Community cohesion- Revision


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Community cohesion- Revision

  1. 1. Community CohesionEdexcel GCSE
  2. 2. Changing attitudes to Gender roles in the UK:• It used to be thought that women belonged at home – looking after the house andchildren• In 1918 women were given the right to vote• In 1970 women were given the right to receive equal pay (doing the same job)• A century ago only 15% of women worked outside the home and now they make upabout 48% of the workforce in the UK• During both World Wars attitudes changed because as men left to fight women wereleft to do the work of the men• However many still believed that men should earn more, and children were bestraised my non-working mothers• Today, men can still earn around 17% more than women• Also women are still doing the majority of household chores and childcare but are stillexpected to work• Although women have achieved to a degree equal rights, they still don‟t holdproportionately as many „top jobs‟ e.g. director of a company• Exclusive (to exclude): an exclusive society is one where certain groupsare excluded, being separated from, where certain groups aren‟tallowed to take part in various activities etc.• Inclusive (to include): an inclusive society is one where the differentgroups in society are included, being part of, where they can work andlive alongside each other peacefully.
  3. 3. Christian Attitudes to equal rights for Women:• Many Evangelical Protestants believe that a woman‟s role is to bring up thechildren and run a Christian home. Women should be silent in church andmust submit to their husbands. Men must provide for the family and leadthe family in religion – only men can be church leaders and teachers. This isbased on St. Paul‟s teachings…o “…wives submit to your husbands as to the Lord. For the husband ishead of the wife as Christ is head of the Church…”o “…A woman should learn in quietness and full submission. I do notpermit a woman to teach or have authority over a man…”• Many Protestants Churches now accept that men and women are equal,they have woman ministers and priests. They teach that men and womenhave equal roles. This is based on a number of teachings…o “So God created man in his own image, in the image of God hecreated him, male and female he created them.”o “There is neither…male nor female for you are all one in Christ Jesus”• Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches teach that men and women arecompletely equal and should have equal roles in life. However they don‟tallow women priests because Jesus didn‟t have any female apostles.
  4. 4. Some Think it’s right because… Others claim it’s wrong because…The gospel requires it – If Jesus died forall then equality is the spiritual basis ofthe Christian communityJesus chose 12 men – if he wantedfemale ministers he would have madehis views knownGenesis states that God created man(male and female) in his imageThere are texts which exclude womenfrom teaching offices in Church (e.g.St Paul‟s teachings)Jesus valued women and appearedto them first after the resurrectionThe decision is made because ofsocial pressures not Gospel teachingsSt. Paul‟s teachings “there is neither…male nor female… you are all one”Adam was created first, and it wasEve who was temptedThe Bible reflects the society it waswritten in and therefore needsreinterpretingPriesthood represents Jesus at theEucharist and believe it‟s not possiblefor a woman to do thisJesus treated all people as equal andthis was portrayed in the parable ofthe Good SamaritanCatholic Churches don‟t allow femalepriests because of traditionChristian attitudes to Female Priests and Ministers:
  5. 5. Muslim Attitudes to Equal Rights for Women:• Islam teaches that men and women are equal and created by God: “All people are equal…asthe teeth of a comb”.• Muhammad also said in his last sermon: “Your wives have certain rights over you and you havecertain rights over them. Treat them well and be kind to them, for they are your partners andcommitted helpers.”• Traditionally, in Islam men and women have different but equally important roles. E.g. the Quranteaches that men are stronger and so they should protect women• The Quran stresses sexual equality strongly in every instruction given, e.g. “…for men and womenwho engage much in Allah‟s praise, for them has Allah prepared forgiveness and great reward.”• Muslim women are free to work and many point out that the Prophet‟s wife ran her own successfulbusiness. However a woman‟s first duty is to look after her children and home, and she is entitledto expect her husband will provide for her, even if she herself is wealthy. For this reason men aregiven a „degree of advantage‟ over women because they‟re responsable for providing for thefamily• Women can only inherit half of what a man can because men must provide for their family• The Prophet Muhammad said: “Whosoever has a daughter and he does not bury her alive, doesnot insult her, and does not favour his son over her, God will enter him into paradise.”• However, in practice these teaching have not been put into place.