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  1. 1. POLITICS, GOVERNANCE (& THE PHILIPPINE CONSTITUTION)MID TERM EXAM 1. It is that written instrument by which the fundamental powers of the government are established, limited, and defined and by which these powers are distributed among the several departments or branches for their safe and useful exercise for the benefit of the people. a. Constitution b. Statute of the Philippines c. Ordinance of the Philippines d. Constitution of the Philippines 2. It is a form of constitution that is regarded as a document of special sanctity which cannot be amended or altered except by some special machinery more cumbersome than the ordinary legislative process. a. Enacted b. Unwritten c. Inelastic d. Cumulative 3. What is that group of provisions that deal with the framework of the government and its powers, and defining the electorate?
  2. 2. a. Constitution of government b. Constitution ofliberty c. Constitution of sovereignty d. All ofthe above4. It is the Constitution drafted by a ConstitutionalCommission created under the Article V ofProclamation No. 3 issued on March 25, 1986 whichpromulgated the Freedom Constitution following theinstallation of a revolutionary government through adirect exercise of the power of the Filipino people.a. 1986 Provisional Constitution b. 1987Constitution c. 1973 Constitution d.1935 Constitution5. Under what provision in the Constitution can youfind the Doctrine of Incorporation?a. Art. II, Sec. 1 b. Art. II, Sec.2 c. Art. II, Sec. 3 d. Art.II, Sec. 46. Which of the following rules is adopted by thePhilippines in determining the limits of its territory?a. 3-mile limit rule b. 12-milelimit rule c. Archipelagic Doctrine d.Archipelago Doctrine
  3. 3. 7. What is the significance of the Archipelagicprinciple of territoriality?a. It prevents the danger of having open seas right atthe center or our territory.b. It welcomes other nations to enter into ourterritory without much requirements.c. It opens our doors to enemy warships or otherforeign vessels and have friendly ties with them.d. All of the above8. If the State inflicted damages to the property of acitizen, can the citizen just sue the State?a. Yes, because he has the right to demand from theState the indemnification of his property.b. No, because of the principle of the non-suability ofthe State.c. No, because the citizen has no right to demand forindemnifications.d. None of the above.9. Is it unconstitutional to declare war against theNPA‘s?
  4. 4. a. Yes, because Art. II, Sec. 2 states that thePhilippines renounces war as an instrument ofnational policy.b. No, because this is in order to preserve peace andintegrity of the State.c. Yes, because war in here is aggressive.d. No, because rebels need to die.10. What are some of the measures employed by theGovernment to safeguard the State against militarydictatorship?a. By vesting upon a civilian the highest authority inthe land, the Presidency.b. By making the President the Commander-in-Chiefof the AFP.c. By giving the President and the Congress thepower to determine the military budget and definethe national policy on defense and security.d. All of the above11. Which of the following explains the principle ofthe separation of the Church and State?
  5. 5. a. No law shall be made respecting an establishmentof religion.b. No public money or property shall ever be used forany religious denomination.c. The Church must not interfere with the affairsexclusively for the State.d. All of the above12. Which of the following is NOT prohibited by theState?a. Nuclear power b. Abortion c.Divorce d. None of the above13. What is social justice?a. Giving equal opportunity to all, rich and poor alike.b. Giving preferential attention to the less fortunate.c. Eradicating poverty through the abolition of privatepropertyd. Getting some from the rich and giving the same tothe poor.14. It is the method by which a public officer may beremoved from office during his tenure or before the
  6. 6. expiration of his term by a vote of the people afterregistration of the petition signed by the requiredpercentage of the qualified voters.a. Plebiscite b. Referendum c.Recall d. Impeachment15. What is the difference between a citizen and analien?1. A citizen is a member of a democratic community, while an alien is only someone passing through another country.2. A citizen is a member of a democratic country who is accorded protection inside and outside the territory of the State, while an alien is a citizen of another country who may only be protected inside the territory where he is passing through.3. A citizen is a member of a democratic country who enjoys full civil and political rights while an alien is someone who does not enjoy the same.4. All of the above16. A Bill of Local Application was submitted bySenator Wade to the Senate Secretary. It has passedthree readings in the Senate and then in theCongress. Thereafter, it was presented to thePresident for approval, but the same was
  7. 7. disapproved. The President vehemently objected tothe validity of the entire process.Is the President correct?a. Yes, the Bill must first be submitted to a propercommittee.b. No, it must be approved because there has beenno constitutional breach.c. Yes, because the said Bill must only emanate fromthe House of Representatives.d. No, it may be initiated by the Senate becauseeither House of the Congress may do so.e. Yes, because the President possesses an absoluteveto power.f. No, the veto power is not absolute.g. Yes, the law allows the president to disapprove anybill submitted to him by the Congress.h. No, the president acted in grave abuse of hisdiscretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction.17. President Juan Masipag filed an application forappropriation, and in pursuance thereof money waspaid out of the National Treasury. It must be notedthat the appropriation is for a public purpose, and it isnot for any specific sect, church, denomination.
  8. 8. Is there something wrong with the presidentialappropriation?a. None; it is perfectly valid.b. The appropriation is unlawful because it is paid outof the National Treasury.c. It is invalid because the Senate President, not thePresident, is empowered to apply for appropriation.d. It is wrong because before public funds may beused, an appropriations law must first be passed.e. It is lawful; the President can by law file anapplication for appropriation.f. It is illegal because it should have been theCongress that applied for the appropriations.18. When the president dies, is permanently disabled,is impeached, or resigns, the Vice-President becomesPresident for the unexpired term. However, if boththe President and Vice-President die, becomepermanently disabled, are impeached, or resigned,the Senate President shall act as President until thePresident or VP shall have been elected and qualified.If the Senate President becomes disabled, who willsucceed?
  9. 9. a. The Speaker of the House shall become thePresident.b. There will be a special election specificallyconducted for the filling up of the vacant offices.c. The Senate President shall submit to the Congressa declaration of his disability, then a Senior Senatorwill be the acting President.d. The Speaker of the House shall act as Presidentuntil the President or VP shall have been elected andqualified.19. Noel Uban was nominated by President John MarSiuagan to the rank of naval captain in the ArmedForces of the Philippines. His nomination has beenconfirmed by the Commission on Appointments, andhis appointment (by President Siuagan) followedthereafter. Noel Uban have accepted the nominationwith great pride and honor. The Presidentreconsidered his appointment after discovering thatMr. Uban has a criminal record. The Presidentwithdrew his appointment. Is this allowed?a. Yes. This is a matter of presidential discretion,arising from the power of appointment.b. No. The President can no longer withdraw theappointment because all the steps have already beencomplied with.
  10. 10. c. Yes. The power to withdraw appointments is one ofthe residual powers of the President.d. No. once the appointee accepts, President can nolonger withdraw the appointment.e. A & Cf. B & Dg. None of the above20. Vincent is an alien visiting the Philippines. Duringhis visit, he was accused of killing a Filipino. Which ofthe following actions are permitted by theConstitution?a. Imprison Vincent right awayb. Give him the chance to defend himselfc. Deport him back to his countryd. The government cannot do anything because he isan alien.21. Is a citizen also a national?a. Yes, inasmuch as he also owes allegiance to aState.b. No, the two are not the same.
  11. 11. c. Yes, because like a nation a citizen exercisespolitical and civil rights.d. No, not all citizens are nationals.22. This Constitutional principle signifies that allpersons subject to legislation should be treated alike,under like circumstances and conditions both in theprivileges conferred and liabilities imposed.a. Due process of lawb. Equal protection of lawsc. Security in one‘s person, house, papers, and effectsd. National integrity23. Pedro was born January 17, 1973, of Filipinomother but a Swedish father. Is he still required toelect his Philippine citizenship?a. Yes. Since he was born on January 17, 1973, thegoverning provision during that time requires that hisparents must both be Filipinos. Thus to effect hisPhilippine citizenship, he must elect for it uponreaching 18 years old.b. No. The governing provision at the time of his birthrequires only that either his father or mother is a
  12. 12. Filipino. Thus, he is already a Filipino and electing hisPhilippine citizenship is no longer necessary.c. Yes because Art. 4, Sec. 1 (3) states that ―thoseborn on January 17, 1973, of Filipino mothers, whoelect Philippine citizenship upon reaching the age ofmajority‖ are citizens of the Philippines. So if Pedrowants to be a Filipino citizen he must elect for it.d. No because he is already 38 years old.24. It is a form of government in which the control ofnational and local affairs is exercised by the central ornational government.a. Republic b. Unitary c.Federal d. Parliamentary25. This government was established during theAmerican regime pursuant to an act of the UnitedStates Congress on March 24, 1934, commonlyknown as the Tydings-McDuffie Law.a. Commonwealth Gov‘t b. MilitaryGov‘t c. Civil Gov‘t d.Republic
  13. 13. 26. It refers to that body of rules and principles inaccordance with which the powers of sovereignty areregularly exercised.a. Statute b. CivilCode c. Preamble d.Constitution27. Which among the following is not descriptive ofthe Philippine Constitution?a. Cumulative b. Rigid c.Conventional d. Written28. What‘s the difference between a Constitution anda statute?a. A Constitution is a legislation direct from thepeople, while a state is a legislation from the people‘srepresentatives.b. A Constitution provides the details of the generalframework of the law and the government stated inthe statute.c. The Statute is the fundamental law of the land towhich the Constitution and all other laws mustconform.d. There is no difference because they are both laws.
