Theme 5 part 1


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Theme 5 part 1

  1. 1. Theme 5: Part 1 The Jesuit Relations By Cruz Major
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The Jesuits were members of a religious order, the Society of Jesus, they took vows of poverty and obedience that distinguished them from regular parish priests </li></ul><ul><li>The Society of Jesus was founded by Spanish ex-soldier Ignatius of Loyola in 1534 </li></ul><ul><li>The Society of Jesus was firmly established in Catholic Europe by the time they started sending missionaries to Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Missions abroad to convert the heretics and heathens were one of the Jesuits main goals </li></ul><ul><li>Over the course of nearly two centuries of missionary work, the Jesuits had dealings with almost every Indian nation of the Northeast </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Long before the Jesuits appeared in North America the French had extensive contact with the natives of the Northeast </li></ul><ul><li>The Society of Jesus was the preeminent religious order in New France </li></ul><ul><li>The Jesuits operated a college for French Canadian boys in Quebec </li></ul><ul><li>Through the most eventful years of the mission in Canada, the Jesuits produced writings for readers back in Europe to relay information on their travels </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chapter 1: Montagnais Hunters of the Northern Woodlands <ul><li>The earliest published Jesuit Relations were written by Father Paul Le Jeune, the first superior of the New France mission </li></ul><ul><li>The Indians pass the winter by hunting the beaver on porcupine in the early snow and the moose and caribou in the heavy snow </li></ul><ul><li>The Indians were self sufficient people, crafting their own canoes and other tools </li></ul>
  5. 5. Chapter 1: Montagnais Hunters of the Northern Woodlands <ul><li>The natives believed in spirits of the light, or spirits of the air, which they call Khichikouai </li></ul><ul><li>The spirits can foresee into the future and the natives look to these spirits for guidance </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike the French, the Indians did not believe in punishment for wrong doings </li></ul><ul><li>Indian women handle household chores without interference from men </li></ul>
  6. 6. Chapter 2: Jean de Brebeuf on the Hurons <ul><li>The language of the Huron was far different than anything ever heard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are not aquanted with B,F,L,M,P,X,Z </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They do not use I and V as consonants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The greater part of their words are composed of vowels </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Chapter 2: Jean de Brebeuf on the Hurons <ul><li>Before encountering the French, the natives did not believe their was land that lay beyond their own </li></ul><ul><li>Natives believed that they were situated at the end of the earth </li></ul><ul><li>They worship Iouskeha, the sun, and Aateantsic, the moon </li></ul><ul><li>The natives were involved in law and government regarding their society. They lived peacefully and had assembled villages </li></ul>
  8. 8. Chapter 3: Disease and Medicine <ul><li>Germs and disease followed travelers to New France </li></ul><ul><li>The Hurons were heavily impacted by contact with Europeans </li></ul><ul><li>Jesuits were not skilled in medical aid, and could not explain to their readers, and to themselves, the causes and reasons for these epidemics </li></ul><ul><li>Native peoples attributed illness to natural and supernatural causes </li></ul>
  9. 9. Chapter 3: Disease and Medicine <ul><li>Shamans were the native spiritual and medical specialists </li></ul><ul><li>They had no other aim then to help the sick recover </li></ul><ul><li>Shamans administered medicines derived from the roots of plants, bark, or leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Many shamans were skilled in setting broken bones, and some could perform surgery to remove bullets or arrows from wounded warriors in battle </li></ul>
  10. 10. Chapter 4: Diplomacy and War <ul><li>War between tribes was common in the 17 th century </li></ul><ul><li>The Mohawks established a truce with the Algonquins in 1645, but it only lasted until 1647 </li></ul><ul><li>Iroquois shifted their attack west in 1649 which resulted in a surprise and overwhelming of the Hurons </li></ul><ul><li>The Iroquois easily conquered their rivals and either killed or captured their captives </li></ul>
  11. 11. Chapter 4: Diplomacy and War <ul><li>Iroquois used guns purchased from the Dutch to easily overwhelm other tribes, mainly the Hurons </li></ul><ul><li>The Huron nation collapsed in 1649. The majority of the Huron tribe became adopted Iroquois, while some either merged with other tribes or followed a small band of Catholic Jesuits into Quebec City </li></ul>