Urbanization (ning 4)


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Urbanization (ning 4)

  1. 1. Urbanization By: Jessica Bakken
  2. 2. &quot;A Merger That Puts New York on Top&quot;: New York City and the US Economy <ul><li>In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the discovery of electricity and the invention of the telephone, motion pictures, wireless radio and television solidified New York's economic hegemony </li></ul><ul><li>American Telephone & Telegraph and General Electric--and set the stage for Manhattan to become the headquarters of the three major TV networks. As a result, the city was able to reap enormous benefits from the postwar commercial explosion that was fueled by mass media and advertising </li></ul><ul><li>With 22 million online subscribers, it has a strategic location in the new e-economy. Although AOL Time Warner will keep a substantial base of operations in Northern Virginia, it is inevitable that the company's real center of gravity will shift to New York, where it can exploit the city's financial infrastructure, strategic experience and capacity to create content </li></ul>
  3. 3. World Capitals of the Future and Rome vs. Gotham <ul><li>Today, Moscow and Shanghai lead the way in one of the most prospering countries </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing has propelled the rise of the great Chinese cities. In Brazil, Sao Paulo's growth spans everything from shoes and aerospace to technology. The city also dominates Brazil's growing energy sector, both renewable and traditional. Energy overwhelmingly of the fossil fuel variety – has powered the rise of Moscow and Dubai. </li></ul><ul><li>Also remarkable: the rise of other great cities – Mumbai, Bangalore and Hyderabad in India; Beijing; Sao Paulo, Brazil; and Dubai – that a quarter century ago were either obscure or better known for their destitution than their rapid construction </li></ul><ul><li>Of course, none of these cities' wealth or economic power have passed leading global centers like Tokyo, London, Paris, New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Seoul, Singapore and Hong Kong. But our list [1] of emerging global cities is clearly gaining on them – and with remarkable speed. </li></ul><ul><li>The great protean tradition of American urbanism--with scores of competing economic centers--is giving way to a new Romanism, in which all power and decisions devolve down to the imperial core </li></ul><ul><li>In many ways, the economic disasters in New York and other cities have proved a boom for Washington. Wall Street's demise, for example, has been D.C.'s gain as the locus of financial power leaves New York for the Treasury, Fed, White House and the finance-related congressional committees </li></ul><ul><li>Even today European cities and localities tend to have far less control over their destiny than in the U.S. Zoning, planning decisions and even economic strategy often originate from the center, as does the power to tax and spend </li></ul><ul><li>The great European capitals rose largely because they also served as the domicile of princes, bureaucrats and, until recent times, the clerical establishment </li></ul>
  4. 4. Conquering and Settling the West: Gridded Lives <ul><li>One of first themes of the article is about how history has been changed in more of a glorified and innocent manner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of the image of the individuals in the frontier being fur traders then cattlemen and miners then pioneer farmers and then finally to townspeople there are being viewed as being more prosaic and powerful people being government planners, corporate bosses, railroad builders and land speculators who controlled and conquered the West </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New historians are looking into the idea that they believe the West had gridded towns and that it was decided by corporations, railroads, and a national network of farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It also compares the settling of the West to be that of communist Russia under Stalin which some people believe is a stretch </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Immigrants and Cities : The Great Transatlantic Migrations <ul><li>The major theme of the article is that between 1870 and 1914 when the United States was overall having 23 million immigrants arrive during that time it was not the only country being affected immigration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the century before 1924, five and a half million people went to Argentina as well as four and a half million people went to Canada in which both nations were smaller in the size of there populate therefore a greater impact occurred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1914, one in every three people in Argentina were foreign born where even during the largest increase in foreigners, only one out of six was born outside the United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The entire article suggests that during this great migration across the Atlantic ocean, not only were European immigrants traveling to the United States </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Immigrants and Cities : The City in the Land of the Dollar <ul><li>The article introduces people’s curiosity about why major cities in the United States such as New York look so visually different then every other major city around the world such as Paris, London, and Hong Kong </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other famous cities are centered around historical monuments with diverse buildings around them while the cities in the United States are mainly tall buildings and parking garages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It also looks at how the cities got their start which in the United States the cities maintained a slaughter house, factories and granaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The difference with who built the cities is huge as well, New York was built by and for businessmen as a form of making money while other foreign cities were built by civic patrons and architects </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Foreign Policy: Global Cities Issue <ul><li>The 21st century will not be dominated by America or China, Brazil or India, but by the city. In an age that appears increasingly unmanageable, cities rather than states are becoming the islands of governance on which the future world order will be built </li></ul><ul><li>Time, technology, and population growth have massively accelerated the advent of this new urbanized era </li></ul><ul><li>Many are world capitals that have evolved and adapted through centuries of dominance: London, New York, Paris. New York City's economy alone is larger than 46 of sub-Saharan Africa's economies combined </li></ul><ul><li>These cities are the engines of globalization, and their enduring vibrancy lies in money, knowledge, and stability </li></ul>
  8. 8. Foreign Policy: Global Cities Issue (cont.) <ul><li>A massive influx of people has not only spurred the growth of existing cities, but created new ones from the factory towns in China's Guangdong province to the artificial &quot; knowledge cities &quot; rising in the Arabian desert </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization allows major cities to pull away from their home states, a reality captured by the massive and potentially dangerous wealth gap between city and countryside in second-world countries such as Brazil, China, India, and Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>An Asian monetary fund now provides stability for the region's currencies, and trade within the Asian sphere has grown much larger than trade across the Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>New pairings among global cities follow the markets: Witness the new Doha to Sao Paulo direct flight on Qatar Airways or the Buenos Aires to Johannesburg route on South African Airways </li></ul>
  9. 9. Foreign Policy: Global Cities Issue (cont.2) <ul><li>The human world is fast becoming an urban world -- and according to many, the faster that happens and the bigger the cities get, the better off we all will be </li></ul><ul><li>Today's Third World megacities face basic challenges in feeding their people, getting them to and from work, and maintaining a minimum level of health </li></ul><ul><li>In 1975, Tokyo was the largest city in the world, with over 26 million residents, and there were only two other cities worldwide with more than 10 million residents but by 2025, the U.N. projects that there may be 27 cities of that size </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the world's largest advanced cities are nestled in relatively declining economies -- London, Los Angeles, New York, Tokyo and are suffering from a growing income inequality and outward migration of middle-class families </li></ul>