“THE NEW WORLD” By Sara Emami
“THE NEW WORLD”
Part 1) In groups of 4-5, discuss the concept of
immigration and how Americans (United States)
perceives immigration. Is immigration a good thing?
When we consider the study of the Native Americans and
the ways in which they perceived the Puritan arrival,
what were their perceptions of the Puritans?
“THE NEW WORLD” By Sara Emami
InWestern Hemisphere in general,
historians have wrestled with the
problem of what to call the
hemisphere's first inhabitants.
the “Indies,” explorer Christopher
Columbus called the people he met
This was an error in identification that
has persisted for more than five
hundred years, for the inhabitants of
North and South America had no
collective name by which they called
Western Hemisphere's First
Apart from the brief visit of the Scandinavians
in the early eleventh century, the Western
Hemisphere remained unknown to Europe
until Columbus's voyage in 1492.
The first Americans found a hunter's paradise.
Mammoths and mastodons, ancestors of the
elephant, and elk, moose, and caribou
abounded on the North American continent.
Millions of bison lived on the Great Plains
The Paleo-Indians were hunter-gatherers who
lived in small groups of not more than fifty
They were constantly on the move, following
the herds of big game, apparently recognizing
the rights of other bands to hunting grounds.
These early native people developed a fluted
stone point for spears that made their hunting
Arrival of the first inhabitants.
Anthropologists have found an astonishing
variety of culture and language groups
among the native peoples of North
Tribes living in close proximity might have
spoken totally unrelated languages, while
tribes living hundreds of miles from each
other might have shared similar
Regions in which a population shares a
similar lifestyle based on environmental
conditions are known as culture areas.
Although North America can be divided
into many such regions, the most
significant are the Southwest, Great Plains,
and Eastern Woodlands.
Life on the North American
East of the Hohokam, the Anasazi lived
where the states of New Mexico, Arizona,
Colorado, and Utah meet at the Four Corners.
The Anasazi built permanent homes and
developed villages with as many as fifteen
At the high point of Anasazi culture, Chaco
Canyon in northwestern New Mexico had
twelve villages sustaining some fifteen
thousand people, with straight roads
connecting outlying settlements. Both the
Hohokam and Anasazi established trade
connections with tribes in what would become
Mexico and California.
A major and dramatic change affected the
Hohokam and Anasazi societies in the twelfth
and thirteenth centuries, however.
In contrast to the Southwest tribes, early native
peoples of the Great Plains were hunters, relying on
bison and other Plains animals to provide food,
clothing, and shelter.
Tribes followed the large bison herds and claimed
extensive areas as their hunting grounds.
Conflicts over territory led to a perpetual rivalry
among the tribes that bordered on warfare.
With their dependence on hunting, Plains tribes had
difficulty maintaining their standard of living.
Their only domesticated animal was the dog. Limited
to what they could carry with them, Plains peoples
lived a harsh existence.
The horse, introduced with the arrival of the
Europeans in the sixteenth century, transformed the
culture of the Great Plains.
The Great Plains
Adena-Hopewell people remained primarily
hunter-gatherers, archeological evidence
indicates that they had an extensive
trading network stretching to the Rocky
Mountains and the Gulf and Atlantic coasts.
The first true farmers of the Eastern
Woodlands were the Mississippians of the
central Mississippi River Valley. The most
important Mississippian center was
Cahokia, which was located near the
confluence of the Missouri and Mississippi
Rivers (St. Louis, Missouri).
Cahokia had as many as forty thousand
residents in a six-square-mile area, and by
the thirteenth century its large population
was straining to grow enough food to
sustain itself. Aggressive neighbors also
contributed to the instability of Cahokia,
and the people finally scattered to form
The Eastern Woodlands
Estimates of the population of North
America at the time of European contact
have been revised upward by modern
scholarship to as many as ten million.
In modern America, society is chiefly
based on the nuclear family (mother,
father, and children), but kinship
The clan was composed of several
kinship groups that claimed descent from
a common ancestor, often a woman.
Native peoples believed that nature was
sacred. The sun, moon, stars, mountains,
rivers, trees, and animals had spiritual
power and were either the gods
themselves or the abode of gods
Early North American society and
OF THE NATIVE AMERICANS