  14. 14. 29. This principle holds that no man is above the law,so that every man, however high or low, is equal.a. Rule of the majority b. Rule of Law c.Democracy d. Constitution30. Although the Preamble is not an essential part ofthe Constitution, why is it advisable to have one?a. It could be a source of private right enforceable bythe courts.b. It sets down the origin and purposes of theConstitution.c. Aside from (b), it may serve as an aid in theinterpretation of the Constitution.d. All of the above31. What is the single biggest factor for nationalsolidarity?a. The government envisioned in the Constitutionb. The Preamble and the different Statutespromulgated by the Congressc. The Democratic ideals of peace, love, freedom,justice, & equality
  15. 15. d. All of the above32. Which of the following explains the principle ofthe separation of the Church and State?a. No law shall be made respecting an establishmentof religion.b. No public money or property shall ever be used forany religious denomination.c. The Church must not interfere with the affairsexclusively for the State.d. All of the above33. What is meant by a bicameral legislature?a. It means that the Congress is composed of twoHouse of Representatives.b. It means that the Congress is composed of twochambers: Senate and House of Representatives.c. It means that the legislative power, the authority toenact and promulgate laws, is vested in the Congressof the Philippines.d. All of the above
  16. 16. 34. What is the difference between a Senator and aMember of the House of Representatives?a. A Senator is elected at large by qualified voters,whereas a member of the House of Representatives iselected in his district.b. Although both are legislators, a senator isconcerned with the national interest of the people,while a member of the House of Representatives isconcerned only with the regional interest of thepeople.c. A senator is trained to be the future leader of thecountry, whereas a member of the House ofRepresentatives is not.d. All of the above35. Which of the following speaks of the Philippineforeign policy?a. It is one that preserves and enhances national andeconomic security.b. It guarantees the protection of the rights andpromotion of the welfare and interest of Filipinooverseas.c. It is one that does not subordinate or subject tonor dependent upon the support of another country.
  17. 17. d. Its objective is to establish friendly relations withall countries of the world regardless of race, religion,ideology and social system and to promote as muchbeneficial relations with them particularly in economicand trade activities.e. It is the sole weapon of the Philippines for thepromotion of national interest in international affairs.f. All of the aboveg. C and Dh. C, D, and E36. What is the extent of the right of State tointerfere with education of children?a. Since the children are the property of the State(Regalian Doctrine), it can by law compel the parentsto make their children accept interference with theliberty of parent to direct the upbringing andeducation of children under their control.b. The State can reasonable regulate all schools, theirteachers and pupils.c. The State can require that all children of properage attend school, that teachers shall be of goodmoral character and patriotic disposition.
  18. 18. d. The State can oblige that certain studies plainlyessential to good citizenship must be taught, and thatnothing to be taught which is manifestly inimical topublic welfare.e. While the natural and primary responsibility foreducating the child rests in the family, the State alsohas a distinct interest in this matter since a propereducation – humanistic, vocational, moral, religious,civic – is necessary for social well-being.f. It is the right and duty of the State to see that theobligations of the parents are fulfilled (through suchmeans as compulsory education laws.g. The State may supply the essential educationalfacilities which private initiative is unable to furnish.h. All except Ai. B, C, D, E37. It is principle that discourages governmentengagement in particular business activities which canbe competently and efficiently undertaken by theprivate sector unless the latter is timid or does notwant to enter into a specific industry or enterprise.a. Principle of subsidiarity b. Principleof subsidy
  19. 19. c. Principle of subsidiary d. Principleof free enterprisee. Principle of capitalism f. Principleof free market38. What is an indigenous cultural community?a. It refers to those groups in our region whichpossess and wish to develop their ethnic, religious, orlinguistic traditions or characteristics markedlydifferent from the rest of the world.b. It refers to those dominant groups in our countrywhich possess and wish to improve their ethnic,religious, or linguistic traditions or characteristicssimilar the rest of the population.c. It refers to those minority groups in other countrieswhich possess and wish to preserve ethnic, religious,or linguistic traditions or characteristics markedlydifferent from the rest if the population.d. It refers to those non-dominant groups in ourcountry which possess and wish to preserve ethnic,religious, or linguistic traditions or characteristicsmarkedly different from the rest of the population.39. It is a name given to the submission of a law orpart thereof passed by the national or local legislative
  20. 20. body to the voting citizens of a country for theirratification or rejection.a. Election b. Plebiscite c.Referendum d. Initiative e. Recall40. In this system or principle, the powers of thegovernment are divided into three distinct classes: thelegislative, the executive, and the judiciary.a. Bicameralism b. ParliamentarySystem c. Presidential System d.Checks and Balances41. Who among the following is a registered voter?a. One who is eighteen years of age and can read andwrite.b. One who is at least 35 years of age on the day ofthe election and is a resident of the Philippines for atleast 2 years prior the day of election.c. one who has all the qualifications and none of thedisqualifications of a voter provided by law and whohas registered in the list of voters.d. All of the abovee. B and C
  21. 21. f. All except A42.When is the regular election of the Senators andthe Members of the House of Representatives held?a. Every 4th Monday of Julyb. 2nd Monday of Mayc. 1st Sunday of Juned. None of the above43. If there are 215 Members of the House ofRepresentatives, and 15 are abroad, what wouldconstitute the quorum?a. 100 b. 101 c. 100.5 d.102 e. 10844. Which of the following is not allowed by the ruleson Congressional suspension?a. Suspension for 1 month b. Indefinitesuspension c. Suspension for 1 day d. None of theabove45. It is a bill affecting purely municipal concerns likechanging the name of a city.
  22. 22. a. Bill of municipal applicationb. Bill authorizing change of namec. Bill of local applicationd. Private billII. ENUMERATION1-4. Qualifications of voters5-6. Congressional disqualifications7-15. Steps in the passage of a bill ———————–END———————–February 20, 2012 Posted by tamayaosbc | Politicsand Governance | Leave a CommentPrelim Exam in Pol Gov__B___ 1. What is Politics?a. It is a systematic body of knowledge which for themost part is theoretical, that deals with thegovernment and regulation, maintenance and
  23. 23. development, and defense and augmentation of thestate.b. It is the way in which we understand and order oursocial affairs, and acquire greater control over thesituation.c. It is the science of power and manipulation.d. It deals with the protection of the rights of itscitizens; safeguarding and enhancement theirimmorality; and, harmony and peace in theirrelations.__B___ 2. What is Governance?a. It is the manner of stirring a group of people or astate.b. governance is the complex process whereby somesectors of the society wield power, and enact andpromulgate public policies which directly affect humanand institutional interactions, and economic and socialdevelopment.c. It came from the Greek word gubernare whichmeans to stir.d. All of the above___D__ 3. What is meant by ideology in itscontemporary usage?
  24. 24. a. It refers to the very ideas themselves which aremeant to give structure and meaning to the humanworld.b. It refers to the study of ideas, from the Greekwords logos (study or science) and idea (knowledgeor idea).c. Coined by Destutt de Tracy, ideology means―science of ideas.‖d. All of the above__D___ 4. What is a Constitution?a. Literally it means the putting in position of things,or simply composition.b. If understood then with respect to law, it meansthe fundamental, organic laws that govern theoperation of a group of men or a state.c. It is that body of rules and principles in accordancewith which the powers of sovereignty are regularlyexercised.d. All of the above__A/C___ 5. It is a belief where all citizens have equalrights and privileges.a. Egalitarianism b. Conservatism c.Liberalism d. Naturalism
  25. 25. __A/C___ 6. Why did Aristotle say that man is apolitical animal?a. Because men naturally live in cities.b. Because men, like other animals, live in herds.c. Because it is part of men‘s instinct to live together.d. Because it is in cities that men actualize theiranimality.__B___ 7. What does Locke mean by a ―LimitedGovernment‖?a. The government has the right to impose rules andconfer rights to the people. b. The power of the government isconstricted to its task of securing and nurturing therights of the people. c. The judgment of the sovereign limits theaction of the government. d. None of the above__A___ 8. What is the purpose of the social contractfor Thomas Hobbes?a. To avoid the State of Nature and endeavor forpeace.b. To preserve the inherent rights of men which arenot guaranteed in the state of nature.
  26. 26. c. To allow the alpha male to acquire legitimateauthority over the rest of the human community.d. To destroy the absolute freedom of men.__A___ 9. For him, the intention of the subjects inmutually consenting to form a compact is theprotection of their rights.a. John Locke b. ThomasHobbes c. Edmund Burke d.Karl Marx__B___ 10. He said that the psychologicalfoundations of prudence and civilization are fear ofdeath and the need for security.a. Adam Smith b. Thomas Hobbesc. John Stuart Mill d. Karl Marx__B___ 11. Which of the following expresses theconservative ideology?a. The reliance on the human ability to adapt andchangeb. The reliance on the wisdom of experiencec. The egalitarian principle of human equalityd. The belief on the inevitability of a classless society__A___ 12. Which of the following expresses theCommunist ideology?
  27. 27. a. The belief in the dialectical movement of historytowards a classless societyb. The necessity of a peaceful revolution to changethe system of exploitationc. Respect on private ownershipd. All of the above__B___ 13. Is our today‘s notion of politics similar tothat of Aristotle‘s?a. Yes, because like Aristotle, we believe that politicsis a human endeavor that does not have anything todo with ethics.b. No, because while our notion of politics is detachedfrom ethics, Aristotelian politics is intimatelyintertwined with ethics.c. Yes, because like in the classical Aristotelianpolitical theory, our notion of politics today involvesthe mutual dependency of laborers or slaves and theirmasters.d. No, because unlike Aristotelian politics whichsupports the value of women, today‘s politics isalmost always about men only.__A___ 14.Which of the following does not speak ofAristotelian political theory?a. Politics is a theoretical science.
