Comparative History


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Comparative History

  1. 1. Comparative History Nadya Dooley 5/10/11
  2. 2. The Great Depression Part 1: The Big Picture <ul><li>The Great Depression pretty much started on Black Tuesday, October 1929 </li></ul><ul><li>The NY stock market tumbled, the economic crisis deepened, and thousands of banks failed </li></ul><ul><li>Some European places were hit harder then others, still not fully recovered from WWI </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural countries ironically fared better </li></ul><ul><li>Some people called the descent “into the economic abyss” </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Great Depression Part 2: Into The Economic Abyss (1) <ul><li>People were used to the ups and downs of the capitalist economy, and considered them like the weather </li></ul><ul><li>They expected The Great Depression to just be another bump in the road </li></ul><ul><li>But the wars caused immigration to the US to come almost to a complete stop </li></ul><ul><li>US industrial production fell by a 3rd from 1929 to 1931 and the price of expensive items fell even more </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers tried to grow more crops </li></ul><ul><li>and sell them, but this made the price </li></ul><ul><li>fall even more </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment soared on an </li></ul><ul><li>unpredictable level </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Great Depression Part 3: Into the Economic Abyss (2) <ul><li>The great slump destroyed economic liberalism for half a century </li></ul><ul><li>World trade dipped by a third, and US exports crashed by half </li></ul><ul><li>Automobile production halved between 1929 to 1931 and gramophone records for the poor literally stopped for awhile </li></ul><ul><li>But the worst ended after 1932 </li></ul><ul><li>By the middle of the 1930’s, there were few states whose politics hadn’t changed from what they’d been before the crash </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Great Depression Part 4: Roosevelt and Hitler: New Deal and Nazi Reactions (1) <ul><li>Roosevelt and Hitler actually had a fair amount in common </li></ul><ul><li>On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler became chancellor, and on March 4th, 1933, Franklin D. Roosevelt took the oath as president of the US </li></ul><ul><li>Roosevelt knew hardly anything about economics and Hitler had dropped out of school at age 14 </li></ul><ul><li>But Roosevelt had a concern for the suffering and Hitler had a powerful resentment for the rich </li></ul><ul><li>They were both masters at speaking on radio </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Great Depression Part 5: Roosevelt and Hitler: New Deal and Nazi Reactions (2) <ul><li>New Deal and Nazi labor policies were also shaped similarly by the Great Depression, as well as their methods of dealing with the agricultural depression </li></ul><ul><li>The New Deal Agricultural Adjustment Act set up country committees to control production, whilst in Germany, the the centralized Estate for Agriculture did the same thing </li></ul><ul><li>Both Hitler and Roosevelt successfully disguised the internal problems in their entourages and succeeded in convincing ordinary citizens of their own personal wisdom and dedication </li></ul>
  7. 7. World War II Part 1: The Big Picture <ul><li>In the 1930’s, Adolf Hitler formed an alliance with Benito Meussolini and began a series of territorial attacks </li></ul><ul><li>The United states tried to stay neutral, but in the end was sucked in </li></ul><ul><li>For people all over the globe, WWII was the costliest and deadliest war in human history </li></ul><ul><li>But less so for the US, as only 2% of the killings were Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Nobody argued against the justice of retaliating against Hitler’s hated Nazis </li></ul><ul><li>WWII also conjured up a lot of racism, especially between the Americans and the Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>19 million soldiers were killed </li></ul>
  8. 8. World War II Part 2: An Ocean Apart (1) <ul><li>If Britain and America had stood up to the dictators in the 1930’s, WWII may never have happened </li></ul><ul><li>America traded with Britain, using the “Cash and carry” method </li></ul><ul><li>Churchill begged Roosevelt to help save Britain, and Roosevelt finally broke his neutrality act, in return for 99 year leases on 8 British possessions in the Americas </li></ul><ul><li>A group called America First was formed to keep America out of the war </li></ul><ul><li>Roosevelt was reelected for a third time by convincing the people, “Your boys are not going to be sent into </li></ul><ul><li>any foreign wars!”. This gave his more </li></ul><ul><li>freedom of maneuver to conduct foreign policy </li></ul>
  9. 9. World War II Part 3: An Ocean Apart (2) <ul><li>Roosevelt armed merchant ships and sent them to Britain, but slowly, as only 17% of the population was in favor of a declaration of war on Germany </li></ul><ul><li>On December 7, 1941, the attack on Pearl Harbor took everyone by surprise </li></ul><ul><li>With 2,400 people killed and 8 battleships immobilized, it was the most humiliating disaster in American history </li></ul><ul><li>At first, the members on America First thought the attack was a hoax, but when they learned it was true, they abandoned their campaign and joined forces with Roosevelt </li></ul>
  10. 10. World War II Part 4: Race War (1) <ul><li>Although most people believe the racism in WWII came from the Germans to the Jews, the enemy the Americans perceived as most atrocious wasn’t the Germans, but the Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>Japan’s aggression stirred the deepest recesses of white supremacism and provoked a response bordering the apocalyptic </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese were short, round faced, bucktoothed, slant eyed, frequently myopic behind horn rimmed glasses. They called them “yellow bastards”, “little men”, “monkeys”, “vermin” and so forth </li></ul><ul><li>“ Jap hunting licenses” were distributed among the hysteria </li></ul><ul><li>Whilst the Americans insults degraded the Japanese, the Japanese insults elevated themselves </li></ul>
  11. 11. World War II Part 5: Race War (2) <ul><li>The contempt from the Americans to the Japanese led to an underestimation of Japanese capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Before Pearl Harbor, it was well known that Japanese couldn’t shoot, sail, or fly very well </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese began to think of the Americans as demons, or devils </li></ul><ul><li>For both sides, it was easier to kill the other after dehuminizing it </li></ul>