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  • I hear that biometric products, if used with a backup password, are now called a “below-one factor authentication”, since it makes the users less safe than a password-only single factor authentication. It is exactly like a house with two entrances is less safe against burglars than a house with one entrance. This means that biometric products must be used without a backup password if security is wanted. Can it be done? It should help a lot if you have a quick look at
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  1. 1. presentation on “BIOMETRICS” Presented By: Jagmeet Singh Jaspal Singh Mandeep Kaur Priyanka Sharma
  2. 2. Introduction: Biometric is the science and technology of measuring and analyzing the biological data. It measures and analyze human body characteristics such as fingerprints, DNA, eye retinas and irises, voice patterns, facial patterns and hands measurements for authentication purposes.
  3. 3. Biometric devices consist of:  A reader or scanning device. Software that converts the scanned information into digital form and compares match points.  A database that stores the biometric data for comparison.
  4. 4. Biometrics can be sorted into two classes:  Physiological:  Examples: Face recognition, Fingerprints, Hand geometry, Iris recognition and DNA.  Behavioral :  Examples: Signature and Voice.
  5. 5. Basic Characteristics of BIOMETRIC Technologies: Universality: Every person should have the characteristic. Uniqueness: Generally, no two people have identical characteristics. Permanence: The characteristics should not vary with time.
  6. 6. Contd..  Collectability:  Performance:  Acceptability:
  7. 7. History of Biometrics:  The term "biometrics" is derived from the Greek words bio (life) and metric (to measure).  The first known example of biometrics in practice was a form of finger printing being used in China in the 14th century, as reported by explorer Joao de Barros. He wrote that the Chinese merchants were stamping children's palm prints and footprints on paper with ink to distinguish the young children from one another.
  8. 8. Working of Biometric System: Biometrics systems work by recording and comparing biometric characteristics. Biometric devices consist of a reader or scanning device software that converts the gathered information into digital form and a database that stores the biometric data.
  9. 9. Contd..  All biometric systems works in a four-stage process that consists of the following steps: 1) Capture: A biometric system collects the sample of biometric features like fingerprint, voice etc of the person who wants to login to the system. 2) Extraction: The data extraction is done uniquely from the sample and a template is created.
  10. 10. Contd.. 3.) Comparison: The template is then compared with a new sample. 4.) Match/non-match: The system then decides whether the features extracted from the new sample are a match or a non-match with the template.
  11. 11. Biometric systems can seem complicated, but they all use the same three steps: Enrollment: Storage: Comparison:
  12. 12. Modes: 1) Enrollment Mode. 2) Verification Mode.
  13. 13. Biometric Modalities: 1) Fingerprint Recognition 2) Face Recognition 3) Iris Recognition 4) Voice Recognition 5) Smart Cards 6) Encryption Systems 7) Signature Verification
  14. 14. 1)Fingerprint Recognition: Fingerprint Recognition is one of the most used and familiar biometric methods.
  15. 15. Contd..  Fingerprint Recognition Technology has many security application in the real world: Examples:  Network/PC Login Security  Web Page Security  Employee Recognition Systems  Time and Attendance Systems  Voting Solutions
  16. 16. 2)Face Recognition: Face Recognition is a biometric technique for automatic identification or verification of a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source.
  17. 17. 3)Iris Recognition: Iris Recognition is another biometric authentication method that uses pattern recognition techniques based on high-resolution images of the irises of an individual's eyes. Iris recognition technology has become popular in security applications because of its ease of use, accuracy, and safety.
  18. 18. Contd..  It is the colored area of the eye that surrounds the pupil.  It is a protected internal organ whose random texture is stable throughout life.  The iris patterns are obtained through a video- based image acquisition system.  Iris recognition technology is currently used at physical access points demanding high security, such as airports, government buildings, and research laboratories.
  19. 19. 4)Smart Cards:  Smart Cards are digital security pocket-sized cards with embedded integrated circuits which can process data.  Smart cards can be used for identification, authentication, and data storage.  It can also be used as a medium to provide a means of effecting business transactions in a flexible, secure, standard way with minimal human intervention.
  20. 20. 5)Encryption Systems:  It is an encryption technique for transforming information using an algorithm (called cipher) to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing special knowledge, usually referred to as a key.  Encryption has long been used by militaries and governments to facilitate secret communication.
  21. 21. Contd..  Encryption Systems can be used to protect data in transit, for example data being transferred via networks (e.g. the Internet, e-commerce), mobile telephones, wireless microphones, wireless intercom systems, Bluetooth devices and bank automatic teller machines.
  22. 22. 6)Voice Recognition or Speaker Recognition: Voice Recognition or Speaker Recognition is a biometric process of validating a user's claimed identity using characteristics extracted from their voices. Thus voice recognition can be an effective technique in user authentication and identification. Popular and low-cost, but less accurate.
  23. 23. 7) Signature Verification:  Biometric signatures are based upon recording various characteristics of one’s signing style to carry out the process of identification in the future.  Amount of pressure employed, angle of writing, formation of letters and other traits, which are categorized as behavioral biometrics, form the basis of biometric signature recognition technology.
  24. 24. Contd…  Biometric signatures are used in banking and finance industry in order to restrict duplicate signature frauds.  Various government offices and defense organizations make use of this technology to prevent the unauthorized access to sensitive data as well as for user identification.  The main advantage of this technique is that no forgery of biometric signatures is possible, as it involves distinct writing styles of different individuals.
  25. 25. Issues and Concerns:  Privacy and Discrimination  Cancelable Biometrics  Danger to owners of secured items  Soft Biometrics
  26. 26. Privacy and Discrimination: It is possible that data obtained during biometric enrollment may be used in ways for which the enrolled individual has not consented. Most of the people consider biometric devices to be unsafe for human health.
  27. 27. Cancelable Biometrics:  If a token or a password is lost or stolen, it can be replaced by a newer version.  This is not naturally available in biometrics.
  28. 28. Soft Biometrics:  Soft biometrics traits are physical and behavioral human characteristics, which have been derived from the way human beings normally distinguish.
  29. 29. Danger to owners:  When thieves cannot get access to secure properties, there is chance that the thieves will stalk the property owner to gain access.  The damage to the owner could be irreversible.
  30. 30. Advantages:  Increased Security  Eliminate Problems with Passwords  Reduce Administrator Costs  Reduce Fraud  Link Security to an Individual or Event
  31. 31. Increased Security:  One of the main reasons for using biometrics is the increased security it provides.  This makes security more personal.  This will eliminate fraud caused by lost or stolen IDs.
  32. 32. Contd.. 2)Eliminate password problems 3)Reduce frauds 4)Link security to an event 5)Reduce administrator costs
  33. 33. Disadvantages:  The fingerprints of those people working in Chemical industries are often affected.  Voice changes.  It can make mistakes with the dryness or dirty of the finger’s skin,