  28. 28. b. Politics deals primarily with the polis or city.c. Politics should manifest the hierarchy of human life.d. The end of politics is the same as that of ethics –good life or happiness.__D___ 15. Why is it that for Aristotle, politics andethics are intimately intertwined?a. Because a virtuous life is available only to thoseimmersed in politics.b. Because ethics and politics have the same end –happiness or the good life.c. Because to be ethical and virtuous, one mustengage in politics, and in being political, one mustengender a virtuous character.d. All of the above.__A___ 16. What did John Locke say about humannature?a. Man is naturally good and reasonable in hisdealings with other men.b. Man by nature is evil.c. Men become free, equal, and independent througha government.d. None of the above
  29. 29. __A___ 17. What is possessed by the government if itcan successfully assert its claim to rule?a. Legitimacy b. Order c.Sovereignty d. Authority__C___ 18. It is a distinct group of people who sharea common background including any or all of thefollowing: geographic location, history, racial or ethniccharacteristics, religion, language, culture, and beliefin common political ideas.a. State b.Citizens c. Nation d.Population__B___ 19. It is the complex process whereby somesectors of the society wield power, and enact andpromulgate public policies which directly affect humanand institutional interactions, and economic and socialdevelopment.a. Government b.Governance c. Good Governance d. All ofthe above__B____20. What is social justice?a. Giving equal opportunity to all, rich and poor alike.b. Giving preferential attention to the less fortunate.c. Eradicating poverty through the abolition of privateproperty
  30. 30. d. Getting some from the rich and giving the same tothe poor.21-40. Identify which of the politicalparadigms and ideologies embody the givenbelief.___B___21. ―Natural rights of individuals and alimited government based on consent must beupheld, and that private ownership of the means ofproduction and distribution must be patronized.‖a. Political Right b. Political Center c.Political Left d. Revolutionary Politics___B___22. ―Social conflict is recognized but theresolution of this malaise is not through revolution butthrough compromise and accommodation.‖a. Political Right b. Political Center c.Political Left d. Revolutionary Politics___A___23. ―The society and its traditions, customsand authority are sacrosanct and inviolable.‖a. Political Right b. Political Center c.Political Left d. Revolutionary Politics___B___24. Freedom of expression, religious worshipand assembly are advocated so long as those politicalacts do not go beyond established laws.a. Political Right b. Political Center c.Political Left d. Revolutionary Politics
  31. 31. ___C___25. ―Equalitarianism in the economic sense,for the elimination of the extremes of wealth andproperty.‖a. Political Right b. Political Center c.Political Left d. Revolutionary Politics___B___26. ―The state is the supreme authority sothat the party that controls it is the only vehivlethrough which the fascist program is implemented,oppositions suppressed, constitutional governmentdismantled, and dissident cultures and raceseliminated.‖a. Conservatism b. Authoritarianismc. Dictatorship d. Liberalism___C___27. ―Significant and rapid social and politicalchange is necessary.‖a. Political Right b. Political Center c.Political Left d. Revolutionary Politics___A___28. ―Society is a living organism.‖a. Political Right b. Political Center c.Political Left d. Revolutionary Politics___B___29. ―Debates should be encouraged, dissenttolerated, but within the legal framework.‖a. Political Right b. Political Center c.Political Left d. Revolutionary Politics
  32. 32. ___A___30. ―Repression of contrary ideology isjustified, and violence is glorified, so long as theseacts are for the exaltation of the state over theindividuals.‖a. Political Right b. Political Center c.Political Left d. Revolutionary Politics___A___31. ―Citizens must enjoy formal equalitybefore the law.‖a. Liberal Democracy b. Non-liberalDemocracy c. Nationalist Democracy d. All ofthe above___C___32. ―Economic independence and right ofself-determination must be asserted.‖a. Liberal Democracy b. Non-liberalDemocracy c. Nationalist Democracy d. All ofthe above___D___33. ―The progress of history is but theprogress of the mode of production. History iseconomically determined and that progress is leadingto the eradication of private property and socialclasses.‖a. Socialism b. Fascism c.Conservatism d. Communism___D___34. ―An individual by himself is powerlessbefore the state apparatus, but with a grouprepresenting him and espousing his cause, he can
  33. 33. stand firm politically, thereby neutralizing the powerof government which tries to ride roughshod over hisrights.‖a. Individualism b. Socialism c.Centrism d. Pluralism___D___35. ―Society is an arena of contradictionbetween the owners and non-owners of the means oflife, the latter being exploited and oppressed by theformer.‖a. Democracy b. Fascism c.Conservatism d. Communism___B___36. ―The government exercises unlimitedpower over virtually all aspects of social, economic,political, and cultural life… all power is allocated to anelite group.‖a. Democracy b. Fascism c.Conservatism d. Communism___C___37. ―Things must be kept the way they areotherwise what some people would want toperpetuate might be put in jeopardy.. status quomust be defended and radical change must befrowned upon.‖a. Democracy b. Fascism c.Conservatism d. Communism
  34. 34. ___C___38. ―Governance and decision-making shouldbe given to the so-called natural leaders, that is, tomen and women of talent, high birth, and property,for they have greater stake in the welfare andfortunes of the country rather than to the masses orpropertyless class.‖a. Democracy b. Fascism c.Conservatism d. Communism___B___39. ―Individualism and pluralism, and otherliberal philosophies which granted so many rights andliberties only divided the nations.‖a. Democracy b. Fascism c.Conservatism d. Communism___C___40. ―The moral core contains an affirmationof basic values and rights attributable to the nature ofhuman being – freedom, dignity, and life –subordinating everything else to theirimplementation.‖a. Socialism b. Conservatism c.Liberalism d. Pluralism41-50. Random questions___D___41. Which of the following is not a pressingpolitical issue?a. population explosion b. massivepoverty and unemployment
  35. 35. c. environmental degradation d. spiritualsalvation___A___42. Ideology is not predicated on whattheoretical and philosophical assumptions?a. Political Theology b. Philosophy of manc. Theory of Society d. Philosophy of truth___B___43. It is that component of ideology thatprovides the guide to action, or spells out ―what is tobe done.‖a. Philosophy b.Program c. Propagandad. Politics___B___44. This is one of the functions of anideology that refers to how the political regime and itsauthority are accepted by the community, to how itslaws are complied with, and to how its policies arecarried out.a. Mobilization b.Legitimation c. Recognitiond. Manipulation___C___45. Another function of ideology that meansthe conscious and deliberate formulation ofproposition with which to incite people to struggle forends which are perceived only by those in power orattempting to get political power.
  36. 36. a. Legitimation b.Mobilization c. Manipulation d.Association___B___46. According to some authors, mobilizationimplies three processes. Which of the following is notincluded?a. the recruitment of political militants who willspearhead the activities of a political party or socialmovementb. the invention of myths and superstitions, utopiasand other illusions, for the success in engaging thepeoplec. the reawakening of some former members orgroups that have become dormantd. the politicization of previously apolitical elements___B___47. Of the proponents of the social contracttheory, who said that the State was agreed upon toensure man‘s natural rights to life, liberty andproperty, which are in constant jeopardy under thestate of nature.a. Thomas Hobbes b. JohnLocke c. Jean Jacques Rousseau d.Edmund Burke___C___48. This theory holds that the state wasformed through individuals who used cunning and
  37. 37. military prowess in consolidating and governing vastdomains.a. Divine Right Theory b. Social ContractTheory c. Force Theory d. Instinct Theory___B___49. Who among the following philosopherswould contradict the Instinct Theory?a. Aristotle b. Hobbes c. St.Thomas Aquinas d. None of the above___B___50. Who among the following would goagainst the idea that the state is an instrument ofcoercion and repression?a. Vladimir Lenin b. Jean Jacques Rousseauc. Karl Marx d. Friedrich Engels51-60. Tell whether the following statementsare true or false. If it is true, then write A; iffalse, write B.A51. The vision of peace entail ―waging war‖ againsteconomic, social and political structures that causepeople to bear arms and which breed the sufferingand oppression and deprivation of people.A52. Karl Marx said that social justice does not simplyconsists in implementing certain social programs suchas housing, social services, etc., though bythemselves these are laudable, but morefundamentally in addressing the specifically social
  38. 38. aspect of the problem which has to do with structuresand processes.B53. For purpose of ensuring the development andsatisfaction of the people‘s material and culturalneeds, nation must establish relationship ofdependence and cooperation with one another on thebasis of mutual respect, peace and equality.B54. All governments are divided into three co-equalbranches, each is supreme in their areas ofcompetence.B55. The legislative department is the law-implementing agency of the government.A56. Cabinet members are alter-egos of the ChiefExecutive.A57. Some instances of applying the principles ofchecks and balances are when the Chief Executiveuse his veto power to reject legislation measures andwhen the Judiciary render a legislationunconstitutional.B58. The legislative body may be of three kinds:Unicameral, Bicameral or Tricameral.A59. By virtue of their being the law-makers of theland, the legislators are expected to be paragons ofintellectual acumen, emotional maturity and moralintegrity.