• The Quran states that men and women must dress modestly. For men this includes wearing looseclothing, and being covered from navel to knee in public. For women this includes wearing looseclothing that is not revealing. Also many Muslim women choose to wear a hijab (scarf), burqa (fulllength loose fitting garment) or niqaab (veil covering the face).• There is controversy about dressing this way as some people argue that it‟s out-dated and thatany identification of religious belief in public school should be discouraged in order to maintain anequal and unprejudiced society. Others believe it‟s a symbol of their faith, and gives them publicprivacy• Unlike men women are not obliged to attend the mosque for prayer, but most do. In the mosquemen and women are separated but worship at the same time, following the same Imam.• Girls are given the same religious education as boys and are expected to follow the same rules.• “The search for knowledge is a duty of every Muslim, male or female”
  6. 6. The UK as a multi-ethnic Society:• The UK is made up of different races, cultures and nationalities living together in onesociety• Although many people are worried about different people coming to live in the UK fromoverseas, in fact the UK has always been a land of many races. (Romans, Normans etc.)• In the 19th century many people from the British Empire were given rights to live in the UKand during the 1950‟s Britain became truly multi-ethnic as workers were recruited fromIndia, Africa etc.• In 2001 the results of ethnic groups in the UK were:o White British 92.1%o Asian/Asian British 3.6%o Black/Black British 2%o Mixed Race 1.2%o Chinese 0.4%o Other ethnic groups 0.4%• Advantages of living in a multi-ethnic society;o Helps people of different races and cultures to understand one another bettero It gives a wider variety of music, food, clothes and cultureso It brings new people with fresh ideaso Less chance of war as people of different races get to know each othero It‟s good for religions as people see different races following the same religiono One can learn positive values and identify and avoid problemso Value difference as opposed to trying to make everyone the sameo A mixed gene pool can strengthen genetic structure
  7. 7. Government action to promoting Community Cohesion• Community Cohesion means different communities living together andsharing four things:o A common vision and sense of belongingo Appreciating and valuing the differences between different people ofdifferent cultureso Ensuring equal opportunities for all in the communityo Making strong and positive relationships with people of different races• The UK has always offered a safe place for people from overseas. Many havecome here to escape (war, suffering or persecution) and others have come inorder to get a job and make a better life for themselves and their families. Thishas provoked lots of different reactions from people in the UK – positive andnegative• Many immigrants have encountered racial discrimination and have beentreated less favorably because of their racial or ethnic origins• To try to prevent racial discrimination the government passed the RaceRelations Act 1976, making it unlawful to discriminate against anyonebecause of race, colour, ethnic or national origin in employment, housing,education or welfare services• The following were also made illegal: to stir up racial hatred, to use insultingwords of racial nature in public or to publish articles that could stir up racism
  8. 8. Why Christians should promote racial harmony:• Christianity is opposed to racism. The Bible teaches that all races are equal –o “For God created man in his own image”o “God does not show favoritism, but accepts men from every nation”o “There is neither Jew nor Greek…you are all one in Christ”o “Love thy neighbor as yourself”o “From one man he made all the nations, that they should inhabit the whole earth”• Jesus always treated people the same way, no matter where they were from. E.g. he healed aRoman‟s servant, he taught that people of different races and ethnicities shouldn‟t hate each otherbut should follow God‟s command to love one another, and a black African helped him carry hiscross.• The Story of the Good Samaritan:o Samaritans were treated as outcasts in the time of Jesus.o It was a Samaritan who did the right thing and helped the man who was beaten and robbed.o Jesus told this story in response to the question “what must I do to get to heaven?” and theanswer was “love thy neighbour”• An example of a Christian who promoted racial harmony, would be Martin Luther King (1929 – 1968).He believed that God created all humans equally, and protested non-violently (Jesus largelysupported pacifism). He was a Baptist Minister, and in his most famous speech he said: “I have adream that one day…all God‟s children, black, white, Jews and Gentiles. Protestants and Catholicswill be able to join hands…”• Today, Christian churches throughout the world condemn racism and encourage all Christians totreat everyone equally. Another example could be Desmond Tutu, the first black archbishop of SouthAfrica who led peaceful campaigns to gain equal status for black people.• In the UK, the Church of England has it‟s own Race and Community relations Committee whichadvises Christians about racism as well as advising people of ethnic minorities
