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5th generation of computer


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5th generation of computer

  2. 2. FIFTH GENERATION OF COMPUTER o The Fifth Generation Computer Systems project (FGCS) was a collaborative effort of the Japanese computer industry coordinated by the Japanese Government that intended not only to update the hardware technology of computers but alleviate the problems of programming by creating AI operating systems that would ferret out what the user wanted and then do it.
  3. 3. FIFTH GENERATION OF COMPUTER o It was imagined to create an "epoch-making computer" with- supercomputer-like performance and to provide a platform for future developments in artificial intelligence. Japan started looking, on a small scale, into the future of computing. o It aimed to develop the device which could respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization. o Also aimed to create a computer using massively parallel computing/processing.
  4. 4. FIFTH GENERATION OF COMPUTER o John Bachus and his group created Fortran (short for Formula Translation) o Fortran became the language for routine number crunching and still is to some extent despite the development of other more sophisticated computer languages. o John McCarthy created LISP (short for List Processing) o LISP was founded upon a bit of esoteric mathematics called the Lambda Calculus. LISP had a value at the fringes of computer technology, in particular for what became known as Artificial Intelligence
  5. 5. FIFTH GENERATION OF COMPUTER o In Europe a new computer language was developed called PROLOG (short for logic programming) that was slicker than LISP and had potential for AI. oThe Project chose to use PROLOG as the computer language for the AI programming instead of the LISP-based programming of the American AI researchers.
  6. 6. HISTORY o The Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) decided to attempt to break out of this follow-the-leader pattern, and in the mid-1970s started looking, on a small scale, into the future of computing. oJapan Information Processing Development Center (JIPDEC) was asked to indicate a number of future directions, and in 1979 offered a three-year contract to carry out more in-depth studies along with industry and academia. It was during this period that the term "fifth- generation computer" started to be used. o In 1982, the FGCS project begins and receives $450,000,000 worth of industry funding and an equal amount of government funding.
  7. 7. HISTORY o Also in 1982, during a visit to the ICOT, Ehud Shapiro invented Concurrent Prolog, a novel concurrent programming language that integrated logic programming and concurrent programming. o 1985, the first FGCS hardware known as the Personal Sequential Inference Machine (PSI) and the first version of the Sequential Inference Machine Programming Operating System (SIMPOS) operating system is released. SIMPOS is programmed in Kernel Language 0 (KL0), a concurrent Prolog-variant with object oriented extensions.
  8. 8. HISTORY o Prof. Ehud Shapiro captured the rationale and motivations driving this huge project: "As part of Japan's effort to become a leader in the computer industry, the Institute for New Generation Computer Technology has launched a revolutionary ten-year plan for the development of large computer systems which will be applicable to knowledge information processing systems. These Fifth Generation computers will be built around the concepts of logic programming. In order to refute the accusation that Japan exploits knowledge from abroad without contributing any of its own, this project will stimulate original research and will make its results available to the international research community."
  9. 9. CHARACTERISTICS o The fifth generation computers will use super large scale integrated chips. o They will have artificial intelligence. o They will be able to recognize image and graphs. o Fifth generation computer aims to be able to solve highly complex problem including decision making, logical reasoning. o They will be able to use more than one CPU for faster processing speed. o Fifth generation computers are intended to work with natural language.
  10. 10. FIFTH GENERATION OF COMPUTER o Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will be used in this technology. o The term "fifth generation" was intended to convey the system as being a leap beyond existing machines. o It was widely believed at the time that this would instead turn to massive numbers of CPUs for added performance. o The project was to create the computer over a ten-year period, after which it was considered ended, and investment in a new "sixth generation" project would begin. o Opinions about its outcome are divided: either it was a failure, or it was ahead of its time.
  11. 11. FIFTH GENERATION OF COMPUTER “A bold 10-year effort by Japan to seize the lead in computer technology is fizzling to a close, having failed to meet many of its ambitious goals or to produce technology that Japan's computer industry wanted. After spending $400 million on its widely heralded Fifth Generation computer project, the Japanese Government said this week that it was willing to give away the software developed by the project to anyone who wanted it, even foreigners.” Source: New York Times
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