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Towards Development of
A Standard For Public Toilets
For Developing Countries
Rowshan Mamtaz, Bangladesh
202              world toilet summit 2007, new delhi

Table 2: Existing facilities and other information of studied toilets

Name                Saidabad Bus                 Ka...
204              world toilet summit 2007, new delhi

      According to the caretakers most of the users are uneducated  ...

Conclusion                                                              sanitary appliances”, London: BSI (British St...
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Towards Development Of A Standard For Public Toilets For Developing Countries


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Towards Development Of A Standard For Public Toilets For Developing Countries

  1. 1. 201 Towards Development of A Standard For Public Toilets For Developing Countries Rowshan Mamtaz, Bangladesh
  2. 2. 202 world toilet summit 2007, new delhi headache after using such unhygienic toilets. They further complained that most of the time there is no water supply in these toilets. The users suggested that toilets should be provided with soap, tissue and good fittings to improve the service even if they need to pay for such additional facilities provided the cost is within affordable limits (Fig. 2). Table 1: Selection of public toilets by category. Category Name Description Bus/Railway Station Saidabad Bus Terminal One of the busiest bus terminals of the city where several hundred buses operate each day Kamlapur Rail Station The only railway station of the city Market Place Basundhara Garden City Upscale new shopping mall New Market Most popular open shopping area of the city Stadium Mirpur Cricket Stadium Newly built stadium for cricket with a capacity of 35,000 viewers Mosque Facility Baitul Mokarram National Mosque and the largest of the country Recreational Facility Mirpur Zoo The largest zoological park of the country Field survey was conducted at the selected sites and the opinion and views of the users and the caretakers on different aspects concerning the facilities were collected through questionnaire survey. The existing facilities and other relevant information of the studied locations are presented in Table 2. Analysis and Findings It is observed from the study that public toilets in Dhaka city are in very poor condition. Among the studied locations, only two toilets (Bashundhara Garden City Complex and Mirpur Cricket Stadium) are found in good condition and one (Baitul Mokarrom Mosque) is in moderately good condition. These toilets are managed by the relevant authorities themselves. The other toilets are all in an unusable state. These toilets are leased out by DCC to contractors who are responsible for their Fig. 1 : User's comment on overall situation (n=38). management including repair of any damage. However it has been found that the contractors are often reluctant to carry out this responsibility. The condition of the facilities deteriorates further due to lack of monitoring from DCC. The users rated privately managed public toilets as better than those of DCC (Table 3). There is no special provision for physically challenged persons in the public toilets of Dhaka city. Public toilet facility for women has also been found to be inadequate indicating lack of attention to this important aspect of urban facility. From the users' point of view the main reasons for the poor condition of public toilets are poor management and excessive load on each toilet. Only about half the users are satisfied with the service (Fig. 1). However, the users complained about vomiting tendency, loss of appetite and Fig. 2: Recommendation of additional service (n=38).
  3. 3. Table 2: Existing facilities and other information of studied toilets Name Saidabad Bus Kamlapur Rail Basundhara New Market Mirpur Cricket Baitul Mokarram Mirpur Zoo Terminal Station Garden City Stadium Existing Facility Block: 3 Block: 1 Block: 3 male, 3 Block: 3 male, Block: 7 VIP 21 , Block: 10 male, 3 Block: 3 male, 2 4WC, 2U, 2WB (male) 7WC, 3U, 1WB (male), female per floor 3 female 6WC, normal 2WC, 3U, female 5WC, 6U female4WC, 4U, 3WC, 1WB (female) 2WC (female) 5WC, 5U, 6WB 4U (male block) 2WB (vip block) (male block), 6WC 1WB (male block), (male block) 5WC, 6 WC (female block) 3WC, 2U, 1WB (female block) 4WC, 1WB 6WB (female block) (normal block) (female block) Age (years) 2 20 3 53 New > 30 > 30 Charge Rate WC-2, U-1, B-3 WC-2, U-1, B-3 No Charge No Charge No Charge No Charge WC-2, U-1, B-3 (Taka) Number of 300-350 per block 500-600 per block 10, 000 1, 000 per block 40, 000 in total 8, 000 in total 500per block users/day Peak Time 8am-10am, 5am- 6amThursday 3pm-9pmFriday 4pm-6pmFriday During breaks of 11am-2pm Sat-Thu 12pm-4pmFriday 5pm-10pm Friday major international games Cleaning 5 times/day 3 times/day 2 times/day 1 time/day Before and after 2 times/day 1time/day Frequency games Management DCC leases out to DCC leases out to Owned and Owned by DCC Owned and Owned and Owned by DCC contractors. contractors. managed and managed by managed by managed by and managed by by market authority. market authority Bangladesh mosque authority zoo authority Cricket Board Observation Toilets are moderately Toilets are filthy and Facilities are neat Hard to find the Fittings are new Neat and clean. Filthy, smelly and clean but floor is wet, smelly. Water is not and clean. Fittings facility as there is and good. Sliding Moderate condition. dirty. Wet floor and lighting is inadequate available. Insufficient are good. Floor is no direction to doors are used which insufficient light. and severe odour lighting and ventilation. dry. Good condition. toilets. Wet floor. saves space.Facilities Floor is below problem. Bathing Floor is wet. Toilets Poor condition. are inadequate. normal level. compartments have no are unusable. Good condition. Unusable condition. door. Overall situation is poor. NOTE: WC=Water Closet, U= Urinal, B=Bathing facility, WB=Wash Basin, Taka 70 = US $ 1 Table 3: Comparison of DCC owned and privately managed public toilets from users' perspective Unusable (%) Inadequate (%) Non-availability of water (%) DDC Owned (n=26) 67 73 7362 Private (n=12) 0 8 25 203