  39. 39. A60. The general function of the judiciary is to applythe law with as much certainty and uniformity tocertain specified cases.December 16, 2011 Posted by tamayaosbc | Politics and Governance | Leave aComment CAGAYAN STATE UNIVERSITY College of Business, Entrepreneurship and Accountancy Andrews Campus Syllabus in POLITICS AND GOVERNANCE WITH PHILIPPINE CONSTITUTION 1. COURSE IDENTIFICATION 1. Course Code: Soc Sci 12 2. Course Title: Politics and Governance with Philippine Constitution3. Course Description: This is anintroductory course in the Social Sciences, particularlyin Political Science, which deals with the study of (a)basic political concepts, (b) government andgovernance, (c) the Philippine Constitution, and (d)generally, the persons, structures and processesinvolved in the operation of the political system, withspecial focus on the Philippine context. The 1987
  40. 40. Constitution is used as the basic framework foranalysis.1. Course Objectives: At the end of the semester, the students should be able to:A. Understand the basic structure and processes ofpolitics and governance;B. Understand basic political theories and Ideologies;C. Critically examine the Philippines‘ own politicalstructure and contemporary issues and problemsrelevant to it.D. Understand the basic provisions of the 1987Constitution;E. Identify and internalize citizen‘s political rights andresponsibilities to develop their sense of nationalismand love of country.1. Course Credit: 54 hours/3 units2. Course Requirements: Long Examinations(Prelim, Midterm and Finals50% Recitation andQuizzes 40%
  41. 41. Others (Assignments/Attendance)10%TOTAL 100%==========1. UNIVERSITY PHILOSOPHYThe university serves the individual by providing thestudent with nurturing environment for optimalhuman flourishing. It serves the community byoffering programs responsive to individual and socialneeds.UNIVERSITY VISIONThe Cagayan State University shall be recognized bythe entire region and the nation as a credible anddistinguished center of higher education in NorthernLuzon. It shall likewise establish its own niche in theglobal academic community. It shall endeavor toimprove from its previous best, showing that it enjoysthe leading edge in all that pertains to education.UNIVERSITY MISSION
  42. 42. The Cagayan State University shall make qualityeducation and formation towards the differentprofessions accessible to all who may come to it, andwho measure up to its standards. It shall be anacademic community given to instruction, researchand extension. It shall not in any way discriminate onbases unrelated to education.1. COURSE CONTENT Topic Specific Strategies/Activities ObjectivesI. Classroom At the end of Class DiscussionOrientation the session, students are1. Getting to know expected to: each other2. Expectation Get Setting acquainted3. House Rules with the4. Course Overview teacher and5. Use of the their co- Syllabus students and
  43. 43. 6. Generalizations, be able to Inquiries and express their valuing expectations on the subject, on their teacher and on their classmates; Familiarize themselves with the coverage and requirements of the subject and also with classroom rules; Understand the importance of the course syllabus; Relate the importance of the subject to the school‘s
  44. 44. vision- mission and philosophy.II. POLITICS AND At the end of theGOVERNANCE unit, the student should be able to:1. Basic Concepts:1.1 Definition ofPolitics, State,Government,Governance, andConstitution1.2 Approachesand Theories tostudying politicsand governance1. Classical Political Theories2.1 Greek PoliticalPhilosophy2.2 Machiavelli:The Prince2.3 Hobbes: TheLeviathan
  45. 45. 2.4 Locke & Mill:LimitedGovernment2.5 Marx & Engels:Communism1. Overview of Forms and Structures of Government3.1 Monarchy3.2. Aristocracy3.3 Democracy3.4 Principles ofChecks andBalances3.5 Separation ofPowers1. Socio, Economic and Political Ideologies4.1 Liberalism4.2 Conservatism
  46. 46. 4.3 Socialism4.4 Fascism1. Understanding Politics in the Philippine Context5.1 State formationin the Philippines5.2 Politics beforeand after MartialLaw1. Know and understand the meaning of, and theories about, politics, state, government, governance and constitution;2. Identify and differentiate the different forms of government;3. Understand and analyze the different ideologies; and4. Apply the different concepts in understanding Philippine politics.Lecture/Group DiscussionCase analysisPractical applicationResearch
  47. 47. Hand-outBooksInternet researchesTransparenciesPowerPoint PresentationSeatwork RecitationQuizzesAssignmentsExaminations 28 hoursIII. THE 1987 PHILIPPINE CONSTITUTION1. Concept of Constitution1.1 Meaning of Constitution1.2 Kinds of Constitution1.3 Constitution of the Rep. of Philippines2. Principles and State Policies2.1 Philippines as a Democratic, Republican State2.1 Separation of Church and State2.3 Independent Foreign Relations
  48. 48. 2.4 Roles of the different sectors of the society innation-building3. Government Institutions and Processes3.1 The Legislature and the Legislative Process3.2 The Executive and the Executive Process3.3 The Judiciary and the judicial processes3.4 Local Government Units3.5 Military role in Philippine Politics3.6 Philippine foreign relations4. Representation and Participation Politics4.1 Elections4.2 Parties and Party System5. Civil Society and Social Movement5.1 The Roles of Church and Religion5.2 Indigenous peoples, women, and the environment5.3 The Philippine Media5.4 Pursuit for Social Justice6. The Bill of Rights (Art.III)6.1 Concept of Bill of Rights6.2 Due Process of Law; Equal Protection
  49. 49. 6.3 Right against unreasonable searches and seizures6.4 Right of privacy6.5 Freedom of Speech, of Expression, and of thePress6.6 Freedom of Religion6.7 Liberty of Abode and Travel6.8 Right to Information on matters of public concern6.9 Right to form associations6.10 Inherent Powers of the Government6.11 Non-impairment of Contract6.12 Rights of the accused6.13 Rights of person under investigation6.14 Right to bail6.15 Right to due process of law in criminal cases6.16 Writ of Habeas Corpus6.17 Right to speedy disposition of cases6.18 Right against self-incrimination6.19 Right against excessive fines and inhumanpunishments6.20 Right against double jeopardyAt the end of the unit, the student should be able to
  50. 50. 1. Define the meaning of Constitution;2. Understand the principles and state policies;3. Analyze the Government institutions and processes;4. Succinctly discuss representation and participation politics;5. Know the role of the civil society; and6. Be aware of the constitutional rights, and know when such rights are enforceable.Lecture/Group DiscussionCase analysisPractical applicationResearchHand-outBooksInternet researchesTransparenciesPowerPoint PresentationSeatwork RecitationQuizzesAssignmentsExaminations 22 hours
  51. 51. References:Hector De Leon, Textbook on Philippine ConstitutionJose Nolledo, The Philippine ConstitutionCruz, Isagani. Constitutional Law/ Political Law,Central Publishing Co., 1998.Amable Tuibeo, Politics and GovernancePreparedby: Approved by: Noted by:MICHAEL JHON M. TAMAYAO,MPhil WINSTON J. APALISOC,CPA, MBA EMERITA P. GERON, CPA,MBAProfessor Dept. Chair –Accountancy CollegeDeanPLACIDO D. TUDDAO, CPA, MBADept. Chair- Bus. Adm.November 8, 2011 Posted by tamayaosbc | Politics andGovernance, Uncategorized | Leave a Comment
  52. 52. Political and Economic IdeologiesMichael Jhon M. Tamayao, M.Phil.I.Before we embark into the intricacies of our subject,―Political and Economic Ideologies,‖ it is wise todefine first the basic terms and concepts. This is inorder to avoid ambiguity and vagueness later whenwe discuss the various political concepts and theories.Although the definitions are not exhaustive, as theseterms will be our object of study for the entireseminar, they will nevertheless be helpful incommencing our discussion of the subject.What is Politics? The word ―politics‖ is derived fromthe Greek word ―polis‖ which means ―city,‖ whichduring the Greek period, and as it is today, refers to asovereign state.[1] Basing on its etymology, politics(and other related words, such as politic, political,politician, and polity) has something to do with theaffairs of the state.Politics is the science of government. As a science, itis a systematic body of knowledge (for the most part,practical) that deals with the government and
  53. 53. regulation, maintenance and development, anddefense and augmentation of the state. It also dealswith the protection of the rights of its citizens;safeguarding and enhancement their morals; and,harmony and peace in their relations. Thus politics isthe way in which we understand and order our socialaffairs, and acquire greater control over thesituation.[2]What is Economics? Economics is derived from theGreek word ―oikonomia‖ which means managementof household. Economics is the science that treats ofthe production, distribution, conservation, andconsumption of wealth.What is an Ideology? The word ―ideology‖ is derivedfrom the two Greek words, idea, which means idea,and logos, which means science. The term thereforeliterally means ―science of ideas.‖ The word was firstcoined by Destutt de Tracy, a French philosopher andwriter.In its contemporary usage, ideology refers to the veryideas themselves which are meant to give structureand meaning to the human world. As such, everyideology gives direction to our political and socialactivities; it is the perspective through whichwepicture and likewise control reality and, byextension, the people. It is a comprehensive set of
  54. 54. beliefs and attitudes about social and economicinstitutions and processes.[3]Politics and economics are intimately entwined. Theprimary issues in politics are about economics, andthe most significant economic problems are settledthrough politics. The concept of the best form ofgovernment, the promotion of social justice,theeradication of poverty, and who should exercisepower are timeless political issues, which can beaddressed only with respect to the polity‘s economicsystem. The way outputs are produced, the definitionof what constitutes output, what is produced, andwhodecides development policy are significant economicproblems, which are settled as much in the politicalarena as in production.[4] Politics happens within theeconomic structures. Thus, to understand politics, itmust be done in the light of an economic system, andto understand economics, it must be done in the lightof a political system.Because they are comprehensive systems of beliefsand attitudes, ideologies are almost always aboutpolitics, economics, and social relationships.Ideologies are always political and economic, for thatby which we order and give structure to our politicaland economic affairs is through an ideologicalframework. It is now clear and discernible how the
