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Water analysis


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Water analysis

  1. 1. CENTRE FOR COAL TECHNOLOGYUNIVERSITY OF THE PUNJABLAHORETopic:-Water AnalysisPresented By:-KOMAL AROOSHSession:-2010-20125/1/20113:36:13PM1
  3. 3. 5/1/20113:36:13PM3Water:• Water is undesirable in fuel when it is injected into thecylinders.• In practice it is impossible to be entirely certain that thefuel is completely free of water.• Sea water can lead to problems, because the sodium willget into the cylinder.• Fresh water should not lead to serious problems if it isevenly distributed in the fuel oil.
  4. 4. 5/1/20113:36:13PM4WATER QUALITY
  5. 5. Water quality varies with the source.It may or may not contain dissolved minerals dissolved gases organic matter microorganisms combinations of these impurities that causedeterioration of metalworking fluid performance.5/1/20113:36:13PM5
  6. 6. The amount of dissolved minerals, for example, inlake or river water (surface water) depends onwhether the source is near mineral deposits.Typically, lake water is of a consistent quality, whileriver water varies with weather conditions. Wellwater (ground water), since it seeps throughminerals in the earth, tends to contain moredissolved minerals than either lake or river water.Surface water, however, is likely to contain a highernumber of microorganisms (bacteria and mold) andthus need treatment5/1/20113:36:13PM6
  7. 7. 1.If water is badly polluted-- like raw sewage---it might be obvious from its appearance orodor.2.It might be colored or turbid (cloudy), or havesolids, oil or foam floating on it.3.It might have a rotten odor, or smell likeindustrial chemicals.5/1/20113:36:13PM7Why do we need to analyze water?
  8. 8. THERE ARE TWO ASPECTS OF WATERANALYSIS THAT WE NEED TO CONSIDER:5/1/20113:36:13PM8 what substances ororganisms are weinterested in testing for-- and why? what procedures andequipment do we useto make themeasurements, andhow do they work?TWO ASPECTS OF WATER
  9. 9. 5/1/20113:36:13PM9HARDNESS OF WATER
  10. 10. What is hardness of water?Hard water is water that hashigh mineral content.Hardness of water is due to metalions(minerals) that are dissolved in theground water. These minerals include Ca2+,Mg2+, Fe3+, SO42-, and HCO3-. Our hardwater in the southern Indiana area is due torain moving through the vast amount oflimestone, CaCO3.5/1/20113:36:13PM10
  11. 11. Hardness of water5/1/20113:36:13PM11
  12. 12. WHY BE CONCERNED ABOUT HARD WATER? The determination of water hardness is a useful test thatprovides a measure of quality of water for households andindustrial uses. Originally, water hardness was defined as the measure ofthe capacity of the water to precipitate soap. Hard water isnot a health hazard. When hard water is heated, CaCO3 precipitates out, whichthen clogs pipes and industrial boilers. This leads tomalfunction or damage and is expensive to remove5/1/20113:36:13PM12
  13. 13. TYPES OF HARDNESSThere are two basic types of water hardness:1. Temporary hardness2. Permanent hardness5/1/20113:36:13PM13
  14. 14. TEMPORARY HARDNESS5/1/20113:36:13PM14Temporary Hardness is due to the bicarbonateion, HCO3-, being present in the water. This type ofhardness can be removed by boiling the water toexpel the CO2.Ca(HCO3)2 → CaCO3 + H2 O + CO2HeatingMg(HCO3)2 → Ma (OH)2 + 2CO2HeatingMain Mechanism
  15. 15. Permanent hardnessPermanent hardness is due to the presence of theions Ca2+, Mg+2, Fe3+ and SO4-. This type ofhardness cannot be eliminated by boiling. Thewater with this type of hardness is said tobe permanently hard.5/1/20113:36:13PM15
  16. 16. SOLIDS INWATER5/1/20113:36:13PM16
  17. 17. DISSOLVED SOLIDSThe total dissolved solids can have a significant impact onthe quality of water. The amount of dissolved solids affectsthe water for almost all of its uses, whether for drinking,agricultural, or industrial use. The recommended maximumlimit of dissolved solids in drinking water is 500 ppm5/1/20113:36:13PM17
