively preempt inflationary pressures (b) develop a greater understanding of the channels of transmission of monetary policy (c) have an increasingly transparent policy framework