  55. 55. terms lead to each other, and why the definitions wejust did, although separately done, must eventuallylead to a more unified discussion.There are as many ideologies as there are peoplebelieving in them. For our own purposes and due totime constraint, this paper will discuss only the threedominant ideologies, namely liberalism, conservatism,and socialism. Liberalism will be discussed in the lightof the political philosophies of the classical liberaltheoreticians, John Stuart Mill, Thomas Hobbes, JohnLocke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Adam Smith.Conservatism, which is a reaction to the revolutionistideals, will center on the political theory of EdmundBurke. And our discussion of socialism will be limitedto communism. Communism will be discussed withreference only toThe Communist Manifesto of Marxand Engels.[5]
  56. 56. II.An ideology is presumably rational because it tries tomake sense of reality. The three dominant ideologiesof conservatism, liberalism, and socialism (which willbe discussed in this seminar) are recognized for theirrational, logical style, which probably helps accountfor their dominance.[6] However, ideologies,especially those that rely greatly on faith and belief,likewise have an element of irrationality. This,nonetheless, proves to be a useful component,because, although an idea is contrary to commonsense, a true follower accepts it; this becomes anavenue for an unwavering loyalty to the system andfor authentic unity amongst members. [7]Ideologies are normative rather than just explanatoryin approach. Thus, what shall be discussed below areall guidelines, more than mere theoreticaldescriptions, for societal organization and function.LiberalismBy definition, liberalism is the belief in the importanceof liberty and the rejection of arbitrary authority. Butbecause people have different views on the conceptof liberty, liberalism is rather ambiguous.[8] Various
  57. 57. liberal schools sprouted; among the most noteworthyare the Lockean liberalism and democratic liberalism,both of which contributed to the ideology of theFrench Revolution.[9] Liberalism finds its roots in thehumanist affirmation of human excellence andindividual responsibility, best associatedwith Renassaince. With the rise of individualism, mancould no longer be regarded as having a fixed place ina divinely ordained world. Liberals picture life as arace, a restless competition; one which have castedaway the fetters of tradition and religion, andreplaced them with a new form of social control: thestate that is increasingly executive.Because of numerous references to the concept, itbecomes necessary to go back to the theoreticallandmarks of liberalism. Liberalism finds its mostfamous concoction in the classical theories of JohnStuart Mill, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, for its politico-philosophicalaspect; and in the theory of Adam Smith for itseconomic aspect.John Stuart Mill. Traditional liberalism started fromMill‘s concept of negative freedom, that is, freedomfrom constraints, particularly from that of the State.He was careful though not to push this notion intoanarchist extremes. He also believed in democraticgovernment, but he was profoundly worried about thetendency of this government to suppress individuality
  58. 58. and override minorities.[10] Hence, his centralconcern in his socio-political writings was to show theimportance of personal freedom and the developmentof strong individual character and to devise ways inencouraging their growth.[11]Although he thought it was the most likely of hisworks to be of enduring value, On Liberty (1859) isconsidered one of the great landmarks of classicalliberalism. In it, Mill tackles the perennial issue: whatpowers should society have over individuals?[12] Hemaintained the view that the individual is sovereignover his own body and mind; that ―the sole end forwhich mankind are warranted, individually orcollectively, in interfering with the liberty of action ofany of their number, is self-protection.‖Mill equated ―individuality‖ with continued effort ofself-development. Individual freedom is freedom fromconstraints. The State must therefore not suppressindividual differences and the development of genuineminority opinion. Democracy, with its controllingpublic opinion, must not be an avenue for tyranny.Instead, it must develop personalities strong enoughto resist public opinion and immediate yielding to it.Mill‘s strong emphasis on this point showed his fear ofdemocratic tyranny more than aristocratic tyranny.It is important to note that Mill, as a liberal, purportedthat ―representative government‖ is the best form of
  59. 59. government. More than any other form ofgovernment, it encourages the growth anddevelopment of individuality. It engages theindividuals by giving them direct participation in theprocess of governing. Representative governmentthereby makes them active, intelligent, well rounded,and sensitive but impersonal to public issues. Mill wascareful, however, in promoting a democracy that wasrepresented by the minorities as well as majorities.Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679). Along the lines of hispessimistic account of human nature, Thomas Hobbesconstructed his socio-political philosophy.[13] Hebegan his liberal theory with the idea that the―natural state‖ of man is a state of war; that underthe state of nature ―man is a wolf to another man.‖Man competes for his basic needs, often violently,and, as such, he is in constant fear of violence (ordeath) from another man. To ensure therefore hispersonal safety, he challenges others and fights outof fear, or establishes his reputation as a defensefrom others.Hobbes stated that the sovereign or politicalauthorities are not natural to man. It is true thatsome are stronger and wiser than others, but eachman has the entrenched capacity to kill another.Since even the strongest needs sleep, the weakestcan take that opportunity to slit the former‘s throat. Itwas completely clear for Hobbes that there is no
  60. 60. natural right for anyone to rule. In addition, Hobbesspoke of man‘s ―right of nature.‖ This is the right toself-preservation at all cost. From this primary rightcomes the right to judge what will ensure ourexistence. Under the state of nature, judgments arevery drastic; the possibility of trusting a third party inthe resolution of a problem is unlikely to happen. Noone in such state can serve as a judge for anotherbecause of the radical, mutual distrust among men.Man must, therefore, be a judge of his own cause. Itis true that we have varied judgments about things,but what is right ―for me,‖ regardless of what youthink, is and will always be right ―for me.‖ All moraljudgments are limited to individual judgments andnever raised to general principles. This makes moraljudgments in the state of nature ―amoral.‖ Thus theover-all picture in the state of nature is that it is theinteraction of selfish and amoral human beings.The state of nature is an unfavorable situation forman. He is in constant threat of a violent death. Hetherefore ought to avoid it and endeavor for peace.As the core of Hobbes‘ teachings about the laws ofnature, man must treat his fellow the way he wantsothers treat him. In order to implement this, manmust enter into a social contract whereby hesurrenders his right of nature to the sovereign powerand drastically limit this right only to right to defendhis self from immediate threat. Only the sovereign
  61. 61. ruler retains his right of nature because all judgmentsabout the affairs of the community are delegated tohim. He decides the norms of action and the rules ofproperty. He judges disputes and resolves them.Man‘s fear of death and the need for security are boththe psychological foundations of prudence andcivilization. The horrors of the state of nature canonly be overcome through the institution of agovernment. Man‘s voluntary entrance into the socialcontract marks the transition from state of nature tocivil society. In the civil society, only the sovereignauthority is the true judge.John Locke (1632–1704). In his work The SecondTreatise of Government, John Locke said, ―Men… bynature are all free, equal, and independent… The onlyway whereby anyone can strip himself of his naturalliberty and put on the bonds of civil society is byagreeing with other men to join and to unite into acommunity for their comfortable, safe, and peaceableliving amongst another, in a secure enjoyment oftheir properties and a greater security against anythat are not of it.‖ Locke in here gives us a picture ofman‘s natural state and the condition by which manenters a civil society. In the state of nature, man hasabsolute freedom of choice. Contrary to Hobbes‘pessimistic assertion, Locke firmly states that man isnaturally good and reasonable in his dealings withother men. Even before man‘s entrance into a
  62. 62. government, reason and conscience exert aninfluence to man‘s judgments. Using reason, manknows that he ought not to harm another in his life,health, liberty, or property. Hence, for Locke,although it is true that in the state of nature, one is ajudge to his own cause, it is not the case that manwages war against all. But to avoid inconveniences inhis interaction with other men, he must enter into acompact which limits his freedom as per prescribed bythe norms of that compact. Unlike Hobbes, however,Locke says that the sovereign ruler is accountable tohis subjects, and the government‘s main goal is topreserve, nurture, and protect the rights of itscitizens.[14]Locke further states that ―the chief and the greatend… of men‘s uniting into commonwealths andputting themselves under government is thepreservation of their property.‖[15] He proposesthat, by uniting and putting themselves under agovernment, men preserve their rights. Thegovernment or state is a necessary institution,ensuring order and law at home, defense againstforeign powers, and security of possessions – thethree principles summarized as ―life, liberty, andproperty.‖ As a consequence their lives, as comparedto the state of nature, become more comfortable andpeaceful.