  4. 4. 204 world toilet summit 2007, new delhi According to the caretakers most of the users are uneducated not be possible for them to provide and maintain this service and do not know the proper use of the toilets which adds to the properly. The specific recommendations are as follows: unhygienic and filthy environment and in some cases cause - Incorporation of a standard code of practice similar to damage to the facilities. BS6465, NEA or New Zealand Code (BSI, 1996; In order to determine the most effective measures to improve Greed, 2004; NEA, 2005); the situation of public toilet facilities in Dhaka, a comparison is - Siting of public toilets should be based on demand and made between the various aspects of public toilets of Dhaka not on availability of land; and those in the cities of the developed countries (Table 4). - Fixing optimum charge that will maximize use and help From this comparison it is obvious that the issues that need maintaining the facility; immediate attention for Dhaka is to formulate a public toilet strategy including provision of standards and codes, proper - Reforming DCC so that it gets a management structure legislation, planning and maintenance guidelines and suitable for efficient management of public toilets; adequate funding. Without these it would not be possible to - Installing a grading system for public toilet facilities at achieve the goal of Sanitation for All and protect the health of some predefined intervals. Toilets below the standards the city dwellers. should be upgraded immediately (Sim, 2003); Table 4: Comparison of public toilet facilities of Dhaka with those in developed countries Features Dhaka Developed cities Number of public toilets Very few with respect to the demand City of Adequate and number increases with demand Public toilet strategy unplanned development. Public toilets are Public toilet planning is an integral part of urban provided with respect to availability of land spatial planning: but not demand Public toilet map No public toilet map Public toilet map is provided for the users and tourists Provision and standards No exclusive provisions and standards for Exclusive provisions and standards for public public toilets toilets Design, construction and Carried out by private contractors on behalf Carried out by private contractors on behalf of maintenance work of facilities of Council Council under city council Cleaning of facilities under city Not properly monitored by DCC. There is no Public toilets are cleaned at a frequency council fixed time schedule for monitoring dependent on their locality and usage. The maintenance contract allows for more frequent cleaning when required Maintenance and repair of Time consuming, as complain is made to The contractor is obliged under the contract to facilities under city council DCC and engineering department takes ensure that remedial works relating to public long time to act safety or hygiene are done within two hours from notification or inspection Funding for installing new Lack of funding A considerable amount of budget is allocated in facilities under city council installing, upgrading and maintaining public toilet facilities Legislation for privately No exclusive legislation act. Strong legislation act with enforcement maintained public toilet facilities Recommendations - Formulating suitable legislation for planning, construction and management of public toilets; The recommendations that emanate from the study cover all the major areas of public toilet planning, construction, - Formulating users' guideline for maintenance management, policy and legislative issues. Most users agree according to WTO guideline (WTO, 2007); and that unless there is a proper legislative structure and DCC is - Carrying out awareness raising campaigns for equipped with adequate resource (staff and funding), it would maintenance of public toilets with participation from owners, cleaners and users.
  5. 5. 205 Conclusion sanitary appliances”, London: BSI (British Standards It is found that the condition of the public toilets in Dhaka city is Institute). far below acceptable standards. The reasons for this include DCC (2007), “Official web site of Dhaka City Corporation”, absence of public toilet strategy, lack of relevant legal framework, absence of public awareness in their use and Greed, C. (2004), “A Code of Practice for Public Toilets in maintenance, inadequate funding, non-availability of land and Britain”, WTO Summit, Beijing, 17-19 Nov, 2004. inadequate institutional capacity. With the fast increasing NEA (2005), “Code of Practice on Environmental Health”, metropolis like Dhaka City and other secondary towns of the country, it is crucial that a standard code for design, construction, maintenance, management and operation WTO (2007), “Official web site for World Toilet Organization”, should be developed for Bangladesh. References Sim, J (2003), “The Happy Toilet Program A Star Grading System for Singapore Public Toilets”, WTO Summit, Taipei, BSI (1996), “BS 6465: Sanitary installations: Part I: Code of Taiwan, 10-12 Oct, 2003. practice for the scale of provision, selection and installation of