  9. 9. Why Muslims should promote racial Harmony?• The revelation of the Quran to the Prophet was for all races and no race can claim to be betterthan any other: “Oh humanity, I am the messenger of God to you all!”• Muhammad declared in his last sermon that all people were descended from Adam and Eve. Healso said: “Oh people, no one is better than another, no Arab is better than a non-Arab, except inthe good works that they do”• How racial harmony is shown in Islam:o Muslims all pray together in Arabic to one Godo In the month of Ramadan all Muslims join together in times of fasting and prayero All pray facing the kiblah (direction) of Makkaho Muslims from all over the world make the pilgrimage (hajj) to Makkah• An example of a Muslim who promoted racial harmony would be Malcolm X (1925 – 1965). He wasan African-American Muslim who became active in campaigning for racial equality. But aftergetting involved with drugs and petty crime he was sent to prison where he met members of theradical Muslim group, the Nation of Islam. They told him they were fighting for a separate state foronly black people• Malcolm X joined the Nation of Islam which although was a black American movement wasincredibly racist because it would not allow white people to join – even if they were Muslim.Malcolm X believed in this until he went for Hajj, where he saw Muslims from all ethnic backgroundsand realized that Islam is not exclusively for black people. He then left the Nation of Islam declaringit wrong and racist• He said: “There were tens of thousands of pilgrims from all over the world…But we were allparticipating in the same ritual, displaying a spirit of unity and brotherhood that my experiences inAmerica had led to believe could not exist between the white and non-white.”• Malcolm X had a huge following even though he was a controversial figure. In 1965 he wasassassinated by 3 members of the Nation of Islam
  10. 10. The UK as a multi-faith society:• The United Kingdom is made up of many different races, cultures and religions. It‟s amulti-faith society where people of different faiths and beliefs live alongside oneanother. The UK offers religious freedom to everyone so that all members of allreligions are free to worship. It also accepts religious pluralism – all faiths have anequal right to co-exist.Ways to promote Community Cohesion:• Members of different religions don‟t want to live in conflict with each other as thisgoes against all faiths beliefs. However in order to live together in harmony they haveto ensure they:o Recognize all the things that their faiths and cultures have in commono Respect the differences that arise between themo Listen to each other‟s viewso Learn to live and work in unityo Share common values such as respect, tolerance, charity and non-violence• Many religions promote Community Cohesion by celebrating festivals and worship.The Muslim Council of Britain encourages Muslims in the UK to take an active part inUK society and not to become isolated.• Religious groups such as the Council of Christians, Jews and the Inter-faith Networkfor the UK have been working together in recent years to heal divisions betweendifferent faiths
  11. 11. Benefits of living in a Multi-faith Society:• People can learn about otherreligions, helping them see what religionshave in common• People may see others from differentreligions practice their religion moreseriously and may make them thinkabout how they practice theirs• People may come to understand whydifferent religions believe the way theydo making them think about their ownbeliefs• People are more likely to become moreunderstanding about each other‟sreligions and realize everyone is entitledto their own opinion about religion• Religious freedom and understanding willexist in a multi-faith society and this mayavoid religious conflicts• A multi-faith society may even makesome people think more about religionas they come across religious ideas theyhave never thought about beforeIssues raised around a multi-faith society:• The multi-faith nature of society in the UK hascaused problems, e.g. major interfaith clasheswhere difficult questions have been raised• Many people argue that the UK is still a mainlyChristian country, and so traditions such asChristmas should remain an important part oflife• If one religious group tries to convert theother, then it implies that their religion is thecorrect one. This can cause conflict.• If two members of different faiths get married itcan cause conflict as families can argueabout the core values they hold. Marriage isalso seen as the basis for bringing up children:o Can the parents agree on how to bringup the children?o What religion will the children be broughtinto?o How will the children be raised?o Which religious festivals will be observed?o Which religious communities will thefamily belong to?o The mixture of beliefs and faiths can leadto confusion.