NEOPLASIAUncontrolled uncoordinated cell division non responsive.to growth controls
:Benign Malignant Well circumscribed, Not well cirumscribed, Usually small in size, Usually larger in size, Slow growing, Fast growing, capsulated, non capsulated, Non-invasive Invasive & Infiltrate No hge. and necrosis He and necrosis. do not metastasize, Metastasize. well differentiated, poorly differentiated, suffix “oma” eg. Suffix “Carcinoma” or Fibroma. “Sarcoma”
Signs of malignancyCellular Nuclear Dysplasia (different from tissue of origin) Large nuclei Disorganization Hyperchromasia. Loss of polarity. N/C ratio high. Pleomorphism Pleomorphic nuclei. (variable in size and Prominent nucleoli. shape) Frequent mitoses. Loss of cohesion. Abnormal mitotic Presence of giant figures. cells
Tumor Diagnosis History and Clinical examination Imaging - X-Ray, US, CT, MRI Biopsy – – Conventional histopathology: Paraffin sections stained with ordinary stains – Frozen sections: Intra-operativeexamination of frozen tissue sections. – Immunohistochemistry: Paraffin or frozen sections stained for markers. Cytology – – Exfoliative cytology : study of cells shedded in body fluids. – FNAB: Aspiration of cells from tumor masses. Tumor markers: Blood laboratory analysis Molecular Tech (DNA studies) – Gene re-arrangement studies ( in lymphoma) – DNA quantitation by image analaysis or flow cytometry.
Adenoma.Benign tumor arising from columnar epitheliumGrossly: Capsulated, round or oval mass with a.solid or cystic cut section:Histological types.: proliferating acini with stromaSimple adenoma(1): proliferating acini+Fibroadenoma(2) proliferatingstroma.( (Breast: proliferating acini with dilatedCystadenoma(3) acini forming cysts.((Ovary: cystadenoma withPapillary cystadenoma(4) the epithelial lining forming.papillae
Adenoma of intestine Benign tumour formed of 1-proliferating intestinal mucosal glands lined with columnar epithelial cells and slightly variable in size 2- Glands separated by vascularized connective tissue stroma.
Fibroadenoma of the breast* Mixed Tumour formed of epithelial and stromalelements•Most common breast tumor in adolescent and young adultwomen (peak age = third decade).• Higher incidence in black patients• Well-circumscribed, freely movable (Breast mouse), nonpainful mass• Regress with age if left untreated (hormonal-dependent T).•2 Types :1- intracanalicular pattern. Compressed ducts2-pericanalicular growth . Opened ducts .
Pericanalicular fibroadenomaTumor is capsulatedTumor consists of:1- Opened proliferating breast ducts lined with an inner columnar and outer myoepithelial cells.2- Ducts are separated by loose myxoid connective tissue stroma.
Intracanalicular fibroadenoma* Tumor is capsulated• Tumor consists of • 1- Compressed proliferating breast ducts that are lined with an inner columnar and outer myoepithelial cells.• 2- Ducts are separated by loose myxoid connective tissue stroma.