  18. 18. PROBLEMS RELATED TO DISSOLVED SOLIDSThe problems caused by dissolved material relateto taste and odor, hardness, and corrosion andscaling in the distribution system, among others.Several different types of dissolved solids could betoxic if the levels become too high. These includebarium, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead,mercury, selenium, and silver. Each of these areregulated by the EPA and have maximumcontaminant levels assigned to them.5/1/20113:36:13PM18
  19. 19. SUSPENDED SOLIDSSuspended solids refers to small solid particles whichremain in suspension in water as a colloid or due to themotion of the water. It is used as one indicator of waterquality.5/1/20113:36:13PM19
  20. 20. PROBLEMS RELATED TO SUSPENDED PARTICLESHigh concentrations of suspended solidscan cause many problems for stream healthand aquatic life.5/1/20113:36:13PM20
  21. 21. 5/1/20113:36:13PM21SEPARATIONTECHNIQUES
  22. 22. Separation technique include1. Filtration2. Distillation3. Extraction5/1/20113:36:13PM22
  23. 23. Filtration:The water is passed through a fine-pore filter which canbe made of paper, glass fibers, a cellulose acetatemembrane, etc.Filtration through a filter of some agreed-upon standardpore size can be used to separate "suspended" from"dissolved" portions of the analyte. The analyte may bethe suspended matter which is captured on the filter-- orthe filter may be used to clarify the water for analysis of adissolved material.5/1/20113:36:13PM23
  24. 24. Distillation:If the analyte can be boiled out of the water, or alongwith the water, then the vapors can be cooled and re-condensed or trapped in a liquid form in a differentcontainer. This way the analyte can be removed from theinterfering substances in the original water sample. Oftenthe sample is made acidic or alkaline, or treatedchemically in some other way before distillation, toconvert the analyte into a volatile (easily evaporated)form, and to immobilize or neutralize interferingsubstances.5/1/20113:36:13PM24
  25. 25. Extraction:Some analytes may be much more soluble in an organicsolvent than in water. If the solvent does not mix withwater, and the sample is shaken with portions of thesolvent, almost all of the analyte may be transferred fromthe water into the solvent, leaving interfering substancesbehind. This is known as a "liquid-liquid" extraction. Theanalysis may be completed using the organic portion.There are also continuous versions of this process foruse with liquid or with dry samples.5/1/20113:36:13PM25
  26. 26. REFERENCES Map from Morton Salt at ^ a b c World Health Organization Hardness inDrinking-Water, 2003 ^ a b Hermann Weingärtner, "Water" in UllmannsEncyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry,2006[december], Wiley–VCH,Weinheim.doi:10.1002/14356007.a28_001
  28. 28. PM2.5 AND PM10 ISSUES
  29. 29. PM EFFECTS
  30. 30. UNDERSTATEMENT OF PM BY HAZCO HAZCO did not account for fugitive emissions fromthe sulphur piles assuming that: 0.02% of all particles will be less than 2 mm Dr. James Hyne indicates that: 1.0 % of all particles will be less than 0.3 mm This constitutes a gross understatement of dustcomposition by HAZCO
  31. 31. PM DISPERSION MODELINGUNDERSTATEMENTS Indicates that 24 hr PM 2.5 including HAZCOand background levels at the property line willbe 2.5 ug/m3 Stated in the air modeling report that ambientlevels are 7.9 ug/m3
  32. 32. 5/1/20113:36:13PM32
  33. 33. IMPACTS TO ADJACENT INDUSTRY Canexus and ERCO Worldwide producesodium chlorate, which is incompatible withsulphur Both industries employ open cooling towers,as will many future developing industries A Canexus review of the particulatesestimates concludes that, “HAZCO’sconclusion that fugitive dust emissionsassociated with the storage, handling andtransportation activities will be negligible, isneither credible nor valid.”