America colonies


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America colonies

  1. 1. American Colonies- Prelude to Revolutions Nadya Dooley 12/10/10
  2. 2. Revolutions- Pirates <ul><li>By 1700, pirates were liabilities to a successful empire </li></ul><ul><li>Piracy had its own counterculture. It allowed pirates to strike at merchant ships who had harsh discipline policies and low pay </li></ul><ul><li>Pirates motos were “A merry life and a short one” </li></ul><ul><li>The pirates were equal risk-sharing and loot dividing partners </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1716 and 1726, about 500 pirates were executed </li></ul><ul><li>By 1730, pirates were virtually extinct </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Atlantic- Trade <ul><li>In the 18th century, trade became complex </li></ul><ul><li>The southern European trade shifted prosperity within the colonies </li></ul><ul><li>The New English started to import and export wheat which caused the Chesapeake planters started producing less tobacco and more wheat </li></ul><ul><li>The improved flow of information and more complex patterns of commerce boosted economic growth in the colonies </li></ul><ul><li>The relatively large farms and fertile soil allowed colonists to raise or purchase cheaply: grains, vegetables, milk and meat </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Atlantic- Poverty <ul><li>In the mid 1700s, poverty grew among the urban seaports- especially in the winter when employment shrank </li></ul><ul><li>It only got worse in 1763 when emigration surged from Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Compared to the beggars of London, the tenants lived in abundance </li></ul><ul><li>Frontier settlement was no better- only about half the frontier families paid off their debts before death passed the burden along </li></ul>
  5. 5. Awakenings- Revivals <ul><li>Revivals were the process of conversion that transformed sinners into saints </li></ul><ul><li>To stimulate revivals, ministers preached “soul searching” sermons to shock their listeners into realizing their impending doom </li></ul><ul><li>But in 1735, the revivals ground to a halt after the shocking suicide of Joseph Hawley </li></ul><ul><li>He cut his throat, longing for, but despairing of, salvation </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Great Plains- Villagers and Nomads <ul><li>The Great Plains is an immense, windy and arid grassland </li></ul><ul><li>Until about 800 A.D it belonged to many small groups of hunter-gatherers </li></ul><ul><li>The villagers were ethnically and linguistically diverse </li></ul><ul><li>The nomads came down from the Rocky Mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike the villagers, who lived in permanent, substantial and prosperous villages, the nomads lived year round in many small and mobile camps with few possessions </li></ul><ul><li>They all worked together to hunt and gather. If hunting was bad, they had to eat their dogs </li></ul><ul><li>Some nomads started to plant corn, beans and squash </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Great Plains- Horses and Guns <ul><li>The horse, once extinct in North America, returned in the 16th century </li></ul><ul><li>The horses offered further, faster travel and were better than the buffalo in many ways. In emergencies, they could be used as food sources </li></ul><ul><li>During the 18th century, the great plains people also obtained firearms. They were used to defend villages and to raid their enemies </li></ul>
  8. 8. Chapter 19- Islands <ul><li>The Pacific Ocean was hard to reach from Europe and unexplored for a long time </li></ul><ul><li>During the 1760s, British and French governments became serious about probing it </li></ul><ul><li>It became a race to see who could explore it fastest </li></ul>
  9. 9. Chapter 19- Nootka <ul><li>Captain Cook discovered an elaborate native culture in the Pacific northwest </li></ul><ul><li>The raincoast natives had their own language and many elaborate taboos and rituals. </li></ul><ul><li>They worked the most in the late spring where they caught enough fish to last the winter months </li></ul><ul><li>They had enough time to compete for prestige. The victors had many slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Nootka is an inlet of the west coast of Vancouver Island </li></ul>