  63. 63. Locke further says, contrary to the idea of Hobbes,that the sovereign ruler is not exempted from thenorms of the government – a sovereign ruler is stillaccountable for all his action. The power of thesovereign is limited to the protection and preservationof the natural rights of the people. Thus, if thegovernment fails to protect man‘s basic rights, i.e.,rights of life, liberty, and property, then the peoplecould resort to a justified rebellion. This is the idea ofa ―limited government.‖ The power of thegovernment is constricted to its task of securing andnurturing the rights of the people. Anything beyondthis duty is a sign of an abuse of power.Furthermore, Locke justifies the right to property (asa product of labor) by citing it as a necessary meansfor sustaining our lives. Before the emergence of civilsocieties, men toil the soils, which are not their own,in order to meet their needs. Their labor, however,transforms these publicly owned things in the state ofnature into privately owned properties. Nonetheless,there is a limit to the amount of accumulatedproperties. According to Locke, it must just be enoughto meet our needs, so that nothing is spoiled. Theright to property is a natural right of man. Thisnatural right is secured through a government.Unlike Hobbes, Locke believes that the mutualconsent of men to form a social contract does notresult to an absolute sovereignty. For him, the
  64. 64. intention of the subjects in mutually consenting toform a compact is the protection of their rights. Thisis effectively carried out by dividing the governmentinto three powers, which are the legislative,executive, and the judicial, and by majorityrepresentation in the legislature. Moreover, it is notthe sovereign that confers the rights to his citizens, asHobbes believes, but these rights are naturally ownedby the citizens, and must therefore be retained andrespected by the sovereign. These rights are deducedfrom man‘s nature, and they are not products of asovereign‘s freedom of choice.Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778). Rousseauwas particularly opposed to the artificialities ofcontemporary societies, and stressed the importanceof the human being‘s natural development. Man‘sevolution from the primitive societies to the present isa fall from happiness to misery. This road to perditionis irreversible; thus, man must preserve, arguedRousseau, the simplicity and innocence of the lesspoliticized societies and protect them from furthercorruption. Moreover, he contended that even thoughman is free, man is everywhere chained by hisartificial needs. As culture appears to attain an everincreasing sophistication, genuine humanrelationships slowly disappear. Man is lost andalienated from his real self. To be free again, people
  65. 65. must be trained to be good, not merely powerful, byteaching them what human relations ought to be. Inhis works Emile and The Social Contract, Rousseauwas determined to improve the conditions of manthrough his theories on politics and education. As aliberal, his main thrust was to teach the art of living,of providing the fundamental principles that underliethe whole of man‘s development from infancy tomaturity.[16] For him, a ―truly free man‖ was onewith a ―well-regulated freedom‖ developed throughsound education. It must be noted though thatRousseau‘s emphasis on individualist education, as inthe case of Emile, in no way excluded the idea thattrue education must eventually be for the society.Rousseau, like Locke, was convinced that man bynature is good, but his goodness has been corruptedby the maladies of modern societies. Men enter into asocial contract because of the obstacles to theirpreservation in the state of nature. But in enteringinto such a contract, they lose their freedom. Hence,Rousseau sought for a form of social contract or―association which will defend the person and goodsof each member with the collective force of all, andunder which each individual, while uniting himselfwith the others, obeys no one but himself, andremains as free as before.‖[17]Rousseau envisioned a society whose sovereign wasthe people themselves. All parties to this social
  66. 66. contract are collectively named ―people‖, who callthemselves ―citizens,‖ in so far as they participate inthe exercise of sovereign power, and ―subjects,‖ in sofar as they put themselves under the laws of thestate.[18] The ―general will‖ of the people that isalways rightful and always tends to the public good,replaces the individual will, which though not corrupt,is often led astray. In an enlightened republic, whichRousseau considered the ideal type of state, peoplewill experience the highest form of freedom, namely,that of living under laws freely chosen and of theirown making.[19] The success of this form ofgovernment hinges on a good education.Adam Smith (1723-1790). The economic aspect ofliberalism finds its classical expression in Smith‘saccount of ―free market economics.‖ He wasinstrumental in bringing conceptual clarity to thechaotic European market and in enlightening Europefor the first time of its economic system. In hiswork An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of Wealthof Nations, Smith expounds how the free market isguided by what he calls ―invisible hands.‖Smith argues that every individual continually exertshimself to find the most advantageous employment ofcapital that is for him in the production and sale ofgoods that satisfy the greatest needs of the people.
  67. 67. Although a capitalist is motivated to act through ―self-interest‖, he is bound to satisfy these needs of thepeople.[20] By intending his own gain, hecontributes to the general welfare: ―by pursuing hisown interest, [the individual] frequently promotesthat of the society more effectually than when heintends to promote it.‖[21] The capitalist is led by an―invisible hand‖ to promote an end which is outsidehis intention.Smith is known to be a supporter of laissez-faire[22] capitalism. With the belief that individualself-interest is guided by the market‘s invisible hand,Smith strongly opposed government intervention intobusiness affairs. Minimum wage laws, traderestrictions, and product regulation are considereddetrimental to the country‘s economic health.Capitalists support this laissez-fairepolicy of Smith,although they often twist his words to justifymistreatment of workers. However, Smith is wary ofthe formation of monopolies. Capitalism is goodbecause of competition which encourages economicgrowth and it benefits the members of the society;but collusion among groups of capitalists chains theinvisible hand of the market from performing its task.From the foregoing discussions, it could be surmisedthat the liberals believe in the capacity of all
  68. 68. individuals to live satisfactory and productive lives, forall are capable of reason and rational action. Butbecause people are often caught in a difficultsituation, the government must ensure that everyoneis given the opportunity to achieve the best possiblelife and to fulfill his or her individualpotential.[23] The Philippine Constitution, as well asthe CSU philosophy, is founded on this liberalconcept.Conservatism: Burke and Anti-revolutionWith the belief that the wisdom of the past is morelikely to be right than the fleeting trend of themoment, the conservative believes that the presentpolitical system or that which has been passed on tous by past generations must be conserved. If we wishto change or improve the existing political system, itmust be based on the components of the pastsystems.In the Reflections on the Revolution in France,Edmund Burke (1729-1797), who is considered thearticulate spokesman and intellectual apogee ofconservatism, attacked egalitarian advocacies onabsolute liberty, equality, and democracy, as well ascriticized abstract theories and the political principleson change by revolution. He emphasized witheloquent forcefulness the complexity of both man and
  69. 69. nature, the wisdom embodied in institutions (thechurch, the state, and private property) and intraditions. He assailed the rationalist or idealistapproach in understanding the political phenomena,saying that such approach is of limited value becauseit has neglected human passion, prejudice and habit;reason, in itself, cannot explain and penetrate theessential mystery of man and society, much morewith the universe. For him, presumption andprejudice are rather more valuable basis than reasonfor the operation of government. Society was not aconscious creation of man, for men were molded andborn subject to established society.[24]Revolution, which represents a complete break withthe past and abandonment of tradition, fills the heartof a conservative with disgust and horror. Thefabrication of a new government entails not only thedestruction of sound principles of political action butalso the squander of the guidance of nature. Nature isfor Burke wisdom which needs no reflection; nature isitself its own reason. State policies and our politicalsystem must therefore be placed in justcorrespondence and symmetry with nature, with theworld. By conforming to nature in our artificialinstitutions, and by calling in the aid of her unerringand powerful instincts, we fortify the fallible andfeeble contrivances of our reason.
  70. 70. In Reflections, Burke elaborates further that ―thescience of constructing a commonwealth, orrenovating it, is, like every other experimentalscience, not to be taught a priori. Nor is it a shortexperience that can instruct us in that practicalscience… It is with infinite edifice, which hasanswered in any tolerable degree for ages thecommon purposes of society, or on building it upagain, without having models and patterns ofapproved utility before his eyes…‖[25]Burke said that some are born into ―a naturalaristocracy.‖[26] From this definitely nonegalitarianpoint of view, a conservative believes that individualsare not of equal value to society; some are born tolead, to whom others not fit to rule owe allegiance.The circumstances of their births give them thenecessary abilities and insights; these entitles them todo the leading, guiding, and governing‖ part ofhumanity, a right or privilege not present to others.Deeply supporting the concept of ―birthright,‖ Burkefurther states that nature not only teaches us torevere individual men on account of their age, butalso on account of those from whom they havedescended. ―Levellers,‖ who only pervert the naturalorder of things, think they are combating prejudice,but they are combating nature. Some are naturally tobe accorded higher descriptions than others. Thus,with his famous polemic style, Burke writes: ―The
  71. 71. occupation of a hair dresser, or of a working tallowchandler, cannot be a matter of honor to any person– to say nothing of a number of other servileemployments. Such descriptions of men ought not tosuffer oppression from the state; but the state suffersoppression, if such as they, either individually orcollectively, are permitted to rule.‖[27]Conservatives are loyal to their church, their king, andtheir country. Their respect for their past makes itnatural for them to be deeply religious andnationalistic. Religion is, for a conservative, the basisof civil society, and the source of all good andcomfort.[28] Man by nature is a religious animal,and, as such, religion is his first prejudice. It is notthat it is a prejudice non-constitutive of reason, butinvolving it rather in profound and extensive wisdom.Atheism, on the other hand, is not only againstreason, it is also against human instincts. All statestake ground on the different religious systems, andtheir government officials, who are consecrated byGod Himself, stand in high and worthy notions of theirfunctions and destinations. To the conservatives, areligion connected with the state is necessary, for inthe performance of a political duty, man is to accountfor his conduct in that trust to the ―one great Master,Author, and Founder of society.‖Moreover, conservatives may establish ties with othercountries with similar beliefs, but they are on a
  72. 72. constant guard of their own system against enemystates. These ties are mutual, because as they giveaid and comfort to their allies, their allies arethwarted from becoming the friends of theirenemies.[29]Burke affirms the liberal proposition that the society isa contract. However, such contract is for him to be―looked on with other reverence‖ because it ―is apartnership in all science; a partnership in all art; apartnership in every virtue, and in allperfection.‖[30]It is a partnership, not only of thepast, but of all generations – of the dead, the living,and those yet to be born.It must be underscored that although conservativesare against revolution, they are equally opposed tounchanging reaction. It is true that evils are latent tochange, but change is imminent and inevitable. Andshould change happen, it must be done by a slow,almost imperceptible, but well-sustained progress.Reformations must proceed upon the principle ofreverence to antiquity, and that they be done uponthe analogical precedent, authority and example ofthe latter. Time assists this long process ofcompensating, reconciling, and balancing thecontending principles found in the minds and affairsof men. The society so established from such agrueling process achieves excellence in composition.And having fixed itself with sure, solid, and ruling
  73. 73. principles of governance, it could be left to its ownoperation.Conservatism, more than anything else, is practicaland realistic. It averts idealism and all abstract,metaphysical sophistications. Institutions, which theconservatives promote, are not patterned aftertheories; theories are rather drawn from them. Triedby their effects, institutions are presumed to be goodif they make the people happy, united, wealthy, andpowerful. They are the result of various necessitiesand expediencies.[31] Through them, political endsare best obtained. Unlike in the case of the old―proven and tested‖ institutions, ―a new and merelytheoretical system expects every form of contrivanceto appear, on the face of it, to answer itsends‖[32] which in fact does not happen. Thus,Burke stresses that we should follow the example ofour forefathers, and if there is a need to change,make the reparation as nearly as possible in the styleof their establishment – cautious, circumspective, andmoral.Socialism: Communism and The Manifesto
  74. 74. Socialism is a belief which states that the means ofproduction of a society must be publicly owned andmanaged.Historically speaking, socialism is a modernconception; not only was the socialist means ofproduction impossible during the ancient andmedieval times, it was evenunconceivable.[33] Production back then took placeonly in scattered workshops, stores and agriculturalstrips, each known for their valued trademarks. Theidea of amassing all resources and placing themunder the sole management of the government goesbeyond, theoretically and realistically, the system ofancient and medieval commerce.It was only at the very threshold of the modernperiod that the first authentic socialist position wasformulated. In his Utopia, Thomas Moore spoke of asociety free of money, wherein people share meals,houses, and other goods in common. The problem,however, is that Utopia was the work of an individualgenius and not the reflection of a socialmovement.[34] It was only in mid 17th century,during the English Civil Wars, that socialism took theshape of a social movement and had its first practicalexpression. During this period, Gerrard Winstanley(1609-1660), who led the Digger movement, foughtfor an ―agrarian communism,‖ believing that the earthis a common treasury. This movement, however, was
  75. 75. short lived, as it was century and a half later in themovement led by Babeuf during the FrenchRevolution. But in the 19th century, as a child of theIndustrial Revolution, socialism emerged as asignificant issue immensely affecting the political andeconomic life of the advanced western countries. Itpresented itself as a socio-economic structure whichcould (or for the socialists, should) alter the 18th andearly 19th century capitalist Europe.Socialism, although full of brilliant insights, was stillnot systematized. It was just that – a collection ofpassionate beliefs and hopes.[35] Then just at theright time, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels entered thepicture; it became their historical mission to integrateand systematize the variegated socialist beliefs. Thus,the Manifesto was born, the profound synthesis ofsocialism. It was the embodiment of socialist thoughtsand the crystallization of the socialist vision. It raisedsocialism as world force and changed the direction ofhistory. As such, not only was the Manifesto one ofthe most important documents in the history ofsocialism, but it was too in the entire history of thehuman race.What was the message of socialist Marx and Engels inthe Manifesto? What made it so profound and life-changing?
  76. 76. With such a compact message, it is hard to dividethe Manifesto into chewable parts. But for discussionpurposes, and with the hope of penetrating thecommunist thought, we divide the document into fivecentral concepts: (1) historical materialism, (2) classstruggle, (3) the nature of capitalism, (4) theinevitability of socialism, and (5) exploitation andalienation.Historical Materialism. History is a dialectical process;it is not a collection of unrelated facts, but a universalprocess in which everything is related.[36] Borrowingthe idea of G.W.F. Hegel, Marx and Engels believedthat history follows the dialectical pattern of thesis,antithesis, and synthesis. Social structures, as theses,are countered by opposite social structures, theantitheses; and from their interaction is the birth of anew social structure, which is a synthesis oradvancement beyond the previous social structures.However, unlike Hegel, they thought that whatgoverned the pattern was ―matter,‖ and notthe Geist (Spirit); that the controlling forces of historyare the material forces and especially those ofeconomic production.[37] Thus, their historicaldialectic is called historical materialism, in contrast toHegel‘s historical idealism.Marx and Engels believed that through this philosophythey could see, even predict, the destiny ofhumankind. History‘s movement has been decoded,
  77. 77. its logical pattern has been revealed. The centralproject of human history is nothing less than theproduction and reproduction of material life.[38] PartI of the Manifesto brilliantly speaks of this pattern asit maps out the rise and development of capitalismfrom its primitive beginnings in the medieval period toits full-blown form in the 19th century.Class Struggle. History is essentially social, and notone directed byindividuals.[39] The Manifesto speaks of this socialhistory as a ―history of class struggles‖ between ―thefreeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord andserf… oppressor and oppressed.‖[40]Ancient Romewas divided into patricians, knights, plebeians, slaves;Middle Ages into feudal lords, vassals, guild-masters,serfs, and other subordinate gradations. Capitalismemerged from feudalism, until what remained now isthe basic division of bourgeoisie andproletariat. Thebourgeoisie class owned the means of production andemployed labor, while the proletariat class sells itslabor power to live.[41] The former is the class ofcapitalists, while the latter is the ―class of laborers,who live only so long as their labor increasescapital.‖[42]Engels explained that all existingsocieties before this were also based on basically thesame economic system – some people did the workand other appropriated the social surplus. In securingtheir livelihood, some work; some own. The
  78. 78. materialistic, social history created groups offundamentally antagonistic interests. These conflictinggroups, and not individuals, underlie the socio-historical movements.Nature of Capitalism. Although the word ―capitalism‖does not occur in the Manifesto, it was nonethelessprofoundly discussed. Capitalism, the bourgeoissociety, is Marx‘s main subject of interest. Hedescribes it as a form of economy which ―has left noother bond between man and man than naked self-interest, than ‗callous cash payment.‘‖[43] It is aneconomy which converted everyone, from physiciansand lawyers, and priests and the scientists, into paidwage-laborers, and has reduced family relation intomere money relation.[44] Furthermore, capitalism,after having destroyed all hitherto industries,constantly revolutionizes its means of production,constantly expands itself throughout the wholesurface of the world. Clothed with its identity as―civilization,‖ capitalism draws nations together butconcentrates property in the hands of few. Throughthis form of economy, the bourgeoisie ―created moremassive and more colossal productive forces thanhave all preceding generations together.‖[45]But this immense productivity will ironically turnout tobe capitalism‘s own downfall. It has conjured up suchgigantic means of production that, like a sorcerer, itcan no longer control the powers which its spells
  79. 79. summoned. Not only has it forged the weapons thatbring death to itself, it has also called into existencethe men who are to wield those weapons, theproletariat.[46]The Inevitability of Socialism. Marx and Engelscategorically state, in the last sentence of Part I ofthe Manifesto, that the fall of capitalism and thevictory of the proletariat are equally inevitable. Asidefrom the mere fact that capitalism is the cause of itsown doom, it also creates and trains, by virtue of itsnature, the proletariat which at certain stage ofdevelopment must overthrow capitalism and replace itwith socialism.Victory of the proletariat entails the emergence of aclassless society wherein the proletariat andbourgeoisie disappear, and everyone is equal andentitled to the effects of his own work. Since it isprivate property or ownership of such property thatconstitutes the division between the bourgeoisie andproletariat, ―abolition of private property‖ and itsattendant form of consciousness that manifest thisproletarian victory. This is at the heart ofCommunism.Exploitation and Alienation. In In Tucker, Marx said,man, even though bestowed with natural capacities,is a ―suffering, conditioned, and limited creature,‖dependent on nature for his sustenance.[47] Man
  80. 80. must therefore interact with nature, i.e. throughlabor, in order to satisfy his needs. Thus, labor isessential to human existence, for what man is, is howhe produces – people are defined by the work theydo.The first historical act of man was his attempt tocontrol the world in a way that serves his interests.He developed tools, technology in the broad sense,that eventually led to the creation of more needs.During the industrial revolution, technology andhuman needs and wants simultaneously developedand escalated in unimaginable proportions.Under capitalism, owners are in the position ofdominance to increase their own gain; that in thestruggle between the capitalist and the workers, theowners of capital have a distinct advantage. Whilecapitalists are driven by their interest in personalprofit, workers become impoverished as they areprovided with only those wages necessary to continueproduction. In addition, bureaucratic capitalismdepersonalizes production. It removes the uniquestamp of the individual on his work. Everythingbecomes a routine, workers become automatons. Thequality of work is no longer important, only thequantity matters. Labor is no longer seen as anexpression of creativity, but an object apart fromman. In capitalism, man becomes alienated from hisown work. As Marx said, the worker ―is at home when
  81. 81. he is not working, and when he is working he is notat home.‖[48]If we are defined by our work, yet that work is takenaway from us and made into an object, then we areseparated from our own sense of self.[49] We forgetthat our basic character as human beings is tocreatively produce – work is our end in life. Whathappens in capitalism is that we see work assomething reprehensible, as something to be avoided.We work only because we have to, because we needthe money or because we are forced towork.[50] Not only are we alienated from ourselves,we are also alienated from one another. We seeothers as mere components in our instrumentalworld. The distance between ourselves and othersbecome more and more unbridgeable, and theconditions, which this bureaucratic capitalism create,give rise to a society devoid of human qualities, bestdescribed as a society of machines.What is worse is that we submit to this dominanceand exploitation, believing that things are supposedto be this way. More than the system itself, whatenslaves us is our false consciousness. We are afraidto question the circumstances under which we live,and we fail to uncover the underlying reason of oursuffering. Marx and Engels are firmly convinced thatcapitalism ―has resolved personal worth… for naked,shameless, direct, brutal exploitation.‖[51] Thus,
  82. 82. communism, as an ideology and social theory, intendsto clear the clouded conceptions of men by illustratingthe conditions of domination that chain us. Itchallenges us to bravely saunter the path towardfreedom. The reality of our condition compels us toact. ―From each according to his ability,‖ said Marxand Engels, ―to each according to hisneeds!‖[52] The Manifesto ends with a seriouscaveat and a vigorous exhortation, ―Working men ofall countries, unite!‖III.Should we let time and experience tell us where to goand what to follow, as the conservatives propose?Should we be confident withour individual capacities and liberties, as the liberalsassert? Or should we forcefully remove privateproperty and establish a classless society, as thecommunists advance?In seeking for guidance and in gaining control overthe social situation, we resort to, or even create ourown, ideologies. These ideologies are very difficult toresists, for they define reality as the mouth of men
  83. 83. says it so. But as accepting them is important,evaluating them is equally important.What guidance would we wish from these ideologies?Do they lead us to the much-coveted ―good life‖?Should we change them as they are alreadyimpractical? Is the consciousness given by theseideologies genuine or false? All these questions areought to be asked after looking into the exquisite andpassionate thoughts and ideologies of the past as wellas of the present.END[1] Greek cities, such as Athens, Sparta, and Corinthare called, not just cities, but ―city-states‖ which havetheir own sovereignty. They were self-sufficient,highly independent, and with a Constitution andgovernment of their own.[2] B. Ponton and P. Gill, Politics, Introduction. (NewYork: Basil Blackwell, 1982), p.6.[3] Kay Lawson, The Human Polity: An Introductionto Political Science, Quezon City: KEN, Inc. (1989), p.57.
  84. 84. [4] Martin Carnoy, The State and PoliticalTheory (New Jersey: Princeton University Press,1984), p. 3.[5] All references to The Communist Manifesto aretaken from the translations of Paul M. Sweezy andLeo Huberman, The Communist Manifesto, Principlesof Communism, The Communist Manifesto After 100Years (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1968).Henceforth, Communism.[6] Lawson, p. 56.[7] Cf. David E. Ingersoll, Communism, Fascism andDemocracy (Columbus, Oh.: Charles E. Merril, 1971),p. 9.[8] This ambiguity is more marked in the Frenchlanguage than in any other European language. TheFrench word for liberalism,libéralisme, is understoodto embrace all the lefties creed of socialism,anarchism, syndicalism, and communism; or apolitical doctrine at variance with the creeds of theleft.[9] Whereas Lockean liberalism understands freedomas being left alone by the state, the other liberalismsees freedom as ruling oneself through the mediumof a state that one has made one‘s own. Encyclopediaof Philosophy, Volume 5, p. 324.
  85. 85. [10] See Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Second Edition,p. 228.[11] Ibid.[12] Political Theories, p. 182.[13] In his work De Cive, Hobbes boldly describesman as a greedy being, who insists on taking what hecould have and strives to avoid death at all cost. Hisacts are rationally geared only towards self-interestand avoidance of death.[14] Although they have stark differences, ThomasHobbes‘ and John Locke‘s (political) philosophy alsohave striking similarities. For one, they make use ofsimilar themes, such as ―the state of nature,‖ ―naturallaw,‖ ―right of nature,‖ and ―social contract,‖ indiscussing their political theories. It is thereforeimportant to distinguish the ideas of the two in orderto know their respective tenets.[15] Locke uses the term ―property‖ in two senses.In its first sense, property is the general name for―lives, liberty, and estates‖ of individuals. This is theinclusive sense of the term. In its second sense, onthe other hand, property means the ―product of one‘slabor.‖ Property in the quoted statement is used inthe first sense to mean anything that is present andowned by men.[16] Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2nd Ed., p. 510.
  86. 86. [17] Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract, p.60.[18] Cf. Ibid., pp. 61-62.[19] Roth and Sontag, p. 307.[20] It is interesting to note that this egoisticeconomics of Smith runs contrary to his moralphilosophy, which is largely centered on ―sympathy.‖[21] Smith, Adam, An Inquiry into the Nature andCauses of the Wealth of Nations (Chicago: Universityof Chicago Press, 1977), p.[22] This is a French term which literally means―leave alone.‖In the early part of his career, Mill also supported ageneral policy of laissez-faire. But with an increasingrealization that political freedom is useless withouteconomic security, he welcomed, though withreservations, the economic theory of socialism.[23] Lyman Tower Sargent, Contemporary PoliticalIdeologies, 5th ed. (Homewood, III Dorsey, 1961), p.3.[24] Political Theories, p. 49.[25] Reflections, p. 58.
  87. 87. [26] Edmund Burke, ―Appeal from the New to theOld Whigs,‖ in Edmund Burke, Works, vol. 4 (Boston:Little, Brown, 1866), pp. 174-175.[27] Reflections, p. 60.[28] Reflections, p. 60.[29] Lawson, p. 59.[30] Reflections, p. 63[31] Reflections, p. 64[32]Reflections, p. 64.[33] Paul Sweezy and Leo Huberman, ―TheCommunist Manifesto After 100 Years,‖in Communism, p. 87-88. Henceforth,Sweezy.[34] Sweezy, p. 88.[35] Sweezy, p. 89.[36] Ibid., p. 352.[37] Roth & Sontag, The Questions ofPhilosophy (California: Wadsworth PublishingCompany, 1988), p. 352-353.[38] Encyclopedia of Philosophy[39] Roth & Sontag, p. 348.[40] Communism, p. 2.[41] Roth and Sontag, p. 348.
  88. 88. [42] Communism, p. 13.[43] Ibid., p. 5-6.[44] Ibid., p. 6.[45] Ibid., p. 10.[46] Ibid. p. 13.[47] Marx, in Tucker 1978, p. 115.[48] In Tucker, p. 74.[49] Robert Denhardt, Theories of PublicOrganization, (California: Brooks/Cole PublishingCompany, 1984), p. 24.[50] Ibid., p. 25.[51] Communism, p. 6.[52] Karl Marx, ―Critique of the Gotha Programme,‖in Karl Marx: Selected Writings. Edited by DavidMcLellan (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977), p.569.December 5, 2010 Posted by tamayaosbc | Politicsand Governance | Leave a CommentBasic Concepts in PoliticsPOLITICS
  89. 89. 1. Definition: politics is the way in which weunderstand and order our social affairs, and acquiregreater control over the situation.[1]It is also the strategy for maintaining cooperationamong people with different needs and ideals in life,or for resolving the conflict within the group, whetherthis is a family, a tribe, a village or a nation-state.[2]2. Basic Concepts: order, power, and justicea. Study of politics seeks to study how human life inthe aggregate is ordered.[3]i. Community – one kind of social order which is anassociation of individuals who share a commonidentity. This identity is usually defined by geography,sense of common purpose, and a single politicalallegiance. It arises to fulfill a wide variety of socialfunctions (such as physical security, economicprosperity, cultural enrichment) that cannot be metby individuals acting on their own.[4]ii. Government – a political order that maintains andperpetuates the community. It is said to possess―sovereignty‖ if it can successfully assert its claim torule. And it is said to ―legitimate‖ if its claim to rule(authority) is willingly accepted.Forms:
  90. 90. 1. Monarchy – one man (king) noted for his noble lineage and honor is vested with the right to rule and control the society. If this man pursues his own selfish interest, this form of government may turn into ―Tyranny.‖2. Aristocracy – a selected few who are known for their wealth and education have the right to rule. If this selected few pursue their own personal interests, this form of government may end up in becoming an ―Oligarchy.‖3. Democracy – it is the rule by the people, for the people, and of the people. If this form of government downgrades into the rule of people‘s passions instead or reason, it becomes ―Demagoguery‖ or ―Mobocracy.‖iii. Nation-state – most distinctive and largest self-sufficient political configuration in the modern world…its actions and reactions affect not only the welfareand destiny of its own people but, increasingly, thefate of peoples in other lands.[5]1. Nation is a distinct group of people who share acommon background including any or all of thefollowing: geographic location, history, racial or ethniccharacteristics, religion, language, culture, and beliefin common political ideas.2. State denotes the existence of a viable, sovereigngovernment exercising authority and power in the
  91. 91. name of the society. It is often used synonymouslywith country and nation, although a nation may becomposed of more than one state, like USA. In moretechnical and formal terms, state is a community ofpersons more or less numerous, permanentlyoccupying a definite portion of territory, having agovernment of their own to which the great body ofinhabitants render obedience, and enjoying freedomfrom external control.[6]b. The government cannot maintain orderw/o power.i. There are many sources of power aside fromphysical force.Ex. Wealth, eloquent oratory, vigilant secret police,cunningii. The more abundant the power source, the greaterthe capabilities of the government.iii. Who rules? In accordance with the law, or is it thejust or the moral?c. When the power is exercised in the interest of theruled, there is justice.Aristotle (384-322 BC)- ―Human beings use reason and language to declarewhat is just and unjust. Therefore it is the peculiarityof man, in comparison with the rest of the animal
  92. 92. world, that he alone possesses a perception of thegood and evil. Human faculties make moral judgmentand therefore also political discussion. ―3. Politics and Everyday Lifea. Politics is all about the way human beings aregoverned, which involves order, power, andjustice.[7] It is not just an abstract study.b. It involves the government‘s day-to-dayperformance.c. It does not affect only one individual, but isinextricably bound up with the perpetual quest forwhat is fair or just in light of the interest of the entirecommunity.d. Issue is more or less political based on the extentthat the use of political power affects the lives andwell-being of private citizens.e. An issue becomes political when the governmentmust render a decision, which must always be for thecommon good of the community.4. How is politics studied?a. Traditional Approach: to understand the truthabout politics (Aristotle); to assess how well aparticular policy, process, or institution works; whatpolitics ought to be.
  93. 93. Confucius, Lao tzu, Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, St.Thomas, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Marxb. Behavioral Approach: place little emphasis onabstract or normative political questions, and focus onmore concrete task of describing and predictingpolitical behaviors and the dynamics and outcomes ofpolitical processes; avoids moral and philosophicaljudgments; considers only those which can bescientifically proved; does not study ―values‖, onlyfacts, which can be measured by means of scientificmethod (quantifiable).But because of complexity of human behavior,experts argue over methodology.5. Purpose of Political Sciencea. By studying political science, we become moreaware of our dependence on the political system andbetter equipped to determine when to favor andwhen to oppose change.[8]b. to be able to advise communities on how tobecome more effective.c. To have better political opinions and decisions.d. to foster moral and intellectual growth.[9]6. What‘s wrong with politics nowadays?a. It deviates from the concept of good politics, whichought to be a reflection of the aspirations